Part I Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Choosing an Occupation. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1-7, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Will We Run Out of Water?
Picture a “ghost ship” sinking into the sand, left to rot on dry land by a receding sea. Then imagine dust storms sweeping up toxic pesticides and chemical fertilizers from the dry seabed and spewing them across towns and villages.
Seem like a scene from a movie about the end of the world? For people living near the Aral Sea in Central Asia, it’s all too real. Thirty years ago, government planners diverted the rivers that flow into the sea in order to irrigate(provide water for)farmland. As a result, the sea has shrunk to half its original size, stranding ships on dry land. The seawater has tripled in salt content and become polluted, killing all 24 native species of fish.
Similar large-scale efforts to redirect water in other parts of the world have also ended in ecological crisis, according to numerous environmental groups. But many countries continue to build massive dams and irrigation systems, even though such projects can create more problems than they fix. Why? People in many parts of the world are desperate for water, and more people will need more water in the next century.
“Growing populations will worsen problems with water,” says Peter H. Gleick, an environmental scientist at the Pacific Institute for studies in Development, Environment, and Security, a research organization in California. He fears that by the year 2025, as many as onethird of the world’s projected 8.3 billion people will suffer from water shortages.
Where Water Goes
Only 2.5 percent of all water on Earth is freshwater, water suitable for drinking and growing food, says Sandra Postel, director of the Global Water Policy Project in Amherst, Mass. Twothirds of this freshwater is locked in glaciers and ice caps. In fact, only a tiny percentage of freshwater is part of the water cycle, in which water evaporates and rises into the atmosphere, then condenses and falls back to Earth as precipitation(rain or snow).
Some precipitation runs off land to lakes and oceans, and some becomes groundwater, water that seeps into the earth. Much of this renewable freshwater ends up in remote places like the Amazon river basin in Brazil, where few people live. In fact, the world’s population has access to only 12,500 cubic kilometers of freshwater—about the amount of water in Lake Superior. And people use half of this amount already. “If water demand continues to climb rapidly,” says Postel, “there will be severe shortages and damage to the aquatic environment.”
Close to Home
Water woes may seem remote to people living in rich countries like the United States. But Americans could face serious water shortages, too especially in areas that rely on groundwater. Groundwater accumulates in aquifers, layers of sand and gravel that lie between soil and bedrock. (For every liter of surface water, more than 90 liters are hidden underground.)Although the United States has large aquifers, farmers, ranchers, and cities are tapping many of them for water faster than nature can replenish it. In northwest Texas, for example, over pumping has shrunk groundwater supplies by 25 percent, according to Postel.
Americans may face even more urgent problems from pollution. Drinking water in the United States is generally safe and meets high standards. Nevertheless, one in five Americans every day unknowingly drinks tap water contaminated with bacteria and chemical wastes, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. In Milwaukee, 400,000 people fell ill in 1993 after drinking tap water tainted with cryptosporidium, a microbe that causes fever, diarrhea and vomiting.
Where do contaminants come from? In developing countries, people dump raw sewage into the same streams and rivers from which they draw water for drinking and cooking; about 250 million people a year get sick from water borne diseases.
In developed countries, manufacturers use 100,000 chemical compounds to make a wide range of products. Toxic chemicals pollute water when released untreated into rivers and lakes. (Certain compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, have been banned in the United States.)
But almost everyone contributes to water pollution. People often pour household cleaners, car antifreeze, and paint thinners down the drain; all of these contain hazardous chemicals. Scientists studying water in the San Francisco Bay reported in 1996 that 70 percent of the pollutants could be traced to household waste.
Farmers have been criticized for overusing herbicides and pesticides, chemicals that kill weeds and insects but that pollute water as well. Farmers also use nitrates, nitrogen-rich fertilizer that help plants grow but that can wreak havoc on the environment. Nitrates are swept away by surface runoff to lakes and seas. Too many nitrates “over enrich” these bodies of water, encouraging the buildup of algae, or microscopic plants that live on the surface of the water. Algae deprive the water of oxygen that fish need to survive, at times choking off life in an entire body of water.
What’s the Solution?
Water expert Gleick advocates conservation and local solutions to water-related problems; governments, for instance, would be better off building small-scale dams rather than huge and disruptive projects like the one that ruined the Aral Sea.
“More than 1 billion people worldwide don’t have access to basic clean drinking water,” says Gleick.“There has to be a strong push on the part of everyone—governments and ordinary people—to make sure we have a resource so fundamental to life.”
1. That the huge water projects have diverted the rivers causes the Aral Sea to shrink.
2. The construction of massive dams and irrigation projects does more good than harm.
3. The chief causes of water shortage are population growth and water pollution.
4. The problems Americans face concerning water are groundwater shrinkage and tap water pollution.
5. According to the passage all water pollutants come from household waste.
6. The people living in the United States will not be faced with water shortages.
7. Water expert Gleick has come up with the best solution to water-related problems.
8. According to Peter H. Gleick, by the year 2025, as many as of the world’s people will suffer from water shortages.
9.Two thirds of the freshwater on Earth is locked in.
10.In developed countries, before toxic chemicals are released into rivers and lakes, they should be treated in order to avoid.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A],[B],[C]and[D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11.[A]Wait for the sale to start.
[B]Get further information about the sale.
[C]Call the TV station to be sure if the ad is true.
[D]Buy a new suit.
12.[A]He doesn’t think that John is ill.
[B]He thinks that perhaps John is not in very good health.
[C]He is aware that John is ill.
[D]He doesn’t think that John has a very good knowledge of physics.
14.[A]It is bigger.
[B]It has a prettier color.
[C]It has a larger yard.
[D]It is brighter.
15.[A]Australian and American.
[B]Guest and host.
[C]Husband and wife.
[D]Professor and student.
17.[A]He prefers staying at home because the bus is too late.
[B]He prefers staying at home because he doesn’t like to travel.
[C]He prefers taking a bus because the plane makes him nervous.
[D]He prefers traveling with the woman.
18.[A]He thinks she should visit her cousin.
[B]Her cousin doesn’t visit very often.
[C]Her cousin is feeling a lot better today.
[D]He doesn’t think her cousin has been at home today.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19.[A]Two different types of bones in the human body.
[B]How bones help the body move.
[C]How bones continuously repair themselves.
[D]The chemical composition of human bones.
20.[A]They defend the bone against viruses.
[B]They prevent oxygen from entering the bone.
[C]They break down bone tissue.
[D]They connect the bone to muscle tissue.
21.[A]They have difficulty identifying these cells.
[B]They aren’t sure how these cells work.
[C]They’ve learned how to reproduce these cells.
[D]They’ve found similar cells in other species.
22.[A]To learn how to prevent a bone disease.
[B]To understand differences between bone tissue and other tissue.
[C]To find out how specialized bone cells have evolved.
[D]To create artificial bone tissue.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23.[A]A new fuel for buses.
[B]The causes of air pollution.
[C]A way to improve fuel efficiency in buses.
[D]Careers in environmental engineering.
24.[A]Her car is being repaired.
[B]She wants to help reduce pollution.
[C]Parking is difficult in the city.
[D]The cost of fuel has increased.
25.[A]A fuel that burns cleanly.
[B]An oil additive that helps cool engines.
[C]A material from which filters are made.
[D]An insulating material sprayed on engine parts.
Directions:In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C]and [D].Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26.[A]From three to five months.
[C]Cross streets safely.
[D]Guard the door.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29.[A]Two to four times.
[B]Four to six times.
[C]Four to eight times.
[D]Six to ten times.
30.[A]Sleeping pills made people go into REM sleep quickly.
[B]People had more dreams after they took sleeping pills.
[C]People became angry easily because they didn’t take sleeping pills.
[D]Sleeping pills prevented people from going into REM sleep.
31.[A]People dream so as to sleep better.
[B]People dream in order not to go into REM sleep.
[C]Because they may run into difficult problems in their dreams.
[D]Because in their dreams they may find the answers to their problems.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32.[A]A sales representative.
[B]A store manager.
[C]A committee chairperson.
[D]A class president.
33.[A]To determine who will graduate this year.
[B]To discuss the seating arrangement.
[C]To choose the chairperson of the ceremonies.
[D]To begin planning the graduation ceremonies.
34.[A]Their names, phone numbers and job preference.
[B]The names and addresses of their guests.
[C]The names of the committee they worked on last year.
[D]Their dormitory name, address and phone number.
35.[A]In an hour.
[C]In one month.
Directions:In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in you own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
In the English (36)______system, students take three very important examinations. The first is the eleven-plus, which is (37)________ at the age of eleven or a little past. At one time the (38)_______or (39)________ shown on the elevenplus would have (40)_________if a child stayed in school. Now, however, all children continue in (41)________ schools, and the eleven-plus determines which courses of study the child will follow. At the age of fifteen or sixteen, the students are (42)_________for the Ordinary (43)______of the General Certificate of Education. (44)________. Once students have passed this exam, they are allowed to specialize, so that twothirds or more of their courses will be in physics, chemistry, classical languages, or whatever they wish to study at greater length. (45)__________. Even at the universities, students study only in their concentrated area, and very few students ever venture out-side that subject again. (46)_________.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)(25 minutes)
Directions:In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Shopping habits in the United States have changed greatly in the last quarter of the 20th century. Early in the 1900s most American towns and cities had a Main Street. Main Street was always the 47 of a town. This street was lined on the both sides with many 48 businesses. Here, shoppers walked into stores to look at all sorts of merchandise: clothing, furniture, hardware, groceries. In addition, some shops offered 49 . There shops included drugstores, restaurants, shoe repair stores, and barber or hairdressing shops. But in the 1950s, a change began to 50 place. Too many automobiles had crowded into Main Street while too few parking places were 51 to shoppers. Because the streets were crowded, merchants began to look with interest at the open spaces outside the city limits. Open space is what their car driving customers 52 . And open space is what they got when the first shopping centre was built. Shopping centers, or rather malls, 53 as a collection of small new stores away from crowded city centers. Attracted by hundreds of free parking space, customers were drawn away from 54 areas to outlying malls. And the growing 55 of shopping centers led in turn to the building of bigger and better stocked stores. By the late 1970s, many shopping malls had almost developed into small cities themselves. In addition to providing the 56 of the stop shopping, malls were transformed into landscaped parks, with benches, fountains, and outdoor entertainment.
Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C]and [D].You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Culture is one of the most challenging elements of the international marketplace. This system of learned behavior patterns characteristic of the members of a given society is constantly shaped by a set of dynamic variables: language, religion, values and attitudes, manners and customs, aesthetics, technology, education, and social institutions. To cope with this system, an international manager needs both factual and interpretive knowledge of culture. To some extent, the factual knowledge can be learned; its interpretation comes only through experience.
The most complicated problems in dealing with the cultural environment stem from the fact that one cannot learn culture—one has to live it. Two schools of thought exist in the business world on how to deal with cultural diversity. One is that business is business the world around, following the model of Pepsi and McDonald’s. In some cases, globalization is a fact of life; however, cultural differences are still far from converging.
The other school proposes that companies must tailor business approaches to individual cultures. Setting up policies and procedures in each country has been compared to an organ transplant; the critical question centers around acceptance or rejection. The major challenge to the international manager is to make sure that rejection is not a result of cultural myopia or even blindness.
Fortune examined the international performance of a dozen large companies that earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas. The internationally successful companies all share an important quality: patience. They have not rushed into situations but rather built their operations carefully by following the most basic business principles. These principles are to know your adversary, know your audience, and know your customer.
57.According to the passage, which of the following is true?
[A]All international managers can learn culture.
[B]Business diversity is not necessary.
[C]Views differ on how to treat culture in business world.
[D]Most people do not know foreign culture well.
58.According to the author, the model of Pepsi_________.
[A]is in line with the theories that the business is business the world around
[B]is different from the model of McDonald’s
[C]shows the reverse of globalization
[D]has converged cultural differences
59.The two schools of thought____________.
[A]both propose that companies should tailor business approaches to individual cultures
[B]both advocate that different policies be set up in different countries
[C]admit the existence of cultural diversity in business world
[D]both A and B
60.This article is supposed to be most useful for those____________.
[A]who are interested in researching the topic of cultural diversity
[B]who have connections to more than one type of culture
[C]who want to travel abroad
[D]who want to run business on International Scale
61.According to Fortune, successful international companies________________.
[A]earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas
[B]all have the quality of patience
[C]will follow the overseas local cultures
[D]adopt the policy of internationalization
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
There are people in Italy who can’t stand soccer. Not all Canadians love hockey. A similar situation exists in America, where there are those individuals you may be one of them who yawn or even frown when somebody mentions baseball. Baseball to them means boring hours watching grown men in funny tight outfits standing around in a field staring away while very little of anything happens. They tell you it’s a game better suited to the 19th century, slow, quiet, and gentlemanly. These are the same people you may be one of them who love football because there’s the sport that glorifies “the hit”.
By contrast, baseball seems abstract, cool, silent, still.
On TV the game is fractured into a dozen perspectives, replays, close-ups. The geometry of the game, however, is essential to understanding it. You will contemplate the game from one point as a painter does his subject; you may, of course, project yourself into the game. It is in this projection that the game affords so much space and time for involvement. The TV won’t do it for you.
Take, for example, the third baseman. You sit behind the third base dugout and you watch him watching home plate. His legs are apart, knees flexed. His arms hang loose. He does a lot of this. The skeptic still cannot think of any other sports so still, so passive. But watch what happens every time the pitcher throws: the third baseman goes up on his toes, flexes his arms or brings the glove to a point in front of him, takes a step right or left, backward or forward, perhaps he glances across the field to check his first baseman’s position. Suppose the pitch is a ball. “Nothing happened,” you say. “I could have had my eyes closed.”
The skeptic and the innocent must play the game. And this involvement in the stands is no more intellectual than listening to music is. Watch the third baseman. Smooth the dirt in front of you with one foot; smooth the pocket in your glove; watch the eyes of the batter, the speed of the bat, the sound of horsehide on wood. If football is a symphony of movement and theatre, baseball is chamber music, a spacious interlocking of notes, chores and responses.
62.The passage is mainly concerned with_____________.
[A]the different tastes of people for sports
[B]the different characteristics of sports
[C]the attraction of football
[D]the attraction of baseball
63.Those who don’t like baseball may complain that_______________.
[A]it is only to the taste of the old
[B]it involves fewer players than football
[C]it is not exciting enough
[D]it is pretentious and looks funny
64.The author admits that____________.
[A]baseball is too peaceful for the young
[B]baseball may seem boring when watched on TV
[C]football is more attracting than baseball
[D]baseball is more interesting than football
65.By stating “I could have had my eyes closed.” the author means (4th paragraph last sentence)_____________.
[A]the third baseman would rather sleep than play the game
[B]even if the third baseman closed his eyes a moment ago, it could make no difference to the result
[C]the third baseman is so good at baseball that he could finish the game with eyes closed all the time and do his work well
[D]the consequence was so bad that he could not bear to see it
66.We can safely conclude that the author__________________.
Part Ⅴ Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions:There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C]and [D]on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Who won the World Cup 1994 football game? What happened at the United Nations? How did the critics like the new play? 67 an event takes place, newspapers are on the streets 68 the details. Wherever anything happens in the world, reports are on the spot to 69 the news. Newspapers have one basic 70 , to get the news as quickly as possible from its source, from those who make it to those who want to 71 it. Radio, telegraph, television,and 72 inventions brought competition for newspapers. So did the development of magazines and other means of communication. 73 , this competition merely spurred the newspapers on. They quickly made use of the newer and faster means of communication to improve the 74 and thus the efficiency of their own operations. Today more newspapers are 75 and read than ever before. Competition also led newspapers to branch out to many other fields. Besides keeping readers 76 of the latest news, today’s newspapers 77 and influence readers about politics and other important and serious matters. Newspapers influence readers’ economic choices 78 advertising. Most newspapers depend on advertising for their very 79 . Newspapers are sold at a price that80even a small fraction of the cost of production. The main 81 of income for most newspapers is commercial advertising. The 82 in selling advertising depends on a newspaper’s value to advertisers. This 83 in terms of circulation. How many people read the newspaper? Circulation depends 84 on the work of the circulation department and on the services or entertainment 85 in a newspaper’s pages. But for the most part, circulation depends on a newspaper’s value to readers as a source of information 86 the community, city, country, state, nation, and world—and even outer space.
[C]one another[D]the other
80.[A]tries to cover
[B]manages to cover
[C]fails to cover
[C]is measured[D]was measured
[C]which offered[D]to be offered
Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)
Direction:Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
87.There’s a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means_______________ (想找麻烦).
88.Why didn’t you tell me you could lend me the money? I___________________ (本来不必从银行借钱的).
89.____________________(正是由于她太没有经验) that she does not know how to deal with the situation.
90.I________________ (将在做实验) from three to five this afternoon.
91.If this can’t be settled reasonably, it may be necessary to_____________ (诉诸武力).