Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of To Get
along with Your Roommates. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below.
To Get along with Your Roommate
注意：此部分试题在答题卡 1 上。
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer sheet 1.
For questions 17, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 810,
complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Early Childhood Education
‘Education To Be More’ was published last August. It was the report of the New Zealand
Government’s Early Childhood Care and Education Working Group. The report argued for enhanced equity (公平) of access and better funding for childcare and early childhood education institutions. Unquestionably, that’s a real need; but since parents don’t normally send children to preschools until the age of three, are we missing out on the most important years of all?
A 13year study of early childhood development at Harvard University has shown that, by the age of three, most children have the potential to understand about 1000 words – most of the language they will use in ordinary conversation for the rest of their lives.
Furthermore, research has shown that while every child is born with a natural curiosity, it can be suppressed dramatically during the second and third years of life. Researchers claim that the human personality is formed during the first two years of life, and during the first three years children learn the basic skills they will use in all their later learning both at home and at school.
Once over the age of three, children continue to expand on existing knowledge of the world. It is generally acknowledged that young people from poorer socioeconomic backgrounds tend to do less well in our education system. That’s observed not just in New Zealand, but also in
Australia, Britain and America. In an attempt to overcome that educational underachievement,anationwide program called ‘Headstart’ was launched in the United States in 1965. A lot of money was poured into it. It took children into preschool institutions at the age of three and was supposed to help the children of poorer families succeed in school.
Despite substantial funding, results have been disappointing. It is thought that there are two explanations for this. First, the program began too late. Many children who entered it at the age of
three were already behind their peers in language and measurable intelligence. Second, the parents were not involved. At the end of each day, ‘Headstart’ children returned to the same disadvantaged home environment.
As a result of the growing research evidence of the importance of the first three years of a child’s life and the disappointing results from ‘Headstart’, a pilot program was launched in
Missouri in the US that focused on parents as the child’s first teachers. The ‘Missouri’ program was predicated on research showing that working with the family, rather than bypassing the parents, is the most effective way of helping children get off to the best possible start in life. The fouryear pilot study included 380 families who were about to have their first child and who represented a crosssection of socioeconomic status, age and family configurations (结构). They included singleparent and twoparent families, families in which both parents worked, and families with either the mother or father at home. The program involved trained parent educators visiting the parents’ home and working with the parent, or parents, and the child. Information on child development, and guidance on things to look for and expect as the child grows were provided, plus guidance in fostering the child’s intellectual, language, social and motorskill development. Periodic checkups of the child’s educational and sensory development (hearing and vision) were made to detect possible handicaps that interfere with growth and development. Medical problems were referred to professionals.
made personal visits to homes and monthly group meetings were held with other new parents to share experience and discuss topics of interest. Parent resource centers, located in school buildings, offered learning materials for families and facilities for child.
At the age of three, the children who had been involved in the ‘Missouri’ program were evaluated alongside a crosssection of children selected from the same range of socioeconomic backgrounds and family situations, and also a random sample of children that age. The results were phenomenal. By the age of three, the children in the program were significantly more advanced in language development than their peers, had made greater strides in problem solving and other intellectual skills, and were further along in social development. In fact, the average child on the program was performing at the level of the top 15 to 20 per cent of their peers in such things as auditory comprehension, verbal ability and language ability.
Most important of all, the traditional measures of ‘risk’, such as parents’ age and education, or whether they were a single parent, bore little or no relationship to the measures of achievement
and language development. Children in the program performed equally well regardless of socioeconomic disadvantages. Child abuse was virtually eliminated. The one factor that was found to affect the child’s development was family stress leading to a poor quality of parentchild interaction. That interaction was not necessarily bad in poorer families.
These research findings are exciting. There is growing evidence in New Zealand that children from poorer socioeconomic backgrounds are arriving at school less well developed and that our
school system tends to perpetuate (使永存) that disadvantage. The initiative outlined above could break that cycle of disadvantage. The concept of working with parents in their homes, or at their place of work, contrasts quite markedly with the report of the Early Childhood Care and Education
Working Group. Their focus is on getting children and mothers access to childcare and institutionalized early childhood education. Education from the age of three to five is undoubtedly vital, but without a similar focus on parent education and on the vital importance of the first three years, some evidence indicates that it will not be enough to overcome educational inequity.
1. The skills learned by children at age of three will be used in all their later learning in life.
2. The ‘Headstart’ program finally succeeded in its aim.
3. The ‘Missour’ program supplied many forms of support and training to parents.
4. Most ‘Missouri’ program threeyearolds scored highly in areas such as listening, speaking, reasoning and interacting with others.
5. ‘Missouri’ program children of young, uneducated, single parents scored less highly on the tests.
6. The richer families in the ‘Missouri’ program had higher stress levels.
7. Educational inequity cannot be overcome for children from different family backgrounds.
8. The aim of ‘Headstart’ program is to help children from poor families overcome ____________________.
9. The most effective way of helping children get off to the best possible start in life is ____________________.
10. The concept of working with parents in their homes contrasts quite markedly with the report of the Early Childhood Core and ____________________.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each section there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A) To order some medicine for Aunt Margaret.
B) To get some exercise.
C) To buy some items.
D) To see their aunt.
12. A) Anyone can do it.
B) No one can do it.
C) Alex can probably do it.
D) Alex probably shouldn’t do it.
13. A) Tea is better than coffee.
B) The man should switch to tea.
C) There are two reasons not to drink coffee.
D) The man shouldn’t drink either.
14. A) At a hairdresser’s. B) At a tailor’s.
C) At a butcher’s. D) At a photographer’s.
15. A) Angry. B) Tired. C) Hungry. D) Disappointed.
16. A) She would like some soup.
B) She’s inviting the man to lunch.
C) She wants to know if the man likes chicken.
D) She ate lunch earlier.
17. A) Very few people come to it.
B) A good name hasn’t been found for it.
C) People don’t like climbing the stairs to get there.
D) She has decided to phone the ticket office.
18. A) It was designed by modern artists.
B) It will color black and white prints.
C) Its merchandise must be carefully sorted through.
D) Its best selection is of modern art prints.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) A class presentation they’re preparing.
B) A television program the man is watching.
C) Visiting a close fiend of theirs.
D) Studying for a test.
20. A) He’s taking a break from studying.
B) He has already finished studying.
C) He was assigned to watch a program by his professor.
D) He’s finding out some information for a friend.
21. A) He didn’t know that she was enrolled in a mathematic course.
B) He thought she preferred to study alone.
C) He thought she had made arrangements to study with
D) He had told her that he had done poorly on a recent test.
22. A) He and Elizabeth argued recently.
B) He heard Elizabeth did poorly on the last test.
C) He doesn’t want to bother Elizabeth so late in the evening.
D) He’d rather study in his own dormitory.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. A) They look darker.
B) They look smaller.
C) They look clearer.
D) They look cloudier.
24. A) It stops working.
B) It becomes sharper.
C) It confuses odors.
D) It defects fewer odors.
25. A) They both have leg injuries.
B) They’re too tired to walk any farther.
C) They have no umbrella with them.
D) They’ve seen no signs to give them directions.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you
hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and
D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A) To do as much as you can.
B) To do only what is necessary.
C) To act carefully and quickly.
D) To do what is necessary as carefully and quickly as possible.
27. A) Leave him lying where he is.
B) Do as much as you can to save him.
C) Put his arms and legs in place.
D) Roll him up in a blanket.
28. A) Stop the flow of blood if the person is bleeding.
B) Perform the operation whenever necessary.
C) Do artificial respiration if the person has stopped breathing.
D) Do the best you can until a doctor arrives.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) A few inches above the knee.
B) A little below the knee.
C) Down to the ankle.
30. A) Boots. B) Sneakers. C) Slippers. D) Leather shoes.
31. A) Fashions change overtime.
B) Men are thriftier than women.
C) Skirts and shoes are more important than other clothing.
D) Some clothing may suit all occasions.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) Energy conservation.
B) Transportation of the future.
C) Strip cities.
D) Advantages of air transportation over railroads.
33. A) A lack of available flights.
B) Long delays at the airport.
C) Tiredness on long flights.
D) Long trips to and from airports.
34. A) It uses nuclear energy.
B) It rests on a cushion of pressurized air.
C) It flies over magnetically activated tracks.
D) It uses a device similar with engine
35. A) They are subject to fires.
B) They become less fuelefficient.
C) They produce too much noise.
D) They have trouble staying on the tracks.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Doctors are starting to believe that laughter not only improves your state of mind, but actually affects your entire physical wellbeing.
Britain’s first (36) ________ therapist, Robert
Holden says: “Instinctively we know that laughing help us feel healthy and alive. Each time we
laugh we feel better and more (37) __________.”
A French newspaper found that in 1930 the French laughed on average for nineteen minutes
per day. By 1980 this had fallen to six minutes. Eight per cent of the people (38) _________ said
that they would like to laugh more. Other (39) _________ suggests that children laugh on average
about 400 times a day, but by the time they reach (40) __________ this had been (41) _________
to about fifteen times. Somewhere in the process of growing up we lose an (42) _______ 385 laughs a day.
William Fry, a psychiatrist from California studied the (43) _________of laughter on the
body. He got patients to watch funny films, and monitored their blood pressure, heart rate and
muscle tone. He found that laughter has a similar effect to physical exercise. (44) _____________________. It also
makes our facial and stomach muscles work. Fry thinks laughter is a type of jogging on the spot.
Laughter can even provide a kind of pain relief. Fry had proved that laughter produces
in the body that relieve pain. Researchers divided forty university students
into four groups. The first group listened to a funny cassette for twenty minutes. The other three
groups (45) __________________________. Researchers found that if they
produce pain in the students, (46) ______________________. Some doctors are convinced that
humor should be a part of every medical consultation, as there is evidence to suggest that laughter
stimulates the immune system.
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are requested to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
For many environmentalists, the world seems to be getting worse. They have developed a hitlist of our main fears: natural resources are 47 out; the population is ever growing, leaving less and less to eat; species are becoming 48 in vast numbers, and the planet’s air and water are becoming ever more polluted.
But a quick look at the facts shows a different picture. First, energy and other natural resources have become more 49 not less so, since the book ‘The Limits to Growth’ was published in 1972 by a group of scientists. Second, more food is now produced per 50 of the world’s population than at any time in history. Fewer people are 51 . Third, although species are indeed becoming extinct, only about 0.7% of them are expected to disappear in the next 50 years, not 25~50%, as has so often been 52 . And finally, most forms of environmental pollution either appear to have been 53 , or are transient – associated with the early stages of industrialization and therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but by 54 it. One form of pollution – the release of greenhouse gases that causes global warming – does appear to be a phenomenon that is going to extend well into our future, but its total impact is unlikely to 55 a devastating (令人心神不安的) problem. A bigger problem may well turn out to be an inappropriate response to it.
Yet opinion polls suggest that many people nurture the belief that environmental standards are declining and some factors seem to cause this disjunction between 56 and reality.
A) pose I) starving
B) exaggerated J) head
C) accelerating K) running
D) extinct L) predicted
E) exist M) abundant
F) perception N) conception
G) wealthy O) reducing
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Most conceptions of the process of motivation begin with the assumption that behavior is, at least in part, directed towards the attainment of goals or towards the satisfaction of needs or motives. Accordingly, it is appropriate to begin our consideration of motivation in the work place by examining the motives for working. Simon points out that an organization should be able to secure the participation of a person by offering him inducements(引诱)which contribute in some way to at least one of his goals. The kinds of inducements offered by an organization are varied, and if they are effective in maintaining participation they must necessarily be based on the needs of the individuals.
Maslow examines in detail what these needs are. He points out not only that there are many needs ranging from basic physiological drives such as hunger to a more abstract desire for selfrealization, but also that they are arranged in a hierarchy( 等级制度)w hereby the lowerorder needs must to a large degree be satisfied before the higherorder ones come into play.
One of the most obvious ways in which work organizations attract and retain members is through the realization that economic factors are not the only inducement for working as indicated by Morse and Weiss. In line with the social respect and selfrealization needs discussed by Maslow, factors such as associations with others, selfrespect gained through the work, and a high interest value of the work can serve effectively to induce people to work.
57. According to Maslow, a work organization is able to motivate people to work by _______.
A) satisfying their physiological needs
B) satisfying their selfrealization needs
C) satisfying hierarchy of their higherorder need
D) first satisfying their lowerorder needs
needs concern a person’s _______.
A) essential physical needs C) selfrealization
D) working relationships with others
59. Which of the following is NOT a higher need that attracts people to work?
A) Association with others. C) Interest value of the work.
B) Possibility of earning a good salary. D) Cultivation of selfrespect.
60. Which of the following statements may be supported by Morse and Weiss?
A) Physiological needs are the most basic.
B) There is a hierarchy of needs that must be met.
C) Economic factors are the greatest inducement.
D) Personal esteem and the gaining of power is the most important factor.
61. Simon points out that ________.
A) the needs of individuals range from hunger to selfrealization
B) economic factors are not the only inducement for working
C) effective inducements must be based on what individuals want
D) inducements must not be too varied
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage. The justification for a university is that it preserves the connection between knowledge and the zest of life, by uniting the young and the old in the imaginative consideration of learning. The university imparts information, but it imparts it imaginatively. At least, this is the function which it should perform for society. A university which fails in this respect has no reason for existence.
This atmosphere of excitement, arising from imaginative consideration, transforms knowledge. A fact is no longer a burden on the memory, it is energizing as the poet of our dreams and as the architect of our purposes. Imagination is not to be divorced from the facts: it is a way of illuminating the facts. It works by eliciting the general principles which apply to the facts, as they exist, and then by an intellectual survey of alternative possibilities which are consistent with those principles. It enables men to construct an intellectual vision of a new world, and it preserves the zest of life by the suggestion of satisfying purposes.
Youth is imaginative, and if the imagination be strengthened by discipline, this energy of imagination can in great measure be preserved through life. The tragedy of the world is that those who are imaginative have but slight experience, and those who are experienced have feeble imagination. Fools act on imagination without knowledge; pedants(学究)act on knowledge without imagination. The task of university is to weld together imagination and experience.
62. The main theme of the passage is ____.
A) the access to knowledge in university
B) the function of universities
C) the role of imagination in our lives
D) the relationship between imagination and experience
63. According to the passage, the justification for a university is that ____.
A) it presents facts and experience to young and old
B) it imparts knowledge to imaginative people
C) it combines imagination with knowledge and experience
D) it enables men to construct an intellectual vision of the world
64. The word “eliciting” in paragraph 2 probably means ____.
A) applying C) drawing forth
B) challenging D) preserving
65. Which of the following is NOT discussed as one of the things imagination can do?
A) It makes our life exciting and worthwhile.
B) It helps us to understand the world.
C) It helps us to formulate Laws about the facts.
D) It provides inspiration to the artists.
66. According to the author, the tragedy of the world is that ____.
A) our energy of imagination cannot be preserved
B) our imagination is seldom disciplined
C) we grow old inevitably
D) too many people are either fools or pedants
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices
marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best
fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line
through the centre.
In a telephone survey of more than 2,000 adults, 21% said they believed the sun revolved (旋
转) around the earth. An ___67___ 7% did not know which revolved around ___68___ I have no
doubt that ___69___ all of these people were ___70___ in school that the earth revolves around
the sun; ___71___ may even have written it ___72___ a test. But they never ___73___ their
incorrect mental models of planetary (行星的) ___74___ because their everyday observations
didn’t support ___75___ their teachers told them: People see the sun “moving” ___76___ the sky
as morning turns to night, and the earth seems stationary (静止的) ___77__ that is happening.
Students can learn the right answers ___78___ heart in class, and yet never combined them
___79__ their working models of the world. The objectively correct answer the professor accepts
and the ___80___ personal understanding of the world can ___81___ side by side, each unaffected by the other.
Outside of class, the student continues to sue the ___82___ model because it has always
worked well ___83___ that circumstance. Unless professors address ___84___ errors in students’
personal models of the world, students are not ___85___ to replace them with the ___86___ one.
67. A) excessive B) extra C) additional D) added
68. A) what B) which C) that D) other
69. A) virtually B) remarkably C) ideally D) preferably
70. A) learned B) suggested C) taught D) advised
71. A) those B) these C) who D) they
72. A) on B) with C) under D) for
73. A) formed B) altered C) believed D) thought
74. A) operation B) position C) motion D) location
75. A) how B) which C) that D) what
76. A) around B) across C) on D) above
77. A) since B) so C) while D) for
78. A) to B) by C) in D) with
79. A) with B) into C) to D) along
80. A) adult’s B) teacher’s C) scientist’s D) student’s
81. A) exist B) occur C) survive D) maintain
82. A) private B) individual C) personal D) own
83. A) in B) with C) on D) for
84. A) general B) natural C) similar D) specific
85. A) obliged B) likely C) probable D) partial
86. A) perfect B) better C) reasonable D) correct
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
87. _____________________________( 只要每个中国人) works to his capacity in the construction of China’s economy, the rise of Chinese nation is round the corner.
88. With a special train ticket you can ___________________________________(任何国家旅行)in Europe for just over 100 pounds.
89. In spite of the fact that hotel prices have risen sharply, the number of tourists
90. The hotel manager, ________________________(我向他投诉过) about the service， refunded part of our bill.
91. The Tower of London, _____________________________________________ (在里面曾有
许多人丧命) is now a tourist attraction.
Part I Writing
To Get along with Your Roommate
Roommate conflicts among college students are often heard on campus over recent years.
Study shows that these conflicts make the excitement of campus life grow grey and have bad effects on both their living and learning.
Roommate conflicts often spring from daily trivial things such as time when to turn off the light and space where to store luggage or personal belongs. When personalities don’t mix, the specifics can tear roommates apart and sometimes even lead to serious conflicts. Besides, the fact that roommates hold different attitudes towards certain issue is another factor causing these conflicts.
Roommate conflicts are harmful and need to be settled. Though many people think that school discipline can soften the conflicts, I believe learning to be tolerant with each other can play a more constructive role because it teaches students flexibility and the art of compromise. Meanwhile, communication contributes to the solution to this problem since many of these conflicts stem from misunderstanding.
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
1. Y 2. N 3. Y 4. Y 5. N 6. NG 7. N
8. the educational underachievement
9. working with the family
10. Education Working Group
Part III Listening Comprehension
11~15 CCDAB 16~20 ABDDA 21~25 DCCBC 26~30 DABCA 31~35 ABDCD
36. laughter 37. content 38. questioned 39. research 40. adulthood
41. reduced 42. astonishing 43. effects
44. It speeds up the heart rate, increases blood pressure and quickens breathing
45. listened to either an informative tape, or a cassette intended to relax them or no tape at all
46. those who had listened to the humorous tape could tolerate the discomfort much longer
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
47. K 48. D 49. M 50. J 51. I 52. L 53. B 54. C 55. A 56. F
57~61 DACCC 62~66 BCCDD
Part V Cloze
67~71 CBACD 72~76 ABCDB 77~81 CBADA 82~86 CADBD
Part VI Translation
87. As long as every Chinese
88. travel wherever /anywhere /everywhere you like
89. is as great as ever
90. to whom I complained
91. where/in which so many people lost their lives