COLLEGE ENGLISH TEST
— Band Four —
试 题 册
注 意 事 项
一、 将自己的校名、姓名、准考证号写在答题卡1 和答题卡2 上。将本试卷代号划在答题卡2 上。
二、 试卷册、答题卡1 和答题卡2 均不得带出考场。考试结束，监考员收卷后考生才可离开。
四、 在30 分钟内做完答题卡1 上的作文题。30 分钟后，考生按指令启封试题册，在接着的15分钟内完成快速阅读理解部分的试题。然后监考员收取答题卡1，考生在答题卡2 上完成其余部分的试题。全部答题时间为125 分钟，不得拖延时间。
六、 多项选择题每题只能选一个答案；如多选，则该题无分。选定答案后，用HB-2B 浓度的铅笔在相应字母的中部划一条横线。正确方法是：[A] [B] [C] [D]。使用其他符号答题者不给分。划线要有一定的粗度，浓度要盖过字母底色。
Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C), and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Beauty and Body Image in the Media
Images of female bodies are everywhere. Women—and their body parts—sell everything from food to cars. Popular film and television actresses are becoming younger, taller and thinner. Some have even been known to faint on the set from lack of food. Women’s magazines are full of articles urging that if they can just lose those last twenty pounds, they’ll have it all—the perfect marriage, loving children, great sex, and a rewarding career.
Why are standards of beauty being imposed on women, the majority of whom are naturally larger and more mature than any of the models? The roots, some analysts say, are economic. By presenting an ideal difficult to achieve and maintain, the cosmetic and diet product industries are assured of growth and profits.
And it’s no accident that youth is increasingly promoted, along with thinness, as an essential criterion of beauty. If not all women need to lose weight, for sure they’re all aging, says the Quebec Action Network for Women’s Health in its 2001 report. And, according to the industry, age is a disaster that needs to be dealt with.
The stakes are huge. On the one hand, women who are insecure about their bodies are more likely to buy beauty products, new clothes, and diet aids. It is estimated that the diet industry alone is worth anywhere between 40 to 100 billion (U.S.) a year selling temporary weight loss (90 to 95% of dieters regain the lost weight).On the other hand, research indicates that exposure to images of thin, young, air-brushed female bodies is linked to depression, loss of self-esteem and the development of unhealthy eating habits in women and girls.
The American research group Anorexia Nervosa & Related Eating Disorders, Inc. says that one out of every four college-aged women uses unhealthy methods of weight control—including fasting, skipping meals, excessive exercise, laxative (泻药) abuse, and self-induced vomiting. The pressure to be thin is also affecting young girls: the Canadian Women’s Health Network warns that weight control measures are now being taken by girls as young as 5 and 6. American statistics are similar.Several studies, such as one conducted by Marika Tiggemann and Levina Clark in 2006 titled “Appearance Culture in Nine- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction,” indicate that nearly half of all preadolescent girls wish to be thinner, and as a result have engaged in a diet or are aware of the concept of dieting. In 2003, Teen magazine reported that 35 per cent of girls 6 to 12 years old have been on at least one diet, and that 50 to 70 per cent of normal weight girls believe they are overweight. Overall research indicates that 90% of women are dissatisfied with their appearance in some way.
Media activist Jean Kilbourne concludes that, “Women are sold to the diet industry by the magazines we read and the television programs we watch, almost all of which make us feel anxious about our weight.”
Perhaps most disturbing is the fact that media images of female beauty are unattainable for all but a very small number of women. Researchers generating a computer model of a woman with Barbie-doll proportions, for example, found that her back would be too weak to support the weight of her upper body, and her body would be too narrow to contain more than half a liver and a few centimeters of bowel. A real woman built that way would suffer from chronic diarrhea ( 慢性腹泻) and eventually die from malnutrition. Jill Barad, President of Mattel (which manufactures Barbie), estimated that 99% of girls aged 3 to 10 years old own at least one Barbie doll.
Still, the number of real life women and girls who seek a similarly underweight body is epidemic, and they can suffer equally devastating health consequences. In 2006 it was estimated that up to 450, 000 Canadian women were affected by an eating disorder.
The Culture of Thinness
Researchers report that women’s magazines have ten and one-half times more ads and articles promoting weight loss than men’s magazines do, and over three-quarters of the covers of women’s magazines include at least one message about how to change a woman’s bodily appearance—by diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery.
Television and movies reinforce the importance of a thin body as a measure of a woman’s worth. Canadian researcher Gregory Fouts reports that over three-quarters of the female characters in TV situation comedies are underweight, and only one in twenty are above average in size. Heavier actresses tend to receive negative comments from male characters about their bodies (“How about wearing a sack?”), and 80 per cent of these negative comments are followed by canned audience laughter.
There have been efforts in the magazine industry to buck ( 抵制，反抗) the trend. For several years the Quebec magazine Coup de Pouce has consistently included full-sized women in their fashion pages and Châtelaine has pledged not to touch up photos and not to include models less than 25 years of age. In Madrid, one of the world’s biggest fashion capitals, ultra-thin models were banned from the runway in 2006. Furthermore Spain has recently undergone a project with the aim to standardize clothing sizes through using a unique process in which a laser beam is used to measure real life women’s bodies in order to find the most true to life measurement.
Another issue is the representation of ethnically diverse women in the media. A 2008 study conducted by Juanita Covert and Travis Dixon titled “A Changing View: Representation and Effects of the Portrayal of Women of Color in Mainstream Women’s Magazines” found that although there was an increase in the representation of women of colour, overall white women were overrepresented in mainstream women’s magazines from 1999 to 2004. Self-Improvement or Self-Destruction?
The barrage of messages about thinness, dieting and beauty tells “ordinary” women that they are always in need of adjustment—and that the female body is an object to be perfected.
Jean Kilbourne argues that the overwhelming presence of media images of painfully thin women means that real women’s bodies have become invisible in the mass media. The real tragedy, Kilbourne concludes, is that many women internalize these stereotypes, and judge themselves by the beauty industry’s standards. Women learn to compare themselves to other women, and to compete with them for male attention. This focus on beauty and desirability “effectively destroys any awareness and action that might help to change that climate.”
1. Women’s magazines are full of articles to urge women to ___________.
A) eat less sweet food C) marry a rich husband
B) lose weight D) have at least two kids
2. The cosmetic and diet product industries gain profits by ____________.
A) exaggerating the goodness about their products
B) targeting at children and females
C) presenting an ideal image difficult to achieve
D) distributing free samples from home to home
3. Canadian Women’s health Network warns that weight control measures are now being taken by girls _____________.
A) at age 5 or 6 C) at age 13 or 14
B) at age 9 or 10 D) at age 16 or 17
4. In 2003, Teen magazine reported that ____________ percent of normal weight girls believe they are overweight.
A) 35 to 50 C) 50 to 70
B) 50 D) 90
5. Researchers found that a real woman with Barbie-doll proportions would _____________.
A) suffer from heart disease C) live a more rewarding life
B) be very popular with males D) die from malnutrition
6. Television and movies emphasize that a woman’s worth can be judged by _____________.
A) the cosmetics she uses C) the thinness of her body
B) the jewelry she wears D) the wealth of her husband
7. Spain has recently undergone a project to _____________.
A) include full-sized women in its fashion magazines
B) standardize clothing sizes
C) ban ultra-thin models from the runway
D) promote weight loss among men
8. In mainstream women’s magazines from 1999 to 2004, ______________ were overrepresented.
9. Jean Kilbourne concludes that many women judge themselves by _______________________.
10. The focus on ___________________________ destroys any awareness and action that might help to change the trend.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
注意：此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。
11. A) She has read the book and doesn’t need it anymore.
B) She will not lend her book to the man.
C) The man can use her book whenever he likes.
D) The man can borrow the book at a convenient time.
12. A) She wants to find a roommate with similar interests.
B) She changes roommates often.
C) She does not know Julie very well.
D) She did not really enjoy living with Julie
13. A) The man is glad to lend the woman money to buy a computer.
B) The woman should wait a while before buying a computer.
C) The woman should find a better way to invest her savings.
D) The woman should buy a computer.
14. A) He prefers to live off campus.
B) There are advantages and disadvantages to living off campus.
C) Living space in the dorm is too crowded.
D) There are a limited number of apartments available off campus.
15. A) He has to pick up his brother at the airport.
B) He doesn’t have any definite plans for the weekend.
C) He usually works on weekends with his brother.
D) His brother is still flying on the plane.
16. A) He is not upset that they ate lunch.
B) He did not know what time he was supposed to arrive.
C) He expected the traffic to be bad.
D) He will be happy to share their dessert.
17. A) Ask for directions.
B) Try a different route to the beach.
C) Go back for the map.
D) Postpone their trip until later.
18. A) The costumes weren’t as good as the scenery.
B) The scenery could have been more realistic.
C) She wishes she had not seen the play.
D) She didn’t enjoy the students’ performance.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) Their plans for the next semester.
B) Why the woman can’t go to the concert.
C) Their favorite band.
D) A psychology class.
20. A) Work at the bookstore. C) Cover a friend’s shift.
B) Go to the movies. D) Go to a concert.
21. A) The woman never works on weekends.
B) The man and woman take the same courses.
C) Matt would like to go to the concert too.
D) The new psychology book might sell out.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
22. A) play basketball with friends from work.
B) try out for the company baseball team
C) get in shape and compete in a cycling race
D) enjoy a TV game while having snacks
23. A) Her husband’s spending too much time away from home.
B) Her husband’s passion for sports.
C) Her husband’s health condition.
D) Her husband’s diet habits.
24. A) He should see a doctor.
B) He should start with a light workout.
C) He should abandon the idea.
D) He should lose some weight.
25. A) He has been an active basketball player throughout the years.
B) He has been exercising under a fitness instructor’s guidance.
C) He has a fairly healthful diet habit.
D) He has a loving and caring wife.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Passage One Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A) Illegal hunting of elephants was prohibited.
B) The number of elephants fell by 700,000.
C) Many African farmers or factory workers hunted elephants.
D) Over 100 countries sold jewelry made from the tusks of elephants.
27. A) It costs money.
B) Elephants need land.
C) Farmers must be hired.
D) Farmers’ crops must be compensated for if destroyed.
28. A) To stabilize the elephant population.
B) To protect the environment.
C) To relieve the burden on the local people.
D) To improve the international agreement.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) Important Keys to Recycling
B) The Importance of Technology for Recycling
C) Guidelines for Paper Recycling
D) Raising the Public Environmental Awareness
30. A) The public would try to gain information for recycling by various means.
B) The public would lose interest in recycling gradually.
C) The public would not be affected by the lack of a system.
D) The public would teach and learn from each other about recycling.
31. A) To set up sites for collecting recycled materials.
B) To teach the public how to separate various kinds of recycled materials.
C) To make policies favorable for upgrading equipment for recycling.
D) To increase the demand for recycled materials.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) Reviewing book reports. C) Selecting information sources.
B) Reading magazine articles. D) Writing research papers.
33. A) Stealing other people’s ideas. C) Giving credit to the original author.
B) Turning in the assignment late. D) Gathering irrelevant information.
34. A) Inexperienced students. C) Some teachers.
B) People doing research. D) Magazine publishers.
35. A) In direct quotations. C) In shorthand.
B) In short phrases. D) In the student’s own words.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to
43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Job seekers in Britain say employers are paying less attention to (36) __________ degrees and certificates. They are making their own (37) ___________ exams to test ability. They are concerned about decreasing (38) _____________ of job seekers, because many university graduates with good degrees have shown a terrible inability to spell, and work out simple (39) __________.
The chairman of the Standing Conference of Employers of Graduates, told our
(40)_____________: “We don’t look at the pieces of paper (41) __________ in to us, but we look at the people with real abilities.” A senior (42) ____________ with the Bank of England said that many companies were making their own (43) ____________ tests so they could be sure that candidates were the right people for the job.
In the Civil Service, (44) ____________________________________________ __________
____________________ _____________________________________. Forged certificates, printed in Germany, have been discovered recently. (45) _______________________________________________________________
__________________________. Making fake degrees has also become a highly profitable business.(46)_____________________________________________________________. Some so-called “universities” and “colleges” are even selling these attractive diplomas.
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the pas- sage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
The economic costs of noise are several. Airports are currently operating at less than 47 because of noise regulations which restrict their hours of operation. For instance, at Washington’s National Airport no jet traffic is allowed from 11 pm to 7 am. Other airports restrict the use of certain runway. One estimate is that noise 48 reduce possible airport use by 20 percent.
The 49 cargo trade is especially affected by night restrictions.
In the case of airports, jet engines may be 50 to reduce their noise level, or insulation from air traffic noise may be provided by the purchase of land around airports or the insulation of buildings.One estimate is that $5.7 billion would be required to 51 all existing jet engines with noise control devices. However, 52 the current state of the art, even taking this step will not reduce noise levels at all points to 53 values. Some combination of methods is probably necessary.
If all aircraft were made quieter by existing methods, there would be a number of economic benefits. An increase in airport capacity would 54 . Property values near airports might rise. Transportation costs to and from airports could be reduced since the airports now could be located closer to population center.
Much research still needs to be done on the economic 55 of noise reduction and noise effects.Although some of the effects of nose pollution are known, more must be discovered about its effects on health, productivity, property values and the quality of life. 56 , the cost of noise pollution control to the economy as a whole needs to be investigated.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on
Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Most people can remember a phone number for up to thirty seconds. When this short amount of time elapses, however, the numbers are erased from the memory. How did the information get there in the first place? Information that makes its way to the short term memory (STM) does so via the sensory storage area. The brain has a filter which only allows stimuli that is of immediate interest to pass on to the STM, also known as the working memory.
There is much debate about the capacity and duration of the short term memory. The most accepted theory comes from George A. Miller, a cognitive psychologist who suggested that humans can remember approximately seven chunks of information. A chunk is defined as a meaningful unit of information, such as a word or name rather than just a letter or number. Modern theorists suggest that one can increase the capacity of the short term memory by chunking, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one can optimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on to long term storage.
When making a conscious effort to memorize something, such as information for an exam, many people engage in “rote rehearsal”. By repeating something over and over again, we are able to keep a memory alive. Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeeds if there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency to disappear.When a pen and paper are not handy, you might attempt to remember a phone number by repeating it aloud. If the doorbell rings or the dog barks to come in before you get the opportunity to make your phone call, you will forget the number instantly. Therefore, rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to pass information from the short term to long term memory. A better way is to practice “elaborate rehearsal”. This involves assigning semantic meaning to a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long term memories.
Encoding information semantically also makes it more retrievable. Retrieving information can be done by recognition or recall. Humans can recall memories that are stored in the long term memory and used often. However, if a memory seems to be forgotten, it may eventually be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such as pictures), the more likely a memory can be retrieved. This is why multiple choice tests are often used for subjects that require a lot of memorization.
57. According to the passage, how do memories get transferred to the STM?
A) They revert from the long term memory.
B) They are filtered from the sensory storage area.
C) They get chunked when they enter the brain.
D) They enter via the nervous system.
58. How do theorists believe a person can remember more information in a short time?
A) By organizing it.
B) By repeating it.
C) By giving it a name.
D) By writing it down on paper.
59. Why does the author mention a dog’s bark?
A) To exemplify poor memory.
B) To analyze a type of interruption.
C) To compare human memory with dogs’ memory.
D) To illustrate the lack of efficiency of rote rehearsal.
60. Which of the following is true about retrieving information?
A) Elaborate rehearsal contributes to information retrieval.
B) The most efficient way of retrieving information is to assign semantic meaning to the information.
C) It’s impossible to retrieve forgotten information without picture prompts.
D) Encoding information is more efficient than chunking it.
61. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
A) One’s memory capacity can be enhanced by rote rehearsal.
B) Putting information to writing is suggested to improve memory.
C) Providing sufficient prompts helps information retrieval.
D) Multiple choice exams are the most difficult.
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Before, whenever we had wealth, we started discussing poverty. Why not now? Why is the current politics of wealth and poverty seemingly about wealth alone? Eight years ago, when Bill Clinton first ran for president, the Dow Jones average was under 3,500, yearly federal budget deficits were projected at hundreds of billions of dollars forever and beyond, and no one talked about the “permanent boom” or the “new economy.” Yet in that more straitened time, Clinton made much of the importance of “not leaving a single person behind.” It is possible that similar “compassionate” rhetoric might yet play a role in the general election.
But it is striking how much less talk there is about the poor than there was eight years ago, when the country was economically uncertain, or in previous eras, when the country felt flush. Even last summer, when Clinton spent several days on a remarkable tour through impoverished areas from Indian reservations in South Dakota to ghetto neighborhoods in East St. Louis, the administration decided to refer to the effort not as a poverty tour but as a “new markets initiative.”
What is happening is partly a logical, policy-driven reaction. Poverty really is lower than it has been in decades, especially for minority groups. The most attractive solution to it—a growing economy—is being applied. The people who have been totally left out of this boom often have medical, mental or other problems for which no one has an immediate solution. “The economy has sucked in anyone who has any preparation, any ability to cope with modern life,” says Franklin D. Raines, the former director of the Office of Management and Budget who is now head of Fannie Mae. When he and other people who specialize in the issue talk about solutions, they talk analytically and longterm: education, development of work skills, shifts in the labor market, adjustments in welfare reform.
But I think there is another force that has made this a rich era with barely visible poor people. It is the unusual social and imaginative separation between prosperous America and those still left out. It’s simple invisibility, because of increasing geographic, occupational, and social barriers that block one group from the other’s view.
62. In the 1st paragraph, the word “straitened” means _____________.
63. The author states that one important reason that we do not talk much about poverty is that
A) no one knows what to do about it
B) poverty really is lower than in the past
C) no one has been left out of the current boom
D) the president is not concerned about the poor
64. After reading this passage, we can conclude that ____________.
A) the relationship between the rich and the poor has changed
B) the good economy will soon end
C) poverty will be obliterated as a result of increased wealth
D) all people benefit from good economic conditions
65. What is the author’s purpose in writing this passage?
A) To entertain.
B) To tell a story.
C) To describe.
D) To persuade.
66. The main idea of the passage is that ______________.
A) The country is enjoying economic growth
B) The poor are benefiting from today’s good economy
C) In the past we were more aware of the poor than we are today
D) In the past there were many more poor people than there are today
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
The human race is using up the Earth’s resources faster than ever before, according to a new report by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). “Environmental devastation is not simply a waste of 67 , it is a threat to the complex structures that 68 human development,” says the report. 69 attention must be paid to find a(n) 70 between human and environmental needs, it says.
The report, State of the World Population 2001, says that water supplies and agricultural lands are coming 71 such increasing pressure that, if left 72 , our planet will not be able to support us in future years. Over the past 70 years, the world’s population has tripled to 6.1 billion people, 73 water-use increasing sixfold, says the report. Already 508 million people live in 31 countries that lack water. And the problem is likely to 74 as the global population is 75 to rise to eight billion by 2025.
By 2050, predicts the report, 4.2 billion people will be living in countries that cannot meet people’s daily 76 needs. Unclean water and poor sanitation already kills over 12 million people every year. Food production is also 77 by environmental problems, says the report.
“To 78 the futur e popul a t ion and improve their diets, the world will have to double food production,” it says. “But since available cropland is 79 , most production will have to come from higher 80 rather than new 81 .”
According to the report, global poverty cannot be 82 with out 83 the environmental damage caused by these increases in consumption and population 84 .To reduce the burden on the planet, the report suggests, all efforts should be 85 to improve education and healthcare, as this would 86 reduce population growth.
67. A) facilities C) reserves
B) resources D) sources
68. A) support C) retain
B) found D) advocate
69. A) Intensive C) Emergent
B) Intense D Urgent.
70. A) equation C) balance
B) tradeoff D) core
71. A) under C) below
B) into D) beyond
72. A) unnoticed C) alone
B) behind D) unchecked
73. A) in C) by
B) with D) above
74. A) enhance C) decline
B) heighten D) worsen
75. A) projected C) intended
B) speculated D) assessed
76. A) luxurious C) intrinsic
B) utmost D) basic
77. A) affected C) reflected
B) effected D) generated
78. A) contain C) furnish
B) lodge D) accommodate
79. A) shrinking C) contracting
B) diminishing D) waning
80. A) outputs C) yields
B) turnovers D) harvests
81. A) cultivation C) farming
B) production D) plowing
82. A) lightened C) elevated
B) released D) eased
83. A) reversing C) upsetting
B) inverting D) disregarding
84. A) standards C) norms
B) indexes D) levels
85. A) tried C) done
B) taken D) made
86. A) in effect C) in part
B) in turn D) by turns
Part VI Translation （5 minutes）
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in the brackets.
Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
87. When asked about the key to her success, Rowling told the journalist that her parents had played
an important role by _________________________( 使她在很小的年纪就接触文学).
88. While many people know that money is not the important thing in the world, I suspect
89. ________________________（只是最近我才意识到）that language is
closely related to culture.
89. It’s time that _________（对市中心的交通问题采取措施).
91. She kept her parents in suspense for several days ________________（才告诉父母她得到了奖学金).