Key to Model Test One
Part I Writing
Choosing an Occupation
One of the most important problems a young person faces is deciding what to do. There are some people, of course, who from the time are six years old “know” that they want to be doctors or pilots or fire fighters, but the majority of us do not get around to making a decision about an occupation or career until somebody or something forces us to face the problem.
Choosing an occupation takes time, and there are a lot of things you have to think about as you try to decide what you would like to do. You may find that you will have to take special courses to qualify for a particular kind of work, or you may find out that you will need to get actual work experience to gain enough knowledge to qualify for a particular job.
Fortunately, there are a lot of people you can turn to for advice and help in making your decision. At most schools, there are teachers who are professionally qualified to give you detailed information about job qualifications. And you can talk over your ideas with family members and friends who are always ready to listen and to offer suggestions.
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
1.【解析】[Y]该句的意思是巨大的河流改道水利工程使得咸海缩小。从第二段的中间两句话可得出结论。Thirty years ago, government planners diverted the rivers that flow into the sea in order to irrigate(provide water for)farmland. As a result, the sea has shrunk to half its original size, stranding ships on dry land.与原文意思相同。
2.【解析】[N]该句句意为:巨坝和灌溉工程的建设好处多于坏处。解题依据为本文第三段第二句话But many countries continue to build massive dams and irrigation systems, even though such projects can create more problems than they fix. (虽然产生更多问题，许多国家仍继续建巨坝和灌溉工程。)由此可知，坏处多于好处，所以该题与原文之意不符合。
3.【解析】[Y]该句句意为:缺水的主要原因是人口增长和水污染。本题解题依据可定位到本文第四段第一句话 Growing populations will worsen problems with water... 及第十一段第一句话But almost everyone contributes to water pollution. 两者都是水资源缺乏的原因，与原文之意相符。
5.【解析】[N]该句句意为:根据这篇文章，所有水的污染都来自于家庭废弃物。本题解题依据为第十一段最后一句话...70 percent of the pollutants could be traced to household waste (百分之七十的污染物源于家庭废弃物)，据此，本题之意与原文之意不符合。
6.【解析】[N]该句句意为:美国人将不会面临缺水问题。该题解题依据为文章第七段第二句话 But Americans could face serious water shortages, too, especially in areas that rely on groundwater, 显然本题之意与原文之意不符合。
7.【解析】[NG]该句句意为:水利专家Gleick 提供了与水相关的最佳解决方案。根据本文第十三段第一句话所述，专家Gleick 并未提供任何最佳解决方案。
8.【解析】one-third 解题依据为第四段最后一句话：He fears that by the year 2025, as many as onethird of the world’s projected 8.3 billion people will suffer from water shortages.
9.【解析】glaciers and ice caps 解题依据为第五段第二句话：Two-thirds of this freshwater is locked in glaciers and ice caps.
10.【解析】water pollution 解题依据为第十段第二句话：Toxic chemicals pollute water when released untreated into rivers and lakes.
Part III Listening Comprehension
11.W∶ I just saw an ad on television that said men’s suits were on sales today and tomorrow at Conrad’s Men’s Wear.
M∶Great! That’s just what I’ve been waiting for.
Q∶What will the man probably do?
12.W:Is John really ill?
M:It’s hard to say. I doubt there’s anything wrong with him physically.
Q: What does the man mean?
13.M:Do you know if the book shop is still open?
W:Yes, it’s open till six.
Q:When do you think this conversation took place?
14.M:Of the two houses we saw today, which do you prefer?
W:I think the white one is prettier, but the brick one has a bigger yard, so I like it better.
Q:Why does the woman like the brick house better than the white house?
【解析】[C]女士明确指出 the brick one has a bigger yard, so I like it better。
15. M:Honey, we’ll have a guest from Australia, a friend of mine. He’ll stay in California for two weeks.
W:Yes. Your friend Andy. He was your classmate at London University, wasn’t he?
Q:What is the probable relationship between the two speakers?
【解析】[C]男士称女士为 honey, 证明两人关系亲密，由此可判断两人关系为夫妻。
16.M: When will the meeting begin?
W:According to the schedule it should be at 9:30. It will last for an hour and a half.
Q:When will the meeting be closed?
17. W:If I were you, I would take a plane instead of a bus. It will take you forever to go there.
M:But flying makes me so nervous.
Q: What does the man prefer to do?
18. W:I’ve been thinking about my cousin a lot today.
M:Why not go over for a visit?
Q:What does the man mean?
【解析】[A]男士说的 Why not go over for a visit 即是在建议女士去看望她的堂兄。
Now you’ll hear two long conversations.
W:OK, last night you were supposed to read an article about human bones. Are there any comments about it?
M:Well, to begin with, I was surprised to find out there was so much going on in bones. I always assumed they were pretty lifeless.
W:Well, that’s an assumption many people make. But the fact is bones are made of dynamic living tissue that requires continuous maintenance and repair.
M:Right. That’s one of the things I found so fascinating about the article the way the bones repair themselves.
W:OK. So can you tell us how the bones repair themselves?
M:Sure. See, there are two groups of different types of specialized cells in the bone that work together to do it. The first group goes to an area of the bone that needs repair. This group of cells produces the chemical that actually breaks down the bone tissue, and leaves a hole in it. After that the second group of specialized cells comes and produces the new tissue that fills in the hole that was made by the first group.
W:Very good. This is a very complex process. In fact, the scientists who study human bones don’t completely understand it yet. They are still trying to find out how it all actually works. Specifically, because sometimes after the first group of cells leaves a hole in the bone tissue, for some reason, the second group doesn’t completely fill in the hole. And this can cause real problems. It can actually lead to a disease in which the bone becomes weak and is easily broken.
M:OK, I get it. So if the scientists can figure out what makes the specialized cells work, maybe they can find a way to make sure the second group of cells completely fills the hole in the bone tissue every time. That’ll prevent the disease from ever occurring.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19.What is the discussion mainly about?
【解析】[C]对话一开始就谈论人类骨骼的问题，女士说 But the fact is bones are made of dynamic living tissue that requires continuous maintenance and repair. 后面的对话都是针对这个话题展开的讨论，可见整个对话讨论的话题是骨骼的自我修复能力。
20.What is the function of the first group of specialized cells discussed in the talk?
【解析】[C]男士解释了第一组细胞的作用，第一组细胞生成一种化学物质分解骨组织(This group of cells produces the chemical that actually breaks down the bone tissue...)，由此可见答案是They break down bone tissue.
21.What does the professor say about scientists who study the specialized cells in human bones?
【解析】[B]女士说这种特殊细胞作用于人类骨骼的过程相当复杂，事实上，连研究人类骨骼的科学家都不能完全了解这个过程。从这一句中可以知道：In fact, the scientists who study human bones don’t completely understand it yet. 所以答案即是这些科学家也不完全知道这些细胞如何工作。
22.According to the student, which is one important purpose of studying specialized cells in human bones?
【解析】[A]学习这些人类骨骼中的特殊细胞的重要目的是为了学习如何预防骨头疾病。从男士的这一句话中可看出：That’ll prevent the disease from ever occurring. 这样可以在疾病发生之前预防疾病，可见[A]符合题意。
M: Hi Diana, mind if I sit down?
W: Not at all, Jerry. How have you been?
M:Good. But I’m surprised to see you on the city bus. Your car in the shop?
W:No. I’ve just been thinking a lot about the environment lately. So I decided the air will be a lot cleaner if we all use public transportation when we could.
M:I’m sure you are right. The diesel bus isn’t exactly pollution free.
W:True. They’ll be running a lot cleaner soon. We were just talking about that in my environmental engineering class.
M:What could the city do? Install pollution filters in all their buses?
W:They could, but those filters make the engines work harder and really cut down on the fuel efficiency. Instead they found a way to make their engines more efficient.
W:Well, there is a material that’s a really good insulator. And a thin coat of it gets sprayed on the certain part of the engine.
M: An insulator?
W:Yeah. What it does is reflect back the heat of burning fuel. So the fuel will burn much hotter and burn up more completely.
M:So a lot less unburned fuel comes out to pollute the air.
W:And the bus will need less fuel. So with the saving on fuel cost, they say this will all pay for itself in just six months.
M:Sounds like people should all go out and get some this stuff to spray their car engines.
W:Well, it’s not really that easy. You see, normally, the materials are fine powder. To melt it so you can spray a coat of it on the engine parts, you first have to heat it over 10,000 degrees and then, well, you get the idea. It’s not something you or I will be able to do ourselves.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23.What is the conversation mainly about?
24.Why did the woman decide to ride the city bus?
【解析】[B]对话开头部分就交代了此题答案，那位女士说她不开自己的车而乘坐公共汽车是为了降低环境污染。从她提到的So I decided the air will be a lot cleaner if we all use public transportation when we could 即可得知。
25.What is the new material?
【解析】[D]这种新的材料是在引擎部位喷洒的一种绝缘材料。从女士的话中there is a material that’s a really good insulator. And a thin coat of it gets sprayed on the certain part of the engine即可得出。这种材料的用途是将燃料燃烧的热量反射回去，从而达到提高效率的结果。
A guide dog is a dog especially trained to guide a blind person. Dogs chosen for such training must show good intelligence, physical fitness, and responsibility.
At the age of about fourteen months, a guide dog begins an intensive course that lasts from three to five months. It becomes accustomed to the leather harness and stiff leather handle it will wear when guiding its blind owner. The dog learns to watch traffic and to cross streets safely. It also learns to obey any command that might lead its owner into danger.
The most important part of the training course is a four-week program in which the guide dog and its future owner learn to work together. However, many blind people are unsuited by personality to work dogs. Only about a tenth of the blind find a guide dog useful.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. How long does the intensive course last?
【解析】[A]文中明确提到an intensive course that lasts from three to five months，因此正确答案为 [A]。
27.Which of the following is not a necessary skill guide dogs have to learn?
【解析】[D]答案依据是The dog learns to watch traffic and to cross streets safely. It also learns to obey any command that might lead its owner into danger. 从这两句中可看出看家不属于导盲犬训练范围内的技能。
28.How long does the most important training course last?
【解析】[C]最重要的训练课程持续四周。文中明确指出了本题答案。The most important part of the training course is a four-week program，从此句中即可看出。
People dream four to six times a night. They dream while they are in the REM stage of sleep, which means rapid eye movement stage in one’s sleep. Sleepers go into the REM stage about every 90 minutes. The first dream of the night may last about ten minutes. Each dream gets a little longer. The last dream of the night may be an hour long.
People need their dreams. Younger children spend more time dreaming. Babies spend almost half of their sleep in the REM stage.
One experiment showed that everyone needs to dream. Doctors gave some people sleeping pills. These sleeping pills didn’t let them go to REM sleep. After a few nights without dreams, they began to feel bad. They became angry easily, they worried a lot, and they wanted to fight with everyone. Then they stopped taking the sleeping pills. They all began to dream all night for a few nights to catch up.
Why do people dream? Dreams give them time to find the answers to some of their problems. If they think they will have difficult problems the next day, they may spend more time on REM sleep the night before. In their dreams, they may find an answer to their problems.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29.How often does a person dream each night?
【解析】[B]文章一开始即交待了一个人一晚上要做梦四到六次。从第一句就可看出People dreams four to six times a night.因此，答案为[B]。
30.What is true according to this passage?
【解析】[D]安眠药会阻止人们进入REM睡眠状态。These sleeping pills didn’t let them go to REM sleep.可看出 [D]项正确。
31.Why do people dream?
【解析】[D]文中明确给出了答案Dreams give them time to find the answers to some of their problems.因为在梦中人可以找到自己的问题的答案。
O.K., everybody. Can we start the meeting now? I’m Jeff Milton, the chairperson of the Graduation Committee for this year. You’ve all been selected as representatives to plan the graduation ceremonies. I’m sending around the sheet of paper for you to fill in your name and telephone number. Also, please write down what part of the ceremonies you would like to work on. Remember, as a representative, you will have a lot of responsibilities. So only sign up if you feel you have the time to participate. When everyone has finished writing down the information, please return the paper to me. At our next meeting one week from today, we’ll start to discuss the details of the ceremonies.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32.Who is the speaker?
33.What is the purpose of the meeting?
34.What should the students write on the paper?
35.When is the next meeting?
【解析】[B]从这句话At our next meeting one week from today可知下次会议在下周召开。
【解析】英国学生参加的首次考试 eleven-plus的结果将决定他们是否继续留校学习，因此此处空格填“决定”一词，而且又为过去分词，即为 determined。
44.【答案】This examination covers a wide range of subjects.
45.【答案】The final examination, at eighteen, covers only the content of the special subjects.
46.【答案】In a real sense, the English boy or girl is a specialist from the age of fifteen.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)
49.【解析】[G]另外，一些商店还提供服务。提供服务可用固定的搭配 offer services。
50.【解析】[B]所填词只有take 才能与后面的词place搭配，take place 为固定词组，意为“发生”。But in the 1950s, a change began to take place 意为20世纪50年代开始发生变化。
53.【解析】[L]Shopping centers, or rather malls, started as a collection of small new stores away from crowded city centers. 远离拥挤的城市中心很多小型的新商场聚集在一起构成了大规模购物中心。start 在此处是开业的意思。
54.【解析】[M]customers were drawn away from downtown areas to outlying malls.顾客们被从市中心区吸引到郊区的购物商场。市中心区即用downtown 一词。
56.【解析】[F]购物中心除了提供停车的便利之外，还提供其他服务。提供便利即用 provide convenience。
63.【解析】[C]细节题。文章第一段指出：许多人不喜欢垒球，一提起垒球这些人就打哈欠甚至皱眉头。对他们来说，看垒球意味着眼巴巴地观望着身着运动装(outfit)的人呆立在球场上，东瞧瞧西望望，很少有什么(激动人心的)事发生——没意思透了。他们认为这样的运动更适合上个世纪的人的口味，不像橄榄球那样充满活力。 A意为：“它只适合老年人的口味。”注意：原文说的是适合上个世纪的人的口味，二者意思不一样。 D意为：“它矫揉造作、滑稽可笑。”这与说它gentlemanly(具有绅士风度，矜持，即：没有冲撞或拼抢)不一样。
64.【解析】[B]推断题。第三段指出，在电视上，垒球运动被切换成不同角度的画面，而且不断地使用重放、特写等电视制作技术，这破坏了该运动的整体运动感，使观众无法将自己投入(project)到运动中去，以体会到这种寓动于静的运动之美。电视做不到这一点(The TV won’t do it for you)，因此，电视上的垒球比赛看上去(seems)孤孤单单、冷冷清清、沉沉静静、慢慢腾腾。C、D不对，作者仅指出了不同运动有不同运动的特征，并未说哪种运动优于哪种。参阅文章最后一句。
76.【解析】[D]“keep sb. 过去分词”是一种复合结构，sb.与过去分词为被动关系，意为保持这种关系的继续。此句的意思是：报纸不断地为读者提供新闻信息。
Part Ⅵ Translation
87.【答案】to make trouble
【解析】找麻烦，用固定词组make trouble即可，make trouble 即“制造麻烦，捣乱”之意。
88.【答案】needn’t have borrowed it from the bank
【解析】本题考查虚拟语气的用法，needn’t have done的结构是“本不必这样做而做了”的意思。
89.【答案】It is because she is so inexperienced
90.【答案】will be doing/conducting the experiment
【解析】本题考查将来进行时态的用法，做实验既可用do experiment也可用conduct experiment。
91.【答案】resort to force
【解析】本题亦考查固定词组用法，“诉诸武力”有固定词组resort to force。