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四级真题详解
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2011年12月英语四级考试真题
http://www.china-cet.com        来源:中国四六级考试网        发布时间:2012-02-13 20:58:33
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201112月大学英语四级考试题                             

Part Writing  (30 minutes)

Nothing Succeeds Without a Strong Will

1.坚强的意志是成功的重要保证

2.意志坚定的人才能完成伟大的使命

3.学生也是这样,不刻苦学习,终究不会成为有用之才

 

Part Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)

                                     Why Integrity Matters

   What Is Integrity?

  The key to integrity is consistency-not only setting high personal standards for oneself (honesty, responsibility, respect for others, fairness) but also living up to those standards each and every day. One who has integrity is bound by and follows moral and ethical (道德上的) standards even when making life's hard choices, choices which may be clouded by stress, pressure to succeed, or temptation.

  What happens if we lie, cheat, steal, or violate other ethical standards? We feel disappointed in ourselves and ashamed. But a lapse (缺失) of integrity also affects our relationships with others. Trust is essential in any important relationship, whether personal or professional. Who can trust someone who is dishonest or unfair? Thus integrity must be one of our most important goals.

  Risky Business

  We are each responsible for our own decisions, even if the decision, making process has been undermined by stress or peer pressure. The real test of character is whether we can learn from our mistake, by understanding why we acted as we did and then exploring ways to avoid similar problems in the future.

  Making ethical decisions is a critical part of avoiding future problems. We must learn to recognize risks, because if we can't see the risks we're taking, we can't make responsible choices. To identify risks, we need to know the rules and be aware of the facts. For example, one who doesn't know the rules a about plagiarism (剽窃) may accidentally use words or ideas without giving proper credit or one who fails to keep careful research notes may unintentionally fail to quote and cite sources as required. But the fact that such a violation is "unintentional" does not excuse the misconduct, Ignorance is not a defense.

  "But Everybody Does It"

  Most people who get in trouble do know the rules and facts but manage to fool themselves about the risks they're taking by using excuses: "Everyone else does it." "I'm not hurting anyone", or "I really need this grade." Excuses can get very elaborate: "I know I'm look at another's exam, even though I'm supposed to keep my eyes on my own paper, but that's not cheating because I’m just checking my answers, not copying." We must be honest about our actions and avoid excuses, if we fool ourselves into believing we're not doing anything wrong, we can't see the real choice we're making - and that leads to bad decisions.

      To avoid fooling yourself, watch out for excuses and try this test: Ask how you would feel if your actions were public and anyone could be watching over yore shoulder. If you'd rather hide your actions, that's an indication that you're taking a risk and rationalizing it to yourself.

    Evaluating Risks

    To decide whether a risk is worth taking, you must examine the consequences, in the future as well as right now, negative as well as positive, and to others as well as to yourself. Those who take risks they later regret usually focus on immolate benefits and simply haven't considered what might go wrong. The consequences of getting caught are serious and may include a "O" on a test or assignment, an "F" in the class, suspension (暂令停学) or dismissal from school and a ruined reputation. In fact, when you break a role or law, you lose control over your life and give others the power to impose punishment that you have no control over. This is an extremely vulnerable (脆弱的) position. There may be some matters of life and death or highest principle, which might justify such a risk, but there aren't many things that fall in this category.

    Getting Away with it - Or Not

    Those who don't get caught pay an even higher price. A cheater doesn't learn from the test, which deprives (剥夺) him her of an education. Cheating undermines confidence and independence: the cheater is a fraud, and knows that without dishonesty, he/she would have failed. Cheating destroys self-respect and integrity, leaving the cheater ashamed, guilty and afraid of getting caught. Worst of all, a cheater who doesn't get caught the first time usually cheats again, not only because he/she is farther behind, but also because it seems "easier." This slippery slope of eroding ethics and bigger risks leads only to disaster. Eventually, the cheater gets caught, and the later he/she gets caught, the worse the consequences.

    Cheating Hurts Other, Too

    Cheaters often feel invisible, as if their actions "don't count" and don't really hurt anyone. But individual choices have an intense cumulative (累积的) effect. Cheating can spread like a disease. Recent statistics suggest 30 or more of college students cheat. If a class is graded on a curve, cheating hurts others' grades. Even if there is no curve, cheating "poisons" the classroom, and others may feel pressured to join in. ("If I don't cheat I can't compete with those who do") Cheating also has a destructive impact on teachers. The real reward of goof teaching is seeing students learn. But a cheater says. "I'm not interested in what you're trying to teach, all I care about is stealing a grade, regardless of the effect on others." The end result is a destructive attack on the quality of your education. Finally, cheating can hurt the reputation of the university and harm those who worked hard for their degree.

    Why Integrity Marten

    If cheating becomes the norm, then we are in big trouble. We must rely on the honesty and good faith of others, if not, we couldn't put money in the bank, buy food, clothing, or medicine from others, drive across a bridge, get on a plane---the list is endless. There are many examples of the vast harm caused when individuals forget or ignore the effect their dishonesty can have. The Watergate, scandal, for example, has undermined the faith of many Americans in the integrity of political and economic leaders and society as a whole.

In sum, we all have a common stake in our school, our community, and our society. Our actions do matter. It is essential that we act with integrity in order to build the kind of world in which we want to live.

1. A person of integrity not only sets high moral and ethical standards but also _______.

A) understands their true values                    B) sticks to them in their daily life

C) makes them known to others                    D) sees that others also follow them

2. What role does integrity play in personal and professional relationships?

A) It facilitates communication                     B) It is the basis of mutual trust

C) It inspires mutual respect                       D) It helps to create team spirit

3. why must we learn to identify the risks we are going to take

A) so that we don’t run into trouble.                  B) so that we don’t break any rules.

C) To ensure we make responsible choices.            D) To avoid being overwhelmed by stress.

4. Violation of a rule is misconduct even if _______.

A) it is claimed to be unintentional.                   B) it is committed with good intentions.

C) it has caused no harm.                           D) it has gone unnoticed.

5. What should one do if he doesn’t wish to fool himself?

A) Listen to other people’s advice.                    B) Have others watch over his shoulder.

C) Avoid making excuses.                           D)Make his intensions public.

6. Those who take risks they regret later on _______.

A) are usually very aggressive                        B) value immediate benefits most.

C) will often become more cautious                    D) may lose everything in the end

7. According to the author, a cheater who doesn’t get caught right away will _______.

A) feel somewhat lucky                B) pay more dearly     

 C) be widely admired                   D) become more confident

8. Cheaters in exam don’t care about their education; all they care about is how to________ .

9. Integrity matters in that all social activities rely on people’s _________.

10. Many Americans lost faith in the integrity of their political leaders as a result of ______ .

 

Part III Listening Comprehension 35 minutes                听力录音请到中国四六级考试网下载

Section A

11. A) Board the bus to Cleveland                       B) Read the notice on the window.

   C) Go and ask the staff.                            D) Get a new bus schedule.

12. A) He got home too late to see the TV special.         

 B) He enjoyed watching the animal performance.

   C) He was looking forward to seeing the giraffes.       

   D) He fell asleep in the middle of the TV program.

13. A) She is worried about missing her flight.              B) She may be late for the football game.

   C) She is currently caught in a traffic jam.               D) She wants to take the most direct way.

14. A) At a clinic.        B) In a fish shop.        C) On a fishing boat.        D) At a restaurant.

15. A) He is good at answering tricky questions.             B) He is an experienced sales manager.

   C) He is being interviewed for a job.                    D) He is a close friend of the woman.

16. A) The man should consider his privacy first.             B) The man will choose a low-rent apartment.

   C) The man is not certain if he can find a quieter place.     D) The man is unlikely to move out of the dormitory.

17. A) The woman is going to make her topic more focused.   

B) The man and woman are working on a joint project.

  C) One should choose a broad topic for a research paper.   

D) It took a lot of time to get the man on the right track.

18. A) They weren’t experienced in organizing picnics.         B) They learned to cooperate under harsh conditions.

   C) They went camping this time last year.                D) They didn’t quite enjoy their last picnic.

Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

19. A) He likes Sweden better than England.                 B) He is an Englishman living in Sweden.

   C) He visits London nearly every winter.                 D) He prefers hot weather to cold weather.

20. A) The bad weather.      B) The long night.       C) The cold houses.      D) The gloomy winter.

21. A) Delightful.          B) Painful.          C) Refreshing.          D) Depressing.

22. A) They try to earn more and spend more.                B) They like to go camping in summer.

   C) They often stay up late reading.                      D) They work hard and play hard.

Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

23. A) English Literature.      B) Public Administration.        C) French.         D) Management.

24. A) Careers guidance.      B) English teaching.         C) Staff training.        D) Psychological counseling.

25. A) Its generous scholarships.  B) Its pleasant environment.  C) Its worldwide fame.  D) Its well-designed courses.

Section B

Passage One

Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

26. A) The art of Japanese brush painting.                      B) Some features of Japanese culture.

   C) Characteristics of Japanese artists.                      D) The uniqueness of Japanese art.

27. A) To enhance concentration.                             B) To calm themselves down.

   C) To show their impatience.                             D) To signal lack of interest.

28. A) How speakers can misunderstand the audience.         B) How speakers can win approval from the audience.

   C) How different Western and Eastern art forms are.       D) How listeners in different cultures show respect.

Passage Two

Questions 29 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.

29. A) Buying and maintaining equipment.                     B) Directing personnel evaluation.

   C) Drawing up plans for in-service training.                 D) Interviewing and recruiting employees.

30. A) Some of his equipment was damaged in a fire.             B) The training program he ran was a failure.

   C) Two of his employees committed theft.                   D) Two of his workers were injured at work.

31. A) Improvement in the company’s management.              B) A better-paying job in another company.

   C) Advancement to a higher position.                       D) A better relationship with his boss.

32. A) She has more self-confidence than Chris.                B) She works with Chris in the same division.

   C) She is competing with Chris for the new job.             D) She has more management experience than Chris.

Passage Three

Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

33. A) They help us see the important values of a culture.         B) They guide us in handling human relationships.

   C) They help us express ourselves more effectively.          D) They are an infinite source of human knowledge.

34. A) Their origins can no longer be traced.                   B) Their wording may become different.

   C) The values they reflect may change.                    D) They may be misinterpreted occasionally.

35. A) Certain values are shared by a large number of cultures.

B) Some proverbs are assuming more and more importance.

  C) Old proverbs are constantly replaced by new ones.         

  D) Certain values have always been central to a culture.

Section C

Our lives are woven together. As much as I enjoy my own (36) ____ , I no longer imagine I can get through a (37) ____ day, much less all my life, (38) ____ on my own. Even if I am on (39) ______in the mountains, I am eating food someone else has grown, living in a house someone else has built, wearing clothes someone else has (40) ____ from cloth woven by others, using (41) ___ someone else is distributing to my house. (42) ____ of interdependence is everywhere. We are on this (43) ___ together.

As I was growing up, (44) _______. “Make your own way”, “Stand on your own two feet”, or my mother’s favorite remark when I was face-to-face with consequences of some action: “Now that you’ve made your bed, lie on it!” Total independence is a dominant theme in our culture. I imagine that(45) _______ . But the teaching was shaped by our cultural images, and instead I grew up believing that I was supposed to be totally “independent” and consequently became very reluctant to ask for help. (46) ______ .

 

Part Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)   (25 minutes)

Section A

Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  With the world's population estimated to grow from six to nine billion by 2050, researchers. businesses and governments are already dealing with the impact this increase will have on everything from food and water to infrastructure (基础设施) and jobs. Underling all this 47 will be the demand for energy, which is expected to double over the next 40 years.

  Finding the resources to meet this demand in a  48 , sustainable way is the cornerstone (基石) of our nation's energy security, and will be one of the major 49 of the 21st century. Alternative forms of energy-bio-fuels, wind and solar, to name a few-are 50  being funded and developed, and will play a growing 51 in the world's energy supply. But experts say that even when 52 , alternative energy sources will likely meet only about 30% of the world's energy needs by 2050.

  For example, even with  53  investments, such as the $93 million for wind energy development 54 in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, important alternative energy sources such as wind and bio-fuels 55 only about 1% of the market today.

  Energy and sustainability experts say the answer to our future energy needs will likely come from a lot of 56 -both traditional and alternative.

A)stable             B)solutions          C)significant             D)role              E)progress

F)marvelous          G)included          H)growth                I)exactly            J)consist          

K)comprise           L)competitions      M)combined              N)challenges        O)certainly

Section  B

Passage One

Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  Boys' schools are the perfect place to teach young men to express their emotions and involve them in activities such as art, dance and music.

  Far from the traditional image of a culture of aggressive masculinity (阳刚), the absence of girls gives boys the chance to develop without pressure to conform to a stereotype. a US study says.

  Boys at single-sex schools were said to be more likely to get involved in cultural and artistic activities that helped develop their emotional expressiveness, rather than feeling they had to conform to the "boy code" of hiding their emotions to be a "real man".

  The findings of the study so against received wisdom that boys do better when taught alongside girls.

  Tony Little, headmaster of Eton, warned that boys were being faded by the British education system because it had become too focused on girls. He criticized teachers for failing to recognize that boys are actually more emotional than girls.

  The research argued that boys often perform badly in mixed schools because they become discouraged when their female peers do better earlier in speaking and reading skills.

  But in single-sex schools teachers can tailor lessons to boys' learning style, letting them move around the classroom and getting them to compete in teams to prevent boredom, wrote the study's author, Abigail James, of the University of Virginia.

  Teachers could encourage boys to enjoy reading and writing with "boy-focused" approaches such as themes and characters that appeal to them. Because boys generally have more acute vision learn best through touch, and are physically more active, they need to be given "hands-on" lessons where they are allowed to walk around. "Boys in mixed schools view classical music as feminine (女性的) and prefer the modem genre (类型) in which violence and sexism are major themes, "James wrote.

  Single-sex education also made it less likely that boys would feel they had to conform to a stereotype that men should be "masterful and in charge" in relationships. "In mixed schools boys feel compelled to act like men before they understand themselves well enough to know what that means, " the study reported.

57. The author believes that a single-sex school would ____ .

A)      force boys to hide their emotions to be "real men"  

B) encourage boys to express their emotions more freely

  C) help to cultivate masculine aggressiveness in boys  

D) naturally reinforce in boys the traditional image of a man

58. It is commonly believed that in a mixed school boys _____ .

  A) behave more responsibly                   B) grow up more healthily     

C) receive a better education                  D) Perform relatively better

59. What does Tony Little say about the British education system?

  A) It fails more boys than girls academically.              B) It focuses more on mixed school education.

  C) It fails to give boys the attention they need.             D) It places more pressure on boys than on girls.

60. According to Abigail James, one of the advantages of single-sex schools is ______.

A)      teaching can be designed to promote boys' team spirit       

 B) teaching can be tailored to suit the characteristics of boys

  C) boys can choose to learn whatever they are interested in     

 D) boys can focus on their lessons without being distracted

61. Which of the following is characteristic of boys according to Abigail James' report?

A)      They have sharper vision.              B) They enjoy being in charge.

 C) They are violent and sexist.              D) They conform to stereotypes.

Passage Two

Questions 62 to 66 are bated on the following passage.

  It's an annual argument. Do we or do we not go on holiday? My partner says no because the boiler could go, or the roof fall offand we have no savings to save us. I say you only live once and we work hard and what's the point if you can't go on holiday. The joy of a recession means no argument next year - we just won't go.

  Since money is known to be one of the things most likely to bring a relationship to its knees, we should be grateful. For many families the recession means more than not booking a holiday. A YouGov poll of 2, 000 people found 22% said they were arguing more with their partners because of concerns about money. What's less clear is whether divorce and separation rates rise in a recession - financial pressures mean couples argue more but make splitting up less affordable. A recent research shows arguments about money were especially damaging to couples. Disputes were characterized by intense verbal ( 言语上的) aggression, tended to be repeated and not resolved and made men, more than women, extremely angry.

  Kim Stephenson, an occupational psychologist, believes money is such a big deal because of what it symbolizes, which may be different things to men and women. "People can say the same things about money but have different ideas of what it's for." he explains. "They'll say it's to save to spend, for security, for freedom, to show someone you love them." He says men are more likely to see money as a way of buying status and of showing their parents that they've achieved something.

  "The biggest problem is that couples assume each other know what's going on with their finances, but they don't. There seems to be more of a taboo (禁忌) about talking about money than about death. But you both need to know what you're doing, who's paying what into the joint account and how much you keep separately. In a healthy relationship, you don't have to agree about money, but you have to talk about it."

62. What does the author say about vacationing?

  A) It is the chief cause of family disputes.                  B) It makes all the hard work worthwhile.

  C) People enjoy it all the more during a recession.            D) Few people can afford it without working hard.

63. What does the author mean by saying "money is known ... to bring a relationship to its knees"(Line 1, Para. 2)?

  A) Money is considered to be the root of all evils.           

B) Disputes over money may rain a relationship.

  C) Few people can resist the temptation of money.         

 D) Some people sacrifice their dignity for money.

64. The YouGov poll of 2, 000 people indicates that in a recession ______ .

  A) couples show more concern for each other               B) it is more expensive for couples to split up

C) divorce and separation rates increase                   D) conflicts between couples tend to rise

65. What does Kim Stephenson believe?

  A) Money is often a symbol of a person's status.          B) Men and women spend money on different things.

  C) Men and women view money in different ways.        D) Money means a great deal to both and women.

66. The author suggests at the end of the passage that couples should ______ .

A)      discuss money matters to maintain a healthy relationship   

B) put their money together instead of keeping it separately

  C) make efforts to reach agreement on their family budgets    

D) avoid arguing about money matters to remain romantic

 

Part Cloze  (15 minutes)

  Employers fear they will be unable to recruit students with the skills they need as the economic recovery kicks in, a new survey  67 .

  Nearly half of the organizations told researchers they were already struggling to find 68 with skills in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). 69 even more companies expect to experience 70 of employees with STEM skills in the next three years.

  The Confederation of British Industry  71  694 businesses and organizations across the public and  72  sectors, which together employ 2.4 million people.

  Half are 73 they will not be able to fill graduate posts in the coming years, while a third said they would not be able to 74  enough employees with the right A-level skills.

  "  75 we move further into recovery and businesses plan 76 growth, the demand for people with high-quality skills and qualifications will 77 ," said Richard Lambert, Director General, CBI. "Firms say it is already hard to find people with the right 78  or engineering skills. The new government must make it a top 79 to encourage more young people to study science-related  80 ."

  The survey found that young people would improve their job prospects 81 they studied business, maths, English and physics or chemistry at A-level. The A-levels that employers 82 least are psychology and sociology. And while many employers don't insist on a  83 degree subject. a third prefer to hire those with a STEM-related subject.

  The research  84  worries about the lack of progress in improving basic skills in the UK 85 . Half of the employer expressed worries about employees' basic literacy and numeracy (计算)skills, while the biggest problem is with IT skills,  86  two-thirds reported concerns.

67. A) submits           B) reveals           C) launches         D) generates

68. A) audience          B) officials         C) partners           D) staff

69. A) because           B) while           C) for               D) although

70. A) exits             B) departures        C) shortages         D) absences

71. A) exposed           B) exploited        C) searched          D) surveyed

72. A) collective         B) civil             C) personal          D) private

73. A) concerned         B) conformed       C) confronted         D) confused

74. A) transfer           B) recruit           C) bind              D) attain

75. A) Lest             B) As              C) Unless             D) Before

76. A) with             B) for              C) on                D) by

77. A) intensify         B) stretch            C) enforce            D) dominate

78. A) technical         B) physical          C) creative            D) narrative

79. A) challenge         B) option           C) judgment           D) priority

80. A) thoughts         B) academics         C) subjects            D) procedures

81. A) until            B) since             C) if                 D) whereas

82. A) order            B) rate              C) discuss            D) observe

83. A) typical           B) general           C) positive            D) particular

84. A) touched          B) focused          C) highlighted         D) prescribed

85. A) workforce        B) masses           C) communities        D) faculty

86. A) why             B) whom            C) what              D) where

 

Part Translation  (5 minutes)

87Charity groups organized various activities to ________________(为地震幸存者筹款)。

88Linda_____________(不可能收到我的电子邮件):otherwise, she would have replied

89It's my mother___________(一直在鼓励我不要灰心)when I have difficulties in my studies

90The publishing house has to ______________(考虑这部小说的受欢迎程度)。

91It is absolutely wrong to ________________(仅仅以金钱来定义幸福)。

 

 

 

 

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