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洛基英语
精英培训
四级真题详解
·2004年1月英语四级真题详解
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中国四六级考试网 >> 模拟试题
09年12月英语四级考试模拟题及答案(1)
http://www.china-cet.com        来源:考试吧        发布时间:2009-11-26 16:03:18
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    Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled The Popularity of Getting Certificates on Campus. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.

  1.大学校园内各种证书的报考十分火热

  2.大学生考证的利弊

  3.考证面前,我的选择

  The Popularity of Getting Certificates on Campus

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)

  Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.

  For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

  Main Energies for the Body

  A balanced diet is one that provides an adequate intake of energy and nutrients for maintenance of the body and therefore good health. A diet can easily be adequate for normal bodily functioning, yet may not be a balanced diet.

  Carbohydrates

  Carbohydrates are a rapid source of energy, they are the body's fuel. The bulk of a balanced diet should be made from carbohydrates. If eaten in an excess of the dietary requirements carbohydrates are easily stored as fats in the cells, although carbohydrate is the first source of energy in the body. An average adult requires about 12,000kJ of energy a day, most of this is supplied by the respiration of carbohydrates in the cells.

  Carbohydrates are used principally as a respiratory substrates, i.e. to be oxidized to release energy for active transport, macromolecule synthesis, cell division and muscle contraction. Carbohydrates are digested in the duodenum and ileum and absorbed as glucose into cells. Sources of carbohydrates such as starch are rice, potatoes, wheat and other cereals. Sugars are also carbohydrates, sources of sugars are refined sugar - sucrose, which is a food sweetener and preservative and fruit sugars - fructose. If the diet lacks carbohydrate stores of fat are mobilized and used as an energy source.

  Proteins

  Protein is not a direct source of energy in the body, it is used primarily for growth and repair of body tissues while remaining an energy source as a last resort. Proteins fulfill a wide variety of roles in the body. They are broken down in the stomach and intestines to amino acids which are then absorbed. The body can only form 8 amino acids to build proteins from, the diet must provide Essential Amino Acids (EAAs) which are synthesized into proteins which can be structural, i.e. collagen in bone, keratin in hair, myosin and actin in muscle; metabolic enzymes, hemoglobin, protective antibodies and communicative hormones.

  Sources of protein include meat, fish, eggs and pulses. The diet needs to provide 8 EAAs as the body is unable to synthesis proteins without these molecules. 2 other amino acids are synthesized from EAAs so if the diet lacks the original EAAs these other two will not be present either. Phenylalanine is converted to tyrosine and methionine is converted to cysteine. Cells draw upon a pool of amino acids for protein synthesis which either come from dietary protein digested and absorbed in the gut and the breakdown of body protein such as muscle. However, unlike fats and carbohydrates there is no store of amino acids for cells to draw on, any amino acid in excess of immediate bodily requirements is broken down into urea and excreted. It is therefore important to maintain the dietary intake of protein everyday. If the body lacks protein, muscle wasting occurs as muscle is broken down.

  If protein is lacked in a diet a person develops kwashiorkor which is caused when high levels of carbohydrates are eaten to overcome the lack of protein in the diet. One symptom of kwashiorkor is the abnormal collection of fluid around the abdomen due to the lack of protein in the blood. The body cannot retain water by osmosis and fluid accumulates in tissues causing them to become waterlogged.

Vitamin Categories

  Vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body so must be supplied by diet. Vitamins have no common structure or function but are essential in small amounts for the body to be able to utilize other dietary components efficiently.

  Vitamins fall into two categories, fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E and K which are ingested with fatty foods and water soluble vitamins such as the B group vitamins and vitamin C. Vitamins are known as micronutrients because only small quantities are required for a healthy diet, in fact fat soluble vitamins can be toxic in high concentrations, for example the body stores vitamin A, or retinol, in the liver as it is toxic if kept in high concentrations in the blood stream, a dose of more than 3300mg of vitamin A can be considered toxic. Water soluble vitamins such as vitamin C and B groups vitamins can be excreted in the urine if in excess in the diet.

  Vitamins A

  Vitamin A is essential to the proper functioning of the retina in the eye and the epithelial tissues. A lack of vitamin A results in dry, rough skin, inflammation of the eyes, a drying or scarring of the cornea - xerophthalmia, which occurs when the secretion of lubricating tears is stopped, the eyelids become swollen and sticky with pus. Mucous surfaces of the eye may become eroded allowing infection to set in, leading to ulceration and destruction of the cornea. Night blindness - an inability to see in dim light can also occur. Rod cells in the retina of the eye detect light of low intensity, they convert vitamin A into a pigment, rhodopsin, which is bleached when light enters the eye. Rod cells resynthesis rhodopsin, but if there is a deficiency of the vitamin, rod cells can no longer function and the result is night blindness. Epithelial cells use retinol to make retinoic acid, an intracellular messenger used in cell differentiation and growth. Without retinoic acid epithelial cells are not maintained properly and the body becomes susceptible to infections, particularly measles and infections of the respiratory system and gut.

  Xenophthalmia is common among children who's diets consist of mainly cereals with little meat or fresh vegetables, this is common in Indonesia, Bangladesh, India and the Philippines.

  Vitamins D

  Vitamin D, or calciferol, is another fat soluble steroid vitamin which functions to stimulate calcium uptake from the gut and its deposition in bone. vitamin D acts as a hormone when converted by enzymes in the gut and liver into an active form of "active vitamin D", which stimulates epithelial cells in the intestine to absorb calcium. vitamin D is therefore essential in growing children's diets to enable the growth of strong bones. Without adequate amounts of vitamin D children can develop rickets, which is the deformation of the legs caused when they lack calcium to strengthen the bones. In adults a lack of vitamin D in the diet can lead to osteomalacia, a progressive softening of the bones which can make them highly susceptible to fracture.

  Vitamin D is made by the body when exposed to sunlight and is stored in the muscles, however, if the skin is rarely exposed to the sunlight or is dark little vitamin D is produced. Foods such as eggs and oily fish are all rich in vitamin D.

  Vitamins K

  Vitamin K, phylloquinone, is found in dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale. It is a fat soluble vitamin which is involved in the clotting process of blood. In the intestines bacteria synthesize a number of important clotting factors which need vitamin K. Without vitamin K cuts can fail to heal and internal bleeding can occur.

  Vitamins C

  Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin, known chemically as ascorbic acid. It is found in citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons, and also in potatoes and tomatoes. The main function of vitamin C is the formation of connective tissues such as collagen. It is also known to be an antioxidant which helps to remove toxins and aids the immune system. A lack of vitamin C leads to Scurvy, a condition experienced by sailors on long journeys when they did not have fruit in their diets. Scurvy causes painful, bleeding gums. As vitamin C is water soluble, it is not toxic in high doses as it can be excreted in the urine, very high doses can however cause diarrhea.

Vitamins B

  B group vitamins have a wide range of roles acting as co-enzymes in metabolic pathways. They are found in most plant and animal tissues involved in metabolism, therefore foods such as liver, yeast and dairy products are all rich in B group vitamins. Deficiency of B group vitamins include dermatitis, fatigue and malformation of red blood cells.

  1. An adult needs about 12,000kJ of energy a day from ________.

  A. the cell B. the respiring process of carbohydrates

  C. fats in the cell D. a balanced diet

  2. Carbohydrates are ultimately absorbed into cells in the process of _______.

  A. digestion B. respiration

  C. oxidization D. mobilization

  3. The Essential Amino Acids which build part of proteins can be obtained from______.

  A. stomach B. body tissues

  C. the body D. the diet

  4. The ultimate cause of kwashiorkor is lack of ________.

  A. protein B. carbohydrates

  C. vitamins D. diet

  5. Vitamins are called “micronutrients” in that _________.

  A. excessive fat soluble vitamins can be excreted in the urine B. the body only requires small amount of vitamins

  C. a dose of 3300mg of vitamins can be considered toxic D. the high concentrations of water soluble vitamins are toxic

  6. Night blindness is a disease normally caused by lack of __________.

  A. fat soluble vitamins B. water soluble vitamins

  C. vitamin A D. innate disability

  7. The main function of vitamin D is to prevent adults from ________.

  A. the growth of strong bones B. fracture

  C. a progressive softening of the bones D. calcium uptake from the gut

  8. Although the human body produces vitamin D normally, it fails to do so if there is not enough ______________.

  9. The reason why vitamin C is seen as an antioxidant is that it drives __________ out of the body.

  10. If you are in lack of B group vitamins, you should turn to _______________.

Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C) and D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  11. A) She is going to Finland. B) She has some visitors.

  C) She will visit Finland next week. D) She has just visited him this week.

  12. A) To cancel his trip. B) To go to bed early.

  C) To catch a later flight. D) To ask for a wake up call.

  13. A) Saturday afternoon was the man’s busy hours.

  B) The man won’t be able to enjoy a nap.

  C) Mr. Smith is an old friend of the man.

  D) The man wanted to take a long nap after lunch.

  14. A) George wants to change his work. B) George is doing pretty good now.

  C) George doesn’t like his work. D) George is not doing well with his work.

  15. A) The woman is a dentist. B) The woman is a secretary.

  C) The woman is a receptionist. D) The woman is a patient.

  16. A) The woman knows the professor has been busy.

  B) The woman knows the professor has run into trouble.

  C) The woman has trouble getting along with the professor.

  D) The woman regrets having taken up much of the professor’s time.

  17. A) At a restaurant. B) In the fresh ocean air.

  C) On a fishing boat. D) In a store specializing in seashells.

  18. A) They will buy a new house after they buy a car.

  B) They will buy a bigger house.

  C) They won’t buy a new house because they can’t find a bigger one.

  D) They won’t buy a bigger house because they don’t have enough money.

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

19. A) She hasn’t been getting adequate grades.

  B) She hasn’t been attending class every day.

  C) She has been coming to school much too early.

  D) She has been overloading herself with homework.

  20. A) Two. B) Four. C) Six. D) Eight.

  21. A) To stay in class. B) To get another class.

  C) To withdraw from class. D) To miss just one more class.

  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  22. A) How to care for precious metal. B) A standard unit for measuring weight.

  C) The value of precious metals. D) Using the metric system.

  23. A) To check the accuracy of scales.

  B) To calculate the density of other metals.

  C) To observe changes in the atmosphere.

  D) To measure amounts of rain fall.

  24. A) Someone spilled water on it. B) Someone lost it.

  C) It was made of low quality metal. D) The standard for measuring had changed.

  25. A) It is a small amount to pay for so much precious metal.

  B) It is difficult to judge the value of such an object.

  C) It is reasonable for an object with such an important function.

  D) It is too high for such a light weight.

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  Passage One

  Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  26. A) At Harvard. B) At West Point.

  C) At the Carlisle Indian School. D) At the Olympic Games held in Stockholm.

  27. A) They held grand banquets in his honor.

  B) They welcomed him with parades and celebration.

  C) They gave him a title.

  D) They made him a professional athlete.

  28. A) Because someone found out that Thorpe had been using drugs.

  B) Because Thorpe had once been an amateur athlete.

  C) Because Thorpe’s fame began to decline after the Olympic Games.

  D) Because Thorpe had been a professional athlete at one time.

  Passage Two

  Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  29. A) Lord Sandwich. B) Some inventors.

  C) The friends of Lord Sandwich. D) Some scientists.

  30. A) To collect rents and taxes. B) The harsh land agent.

  C) The English landowner. D) To speak.

  31. A) He dismissed the Captain. B) He made the word “boycott” popular.

  C) He removed the poor tenants. D) He increased the rents and taxes.

  Passage Three

  Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  32. A) There were only grandparents and children.

  B) There was one father, one mother, and their children.

  C) There were many relatives.

  D) There were two or more brothers with their wives.

  33. A) The women have more freedom and can share in decisions.

  B) The women do not have to be the heads of the family.

  C) The women’s relatives do not help them.

  D) The women have all the power of the family.

34. A) Husbands have to share with their wives and help them.

  B) Older women often live alone when their husbands die.

  C) Family structure is more patriarchal in the nuclear family.

  D) Women have to help sisters, grandparents with housework and childcare.

  35. A) They want to stay home and do the housework.

  B) They do not have enough money.

  C) They have too much work and not much free time.

  D) They have more freedom than in the past.

  Section C

  Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times, when the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea .When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information .For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  A deadly (36) _________outbreak swept through a small city in Zaire, Africa last spring, killing more than one hundred people. It was a terrible situation. The killer was a rare (37) _________ that caused most victims to (38) _________ to death. As scientists rushed to control the (39) _________, people in the U.S. wonder whether it could attack here. “We are foolish if we think it couldn’t come to our country. We can never be too careful when we face some disease, especially the infectious one.” say doctors. The virus can be highly infectious. If you come in (40)_________with a victim’s blood or other body (41) _________, you can get sick, too. That’s what scientists believe (42) _________in Zaire. The healthcare workers who treated the first (43) _________there soon fell ill, too. (44) __________________________________.International rescue works brought equipment to Zaire soon after the outbreak occurred.(45) .One big mystery is that no one knows where the virus comes from or where it will strike next. Some scientists say that the virus lies inactive in the cells of some kind of plant, insect or other animal. Then it somehow finds a way to infect humans. (46) __________________________________.Once they find the virus, they also hope to find ways to combat it.

  Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2.

  Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.

  Women often complain that dating is like a cattle market, and a paper just published in Biology Letters by Thomas Pollet and Daniel Nettle of Newcastle University, in England, suggests they are right. They have little cause for complaint, however, because the paper also suggests that in this particular market, it is women who are the buyers.

  Mr. Pollet and Dr. Nettle were looking for evidence to support the contention that women choose men of high status and resources, as well as good looks. That may sound common sense, but it was often denied by social scientists until a group of researchers who called themselves evolutionary psychologists started investigating the matter two decades ago. Since then, a series of experiments in laboratories have supported the contention. But as all zoologists know, experiments can only tell you so much. Eventually, you have to look at natural populations.

And that is what Mr. Pollet and Dr. Nettle have done. They have examined data from the 1910 census of the United States of America and discovered that marriage is, indeed, a market. Moreover, as in any market, a scarcity of buyers means the sellers have to have particularly attractive goods on offer if they are to make the exchange.

  The advantage of picking 1910 was that America had not yet settled down, demographically(人口统计学方面) speaking. Though the long-colonized eastern states had a sex ratio of one man to one woman, or thereabouts, in the rest of the country the old adage(格言,谚语)“go west, young man” had resulted in a surplus of males. Mr. Pollet and Dr. Nettle were thus able to see just how picky women are, given the chance.

  Rather than looking at the whole census, the two researchers relied on a sample of one person in 250.They then assigned the men in the sample a socioeconomic status score between zero and 96, on a scale drawn up in 1950.They showed that in states where the sexes were equal in number, 56% of low status men were married by the age of 30, while 60% of high status men were. As the men went west, then, so did their marriage opportunities.

  47. A paper published in Biology Letters agreed with women that .

  48. What is the contention which is often denied by social scientists?

  49. Although the experiments support the contention, all zoologists suggest that .

  50. In the market of marriage, a scarcity of buyers means sellers have to to make the exchange.

  51. What had given two researchers the chance to see how picky women were?

  Section B

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage one

  Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  With the possible exception of equal rights, perhaps the most controversial issue across the United States today is the death penalty. Many argue that it is an effective deterrent (威慑) to murder, while others maintain there is no convincing evidence that the death penalty reduces the number of murders.

  The principal argument advanced by those opposed to the death penalty, basically, is that it is cruel and inhuman punishment, which is the mark of a brutal society, and finally that it is of questionable effectiveness as a deterrent to crime anyway.

  In our opinion, the death penalty is a necessary evil. Throughout recorded history there have always been those extreme individuals in every society who were capable of terribly violent crimes such as murder. But some are more extreme than others.

  For example, it is one thing to take the life of another in a fit of blind rage, but quite another to coldly plot and carry out the murder of one or more people in the style of a butcher. Thus, murder, like all other crimes, is a matter of relative degree. While it could be argued with some conviction that the criminal in the first instance should be merely isolated from society, such should not be the fate of the latter type murderer.

  The value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime may be open to debate. But the overwhelming majority of citizens believe that the death penalty protects them. Their belief is reinforced by evidence which shows that the death penalty deters murder. For example, from 1954 to 1963, when the death penalty was consistently imposed in California, the murder rate remained between three and four murders for each 100,000 population. Since 1964 the death penalty has been imposed only once, and the murder rate has risen to 10.4 murders for each 100,000 population. The sharp climb in the state’s murder rate, which began when executions stopped, is no coincidence. It is convincing evidence that the death penalty does deter many murderers. If the bill reestablishing the death penalty is vetoed, innocent people will be murdered—some whose lives may have been saved if the death penalty were in effect. This is literally a life or death matter. The lives of thousands of innocent people must be protected.

52. The principal purpose of this passage is to .

  A) speak for the majority B) initiate a veto

  C) criticize the government D) argue for the value of the death penalty

  53. The author’s response to those who urge the death penalty for all is likely to be .

  A) negative B) friendly C) supportive D) hostile

  54. According to the Paragraph 4, it can be inferred that .

  A) the death penalty is the most controversial issue in the United States today

  B) the second type of murderers should be sentenced to death

  C) the veto of the bill reestablishing the death penalty is of little importance

  D) the value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime is not to be debated

  55. The passage attempts to establish a relationship between .

  A) the murder rate and the imposition of the death penalty

  B) the effects of execution and the effects of isolation

  C) the importance of equal rights and that of the death penalty

  D) executions and murders

  56. The author’s attitude towards “death penalty” is .

  A) opposing B) supporting C) neutral D) sarcastic

  Passage Two

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  One positive consequence of our current national crisis may be at least a temporary shadow in Hollywood’s culture of violence. Fearful of offending audiences in the wake of the terrorist attack, some moviemakers have postponed the release of film with terrorist themes. Television writers are delaying scripts with warlike and terrorist scenarios (剧本提纲).It is probably good thinking. My local video store tells me nobody is checking out “disaster” movies. Says the manager, “Currently, people want comedy. They want an escape from stories about violence and terrorism.” Similarly, in the music business, there’s a run on patriotic and inspirational tapes and CDs.

  According to The New York Times, the self scrutiny among these czars (特权人物) of mass-entertainment taste is unprecedented in scale, sweeping aside hundreds of millions of dollars in projects that no longer seem appropriate. A reasonable concern is that this might be a short term phenomenon. Once life returns to something more normal, will Hollywood return to its bad old ways? The Times offers a glimmer of hope. The industry’s titans (巨头),it suggests, are struggling with much more difficulties, long range questions of what the public will want once the initial shock from the terrorist attacks wears off. Many in the industry admit they do not know where the boundaries of taste and consumer tolerance now lie.

This is an opportunity for some of us to suggest to Hollywood where that boundary of consumer tolerance is, especially those of us who have not yet convinced Hollywood to cease its descent into ever lower of the dumbness of our young.

  The nonprofit Parents Television Council, which monitors the quality of TV programming, says in its latest report that today’s TV shows are more laced than ever with vulgarities, sexual immorality, crudities, violence, and foul language. The traditional family hour between 8p.m.and 9p.m., when the networks used to offer programs for the entire family, has disappeared. The problem looks like it will get worse.

  That certainly looked to be the case before the Sept.11th assault. One pre attack New York Times story reported that TV producers were crusading (讨伐) for scripts that include every crude word imaginable. The struggles between net-work censors and producers, according to the report, were “growing more intense”. Producers like Aaron Sorkin of “The West Wing” planned to keep pushing hard. He was quoted as saying,“There’s absolutely no reason why we can’t use the language of adulthood in programs that are about adults”.

  My guess is that a lot of adults don’t use the language Mr. Sorkin wants to use, and don’t enjoy having their children hear it. At this moment of crisis in our nation’s history, thought has become more thoughtful, prayerful, and spiritual. It may be the time to tell the entertainment industry that we want not a temporary pause in the flow of tastelessness, but a long term clean-up.

  57. Some filmmakers hesitate to release new films with violent content because .

  A) they want to show themselves to be patriots

  B) they are afraid such films may anger audiences

  C) films with violence in them are no longer popu1ar

  D) films with terrorist themes are reflections on violence.

  58. The “self-scrutiny” in the second paragraph refers to filmmakers attempt to .

  A) produce appropriate films with no violent content for the audiences

  B) prevent themselves from slipping into their old bad ways

  C) understand to what extent their films have contributed to the national crisis

  D) find out where the boundaries of taste and consumer tolerance lie

  59. The author thinks that it is time for the general audience to .

  A) tell filmmakers where the boundaries of their taste lie

  B) point out to Hollywood how bad their films are

  C) accuse the filmmakers of desensitizing their children

  D) ask filmmakers to make films that reflect traditional family life

60. Which of the following statements is TRUE about Aaron Sorkin?

  A) He is strongly against using crude language in films.

  B) He starts the struggles between network censors and producer.

  C) He insists no restraint be set to the language used in films.

  D) He believes that it is time to clean up the entertainment industry.

  61. The author’s purpose in writing this passage is .

  A) to acknowledge the current practice of the entertainment industry

  B) to show his admiration for the current practice of the entertainment industry

  C) to accuse the entertainment industry of their current practice

  D) to show tolerance of the current practice of the entertainment industry

  PartV cloze (15 minutes)

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Public image refers to how a company is viewed by its customers, suppliers, and stockholders, by the financial community, by the communities 62 it operates, and by federal and local governments. Public image is controllable 63 considerable extent, just as the product, price, place, and promotional efforts are.

  A firm’s public image plays a vital role in the 64 of the firm and its products to employees, customers, and to such outsiders 65 stockholders, suppliers, creditors, government officials, as well as 66 special groups. With some things it is impossible to 67 all the diverse publics: for example, a new highly automated plant may meet the approval of creditors and stockholders, 68 it will undoubtedly find 69 from employees who see their jobs 70 .On the other hand, high quality products and service standards should bring almost complete approval, 71 low quality products and 72 claims would be widely looked down upon.

  A firm’s public image, if it is good, should be treasured and protected. It is a valuable 73 that usually is built up over a long and satisfying relationship of a firm with publics. If a firm has learned a quality image, this is not easily 74 or imitated by competitors. Such an image may enable a firm to 75 higher prices, to win the best distributors and dealers, to attract the best employees, to expect the most 76 creditor relationships and lowest borrowing costs. It should also allow the firm’s stock to command higher price-earnings 77 than other firms in the same industry with such a good reputation and public image.

  A number of factors affect the public image of a corporation. 78 include physical 79, contacts of outsiders 80 company employees, product quality and dependability, prices 81 to competitors, customer service, the kind of advertising and the media and programs used, and the use of public relations and publicity.

  62. A) which B) what C) where D) whom

  63. A) in B) within C) on D) to

  64. A) attraction B) attachment C) affection D) generalization

  65. A) and B) with C) as D) for

66. A) converse B) diverse C) reverse D) universe

  67. A) satisfy B) treat C) amuse D) entertain

  68. A) so B) then C) thus D) but

  69. A) support B) identification C) compliment D) resistance

  70. A) ensured B) promoted C) threatened D) unemployed

  71. A) because B) while C) though D) when

  72. A) false B) fake C) artificial D) counterfeit

  73. A) fortune B) asset C) possession D) property

  74. A) countered B) defeated C) repelled D) compelled

  75. A) pay B) get C) order D) charge

  76. A) favorite B) prosperous C) favorable D) prospective

  77. A) rate B) ratio C) ration D) interest

  78. A) These B) They C) That D) It

  79. A) appliances B) equipment C) devices D) facilities

  80. A) on B) with C) in D) along

  81. A) relative B) related C) reliable D) reconcilable

  Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)

  Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in the brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.

  82. As for Williams, (他宁愿死也不愿意做这件事).

  83. Only under special circumstances, (学生才被准许提前毕业).

  84. It has been proved that (我们的肤色取决于遗传).

  85. No other reproduction in any form is permitted (未经出版社书面同意).

  86. The environmental effect of this new factory (完全可以从周围的田地和河流看出来).

Key to Model Test Four

  Part ⅠWriting

  【范文与点评】

  范文点评

  The Popularity of Getting Certificates on Campus

  ①Currently, getting certificates is quite popular on campus. The advertisements for training schools occupy a large proportion of the bulletin board, and booksellers fill their shelves with many reference books. And eager students spare their money and time for these courses and books.

  ②There are several advantages in this matter. The biggest one is that with more certificates, students are accessible to more and better job opportunities. Besides, they can make more contacts with the outside world in the course of getting certificates.③However, every coin has two sides. The pursuit of certificates is no exception. Some students believe that ④the more certificates, the better.⑤One can hardly make progress this way, but can become bookish easily. Some of them even neglect their routine learning in the process of getting certificates.

  From my viewpoint, certificates certify students’ previous efforts. ⑥But whether these pieces of paper can benefit students or not, depends on what they have really gained. Therefore, before dazzling choices, we must have a clear attitude and scientific strategy, and then certificates are beneficial.

  ①开门见山,说明这种现象的存在,接下来,作者从学校海报栏的广告,书店经营者和学生三方面来进一步说明该现象。

  ②首先论述其优点,并用了一些连接词表明句与句之间的关系。该部分的结构是There are several advantages...The biggest one ...Besides,...。

  ③接下来论述的是其存在的缺点,并用However表示转折。

  ④The +形容词比较级,the +形容词比较级,表示“越…,越…”。学会使用这种结构能让文章增色不少。

  ⑤这个句子用了hardly和easily,形成鲜明的对比,给人印象深刻。

  ⑥本句结构whether...or not 引出本文观点。

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)

  1.B

  2. A

  3. D

  4. A

  5. B

  6. C

  7. C

  8. (sunlight)

  9. (toxins)

  10. (liver, yeast and dairy products)

Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension

  Section A

  11. M: Why don’t you come to our home for dinner some time this week? I have practiced to improve my cooking.

  W: I’d like to, but we have visitors from Finland, perhaps next week.

  Q: Why can’t the woman accept the man’s invitation?

  【解析】B)。四个选项都是关于女士,由此暗示对话当中应该更加重视与女士有关的部分。男士邀请女士去他家吃晚饭(come to our home for dinner),女士说这个星期有芬兰来的客人(visitors from Finland)要招待,可能要下个星期去。因为女士这个星期有客人,所以女士不能接受男士的邀请。故正确答案为B)。

  12. M: I hope I won’t oversleep. I’ve simply got to catch the first flight to New York.

  W: If I were you, I’d request the wake-up call from the hotel reception.

  Q: What does the woman advise the man do?

  【解析】D)。四个选项都是不定式,由此可以推断,本题的内容可能是目的或者动作。 女士说,如果我是你(If I were you),就会要旅店提供叫醒电话(wake-up call)。由此可见,女士建议男士ask for a wake-up call,正确答案为D)。

  13. M: I really had a busy week. I want to get some rest. I always enjoy a nap on Saturday afternoon.

  W: I don’t think you can. Mr. Smith has just parked his car at the door, and he is coming up now.

  Q: What can we learn from this conversation?

  【解析】B)。四个选项都更侧重男士方面,由此暗示对话当中应该更加注意与男士相关的部分。 男士一般都在星期六下午睡个午觉(enjoy a long siesta on Saturday afternoon),但女士说Mr. Smith已经在门口停车,马上就来了(parked his car at the door,he is coming up)。由此可以推断,男士今天不能睡午觉了(won’t be able to enjoy a nap)。故正确答案为B)。

  14. W: How is George doing? Is he doing all right?

  M: He is doing fine now. He planned to change his job for a while but finally decided to keep the present one.

  Q: What can we learn about George in this conversation?

  【解析】B)。四个选项都是有关George和工作的关系,对工作的看法和态度,由此可以推测,本题的内容是关于George和工作的。 George的工作现在做得不错(doing fine)。虽然他想过换工作(planned to change his job),但是他决定保留现有的工作(keep the present one)。故正确答案为B)。

  15. W: Good morning. This is Dr.Allen’s office.

  M: Good morning. I’d like to make an appointment with Dr.Allen to have my teeth cleaned and checked. I’d like to have it done this week if possible.

  Q: Who is the woman?

  【解析】C)。四个选项都是表示身份的词,由此可以推测,本题的内容是关于某人的身份。男士要和牙医预约洗牙和检查(have my teeth cleaned and checked)。由此可见,女士应该是牙医诊所的接待员(receptionist)。故C)为正确答案。

16. M: Professor Kennedy has been very busy this semester. As far as I know he works till midnight every day.

  W: I wouldn’t have troubled him so much if I had known he was so busy.

  Q: What do we learn from the conversation?

  【解析】D)。四个选项都是有关女士和教授之间的关系,由此可以推测,本问题的内容是关于女士和教授的学习和工作的。 男士说教授这个学期很忙(very busy this semester),每天工作到深夜(works till midnight every day)。女士回答说如果早知道是这么忙就不会那样麻烦他了(wouldn’t have troubled him)。由此可以推测女士很后悔占用了教授很长时间(regrets having taken up much of the professor’s time)。故D)为正确答案。

  17. W: May I make a recommendation, sir? The clams with our special sauce are good. They’re fresh from the ocean.

  M: Thank you, but I don’t care for clams.

  Q: Where did this conversation probably take place?

  【解析】A)。四个选项都是表示地点场景的短语,由此可以推断,本题是考查关于某件事情发生的地点。 女士推荐说配特制酱汁的蛤蜊(The clams with our special sauce)很不错,蛤蜊是刚从海里捕上来的(fresh from the ocean)。由此可见本对话发生在餐馆(restaurant),故正确答案为A)。

  18. W: I suppose we should look for a bigger house, but I don’t see how we can afford it right now.

  M: If only we hadn’t spent so much money on our car this year.

  Q: What can we learn from the conversation about the speakers?

  【解析】D)。四个选项都是They可能会做出的选择,由此可以推断,本题是考查关于某些人即将做出的决定。女士觉得应该找一间大一点的房子(look for a bigger house),但目前又承担(afford)不起。男士指出了负担不起的原因,今年花了钱在买汽车上(spent so much money on our car)。由此可见,他们无法换一间大点的房子,因为钱不够(don’t have enough money)。故正确答案为D)。

  Conversation One

  M: Oh,Janna, you’re early! I’m happy you’re here early today because I’d like to discuss your attendance for a moment.

  W: Gee, Dr.Livingston, (19) I’m really sorry about missing class yesterday.

  M: Actually,(19)it’s been several days.(20)Counting today, we’ve only had 6 classes, yet you’ve already missed 4.It’s more than a half. You won’t be able to pass if you’re constantly absent. And I really don’t want to fail anyone.

  W: Sorry, I’ve been extremely busy. I can explain for it. Dr.Livingston. I have a part-time job, so...

  M: Well, I hope you’re already for today’s exam.

  W: Today? I thought it was Monday!

  M: Read the syllabus, Janna; this is precisely what I’m talking about. You should either make an effort to attend, or you should consider withdrawing while it’s still possible.

W: What do you mean?

  M: Today’s the final day you can withdraw and get a full refund.

  W: Maybe I really should. What do you suggest?

  M: I wish you could attend classes regularly; however, if you don’t believe you’re capable of this, then don’t waste your money.

  W: Thanks, Dr.Livingston. I really appreciate your advice. If it’s okay,(21) I suppose I’ll go ahead and drop the class.

  M: It’s entirely up to you, but that might be best if you don’t think things are going to change. Excuse me, the students are coming, and I’ve got to get ready for class. I wish you the very best of luck, Janna.

  W: Thank you, Dr.Livingston. Goodbye.

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  19. What is the woman’s problem?

  B)。【解析】四个选项均为现在完成进行时态,由此可以推断,本题考查的内容可能是某人最近一段时间发生的事情或者持续的状态。女士解释说,抱歉,昨天没有来上课(missing class)。男士说,并不仅仅是昨天,一共上过6次课,已经缺了4次。由此可见女士的问题在于并没有每天都来上课(hasnt been attending class every day)。故正确答案为B)。

  20. How many classes has the woman attended?

  A)。【解析】四个选项均为数字,由此可以推测,本题的考查内容是关于数字的。 从男士的话中可知,一共上过6次课,女士一共缺了4次(missed 4)。相减得到女士上课的次数为2次。故正确答案为A)。

  21. What does the woman decide to do?

  C)。【解析】四个选项均为不定式,由此可以推测,本题考查的内容可能是关于某个决定。女士说如果可行,就决定退课(drop the class)。可见女士打算放弃这门课程,故正确答案为C)。

  Conversation Two

  W: Dr.Thomas? This is Keet Bradley from the daily news.(22)I’d like to ask you some questions about the new official standard weight that you purchased.

  M: I’d be happy to help you. What would you like to know?

  W: First of all, how was the standard weight used?

  M: Well, the people in our department (23)use it to check the scales all over the country. The department of weights and measures, we are a government agency. It’s our responsibility to see that (23)all the scales measure a kilogram accurately so this is the way we use to adjust the scales.

  W: How did you check the scales before?

  M: We have an old standard weight that we used to use.(24)It had to be replaced because it was imprecise. You see it was made of poor quality metal that was too porous. It absorbed too much moisture.

  W: Oh. So when the weather was humid it weighed more and when it was dry it weighed less.

  M: Exactly. And that variation can affect the standards of the whole country. So our department had the new weight made out of higher quality metal.

W: How much did it cost?

  M: About 45 thousand dollars.

  W: 45,000 dollars? For one kilogram weight? That’s more expensive than gold.(25)Is it really worth that much?

  M: (25)I’m sure it is. Industries depend on our government agency to monitor the accuracy of scales so that when they buy and sell their products there is one standard. Think of the drug industry, for example, those companies rely on high accuracy scales to manufacture and package medicine.

  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  22. What is the conversation mainly about?

  B)。【解析】四个选项均为概括性比较强的短语,由此可以推测,本题考查的内容很有可能是对话的主题。由metals,measuring weight,metric等词推测,对话可能与金属或其他某种事物的度量有关系。 女士说她想问男士几个关于新度量衡的问题(new official standard weight),由此揭示对话谈论的主题是关于衡量重量标准的单位。

  23. What was the standard weight used to do?

  A)。【解析】四个选项均为不定式,由此可以推测,本题考查的内容可能是目的或行为。 男士说他们用新标准度量衡来检测全国的天平(scales),他们有责任利用它来确保所有的天平都能够准确地测量1公斤的重量(measure a kilogram accurately)。

  24. Why was it necessary to replace the old standard weight?

  C)。【解析】四个选项均描述某件事物的缺点或问题,由此可以推测,本题考查的内容可能是某件事物的弊端。 男士说旧天平会被取代是因为它不够精准(imprecise),制造材料低劣(made of poor quality metal)。故正确答案为C)。

  25. What does Dr.Thomas probably think about the cost of the new weight?

  C)。【解析】四个选项均为对某件事物价值的描述,由此可以推测,本题考查的内容可能是对某件事物价值的评价。女士问男士新度量衡是否物有所值(worth that much),男士说确定如此。由此可以推断男士认为新度量衡是物有所值的。故正确答案为C)。

  Section B

  Passage One

  Jim Thorpe was an American Indian, born on May 28, 1888 in Oklahoma.(26) When he had his education at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania,his athletic coach considered him a splendid athlete and encouraged him to concentrate on sports. From then on, Thorpe participated in almost every aspect of athletics. Whenever he competed in any event, he easily won first place.

  In the years that followed, he took part in football games against such renowned teams as Harvard and West Point. Thorpe again and again brought his team to victory. In 1912 he was invited to compete in the Olympic Games in Stockholm. There he excelled in several tack events and was presented with first place gold medals. He was the first athlete to capture first place awards in so many track events.

  When Thorpe returned home from the Olympic Games,(27)he was welcomed with parades and celebration. The president called him the highest type of citizen.(28)However, this was all short-lived because it was found out that at one time Thorpe had been a professional athlete. Since an athlete must be an amateur in order to participate in the Olympic Games, Thorpe did not qualify. Therefore, all of his medals were taken away from him.

  In later years, Thorpe played baseball and football professionally. His admirers often tried to have his medals returned to him, but in vain. Thorpe died a lonely man in California on May 28, 1953.Today, as always, many still believe Thorpe was the best athlete that ever lived.

Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  26. Where was Thorpe’s athletic talent discovered?

  C)。【解析】四个选项都是表示地点的状语,由此可以推测,本题的内容可能跟某件事情发生的地点有关。

  早在Thorpe还在Carlisle Indian School上学的时候(had his education at the Carlisle Indian School),他的体育教练(athletic coach)就发现了他卓越的运动才能(splendid athlete),并鼓励他专心从事运动(concentrate on sports)。故正确答案为C)。

  27. How did American people receive Thorpe when he came back from Stockholm in 1912?

  B)。【解析】四个选项都是They开头,都是对待某人的态度,由此可以推测,本题的内容可能是关于一些人怎么对待某个人的。 当Thorpe 1912年从Stockholm回来的时候,美国人民为他举行了游行(parades)和庆祝(celebration)。故正确答案为B)。

  28. Why were Thorpe’s medals taken away from him?

  D)。【解析】四个选项都是Because开头的,由此可以推测,本题的内容是关于某件事情发生的原因。按照当时的规则,参加奥林匹克运动会的运动员必须是业余选手(an amateur),Thorpe曾经是职业选手(professional athlete),这并不符合规定,所以他的奖牌被收回(taken away)。故正确答案为D)。

  Passage Two

  About three hundred words in the English language come from the names of people. Many of these words are technical words. When there is a new invention of discovery, a new word may be coined after the inventor or scientist.

  It is interesting to observe how many common English words have found their way into the language from the names of people. For example, “sandwich”, you may eat everyday. Lord Sandwich who lived from 1718 to 1792 used to sit at the gambling table eating slices of bread with meat in between. This kind of eating tastes delicious.(29)As the Lord was the only one among his friends who ate bread in that way, his friends began to call the“bread-Sandwich”for fun. Later on the word became part of the English language.

  The word “boycott” means to refuse to have anything to do with somebody or something. This word is another example. The word comes from a man called Captain Boycott. He was a land agent in 1880 and he collected rents and taxes for an English landowner in Ireland.(30)But the Captain was a very harsh man. He treated his poor tenants very badly. His tenants decided not to speak to him at all. (31)Eventually word got back to the landowner and the Captain was removed. The word “boycott” became popular and was used by everyone to mean the kind of treatment that was received by Captain Boycott.

  Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  29. Who coined the word “sandwich”?

  【解析】C)。四个选项都是关于人物的词,由此可以推测,本题内容与人物有关。 由于Lord Sandwich是他的朋友里面唯一一个那样吃面包的人(only one among his friends who ate bread in that way),他的朋友们开始叫这种食物“bread-Sandwich”(Sandwich面包)。可见最初使用sandwich这个词的人是Lord Sandwich的朋友们。

  30. What didn’t the tenants like?

  【解析】B)。四个选项中有两个是不定式,有两个是人物身份,由此可以推测,本题的内容可能与人物的态度有关系。佃农们都不喜欢Boycott,因为他对待佃农的态度很差(treated his poor tenants very badly),佃农们于是决定不和他说话(not to speak to him)。故正确答案为B)。

31. What did the landowner do when he found out that the tenants were boycotting his agent?

  【解析】A)。四个选项都是He开头描述某人的行动,由此可以推测,本题的内容是关于某个人采取的行动。 当地主发现佃农抵制Captain Boycott后,地主就把他换掉了(the Captain was removed),故正确答案为A)。

  Passage Three

  The family is changing.(32) In the past, grandparents, parents, and children used to live together, and they had an extended family. Sometimes two or more brothers with their wives and children were part of this large family group. But family structure is changing throughout the world. The nuclear family consists of only one father, one mother, and children; it is becoming the main family structure everywhere.

  (33)The nuclear family offers married women some advantages: they have freedom from their relatives, and the husband does not have all the power of the family. Studies show that in nuclear families men and women usually make an equal number of decisions about family life.

  But wives usually have to “pay” for the benefits of freedom and power. When women lived in extended families, sisters, grandparents, and aunts helped one another with housework and childcare. In addition, older women in a large family group had important positions. Wives in nuclear families do not often enjoy this benefit, and they have another disadvantage, too :(34)women generally live longer than their husbands, so older women from unclear families often have to live alone.

  (35)Studies show that women are generally less satisfied with marriage than men are. In the past, men worked outside the home and women worked inside. Housework and childcare were a full-time job, and there was no time for anything else. Now women work outside and have more freedom than they did in the past, but they still have to do most of the housework. The women actually have two full time jobs, and they have not much free time.

  Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  32. Who used to live together in an extended family?

  C)。【解析】四个选项都是There be开头描述家庭成员,由此可以推测,本题的内容可能涉及某种类型的家庭当中的家庭成员。过去大家庭当中,会有祖父母、父母和子女,有时家族当中还会有几个兄弟和他们的妻子儿女(two or more brothers with their wives and children)。可见大家庭当中有很多亲戚。故C)为正确答案。

  33. What advantages does the nuclear family offer women?

  A)。【解析】四个选项都是The women开头描述女性地位的句子,由此可以推测,本题的内容可能是跟女性的地位有关的。小家庭(nuclear family)当中的女性有更多的自由,不用时刻面对各种亲戚(freedom from their relatives),并且可以参加决策,丈夫不再完全拥有整个家庭的权力(have all the power of the family)。故正确答案为A)。

  34. What are some disadvantages of the nuclear family for women?

  B)。【解析】四个选项都是关于家庭生活的句子,由此可以推测,本题的内容与家庭生活的某个方面有关。 由于女性寿命一般比她们丈夫的寿命长(live longer than their husbands),所以小家庭的其中一个缺点是,上了年纪的女性经常要一个人孤单地生活(have to live alone)。故正确答案为B)。

  35. Why are many women dissatisfied with marriage and the nuclear family?

  C)。【解析】四个选项都是They开头表示状态或者决定的句子,由此可以推测,本题的内容是与某一类人的决定或者他们的状态有关。女性对小家庭的不满主要在于她们除了从事工作,回到家还需要做大部分家务(do most of the housework),很少有自己的空余时间。故正确答案为C)。

Section C

  36. infection

  【解析】 此处应该填入一个可以被上文deadly修饰的名词,并且可以引起outbreak。

  37. virus

  【解析】 此处应该填入一个被rare修饰的名词。

  38. bleed

  【解析】 此处应该填入一个动词,并可以引发death。

  39. outbreak

  【解析】 根据上文control可知此处应该填入一个名词。

  40. contact

  【解析】 此处应该填入一个名词,并且可以与with搭配。

  41. fluids

  【解析】 此处应该填入一个名词,被body修饰。

  42. happened

  【解析】 根据下文in...可知此处应该填入一个动词,表示“发生”。

  43. victim

  【解析】 此处应该填入一个名词被first修饰。

  44. The problem was that they had no protective equipment to prevent themselves from being infected

  【听音关键词】protective equipment,prevent,infected

  45. Now the disease appears to be under control, but no one can promise that for 100 percent

  【听音关键词】disease,under control,promise

  46. Scientists are now headed into the jungles of Africa to find out where the virus lives

  【听音关键词】headed into,jungles,virus

  Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)

  Section A

  本文由大多数女人关于“约会如同选美市场”的抱怨谈起,通过英国纽卡斯尔大学的Thomas Pollet和Daniel Nettle在《生物学快报》上刚发表的一篇论文的描述与分析,论述婚姻如同一个市场。两位研究者通过研究,发现美国出现了男女性别比例失衡问题,所以在择偶方面,女人比较挑剔。婚姻市场中,不同以往的是,由于男性人口多于女性,女人才是真正的买方。

47. dating is like a cattle market

  【定位】 根据题干中的a paper和women定位到原文第一段第一句Women often complain that dating is like a cattle market, and a paper just published in Biology Letters by Thomas Pollet and Daniel Nettle of Newcastle University, in England, suggests they are right.

  【解析】 本题提问该论文与多数女人一致的看法是什么。题干中的...suggest they are right提示该论文同意女人们常见的看法,即文章开篇提到的女人的抱怨,所以complain后的宾语从句就是本题的答案。

  48.Women choose men of high status,resources and good looks.

  【定位】 根据题干中的contention和which is often denied by social scientists定位到原文第二段第一句和第二句Mr. Pollet and Dr. Nettle were looking for evidence to support the contention that women choose men of high status and resources, as well as good looks. That may sound common sense, but it was often denied by social scientists...

  【解析】 本题提问遭到社会科学家否认的广受争议的话题究竟是什么,根据原文结构contention后是同位语从句,进一步解释contention的具体内容,后面提到这种广受争议的话题虽然被视为人之常情,但在过去却遭到社会科学家的否认。因此contention后同位语从句的内容就是本题的答案。

  49. you have to look at natural populations

  【定位】 根据题干中的experiments和zoologists定位到原文第二段最后三句Since then, a series of experiments in laboratories have supported the contention. But as all zoologists know, experiments can only tell you so much. Eventually, you have to look at natural populations.

  【解析】 题干表述的是对该句意思的概括转述,虽然一系列实验都为这个观点提供了可靠依据。然而动物学家都比较倾向于相信从自然种群获得的数据。所以不能仅看实验数据,最终还是需要看自然种群的数据。题干是对这段话的简单概括,答案可直接从原文得出。

  50. be particularly attractive

  【定位】 根据题干中的market和scarcity of sellers定位到原文第三段They have examined...indeed, a market. Moreover, as in any market...if they are to make the exchange.

  【解析】 题干是第三段整段的概括和简化,主旨为婚姻确实如同一个市场。而且,同其他市场一样,买主的稀缺迫使卖方必须拥有别具吸引力的商品才能与买主达成交易。原文中描述的是普通市场的情况,而题干中已经明确界定了in the market of marriage,所以答案不应照搬原文,应当结合题干适当变化,变为形容词。意思是在婚姻的市场中,缺少买方就意味着卖方必须非常有魅力。

  51. A surplus of males.

  【定位】 根据题干中的how picky women were定位到原文第四段末两句 Though the long-colonised eastern states had a sex ratio of one man to one woman,...“go west, young man”had resulted in a surplus of males. Mr. Pollet...how picky women are, given the chance.

52. D)。【定位】 由题干principal purpose of this passage is定位到全文内容。【解析】 主旨题。从整篇看,作者是在为实行死刑争辩,因此选D)。【避错指导】A)“为多数人辩护”、B)“行使否决权”和C)“指责政府”均不是文章主旨。

  53. A)。【定位】 由题干author’s response to those who urge the death penalty定位到原文第四段第一句For example, it is one thing to take the life of another in a fit of blind rage, but quite another to coldly plot and carry out the murder of one or more people in the style of a butcher.【解析】 推断题。在第四段中,作者认为谋杀案情况不同,还有相对程度之分。他把谋杀分为两类:一类是在盛怒之下杀人,另一类是有预谋的特别残忍的谋杀。他认为前一种杀人犯可以把他们与社会隔离起来,不一定要处以极刑。所以说作者并不赞成把所有杀人犯都处以死刑,因此A)是正确答案。【避错指导】 B)“友好的”和C)“支持的”显然是不对的;作者对把所有杀人犯都处以死刑只是不赞成,而不是怀有“敌意”,因此D)也不对。

  54. B)。【定位】 由题干定位到原文第四段。【解析】 推断题。第四段最后一句说,虽然我们可以争论有关“第一种案例中的罪犯只应该隔离于社会”这样的宣判,但是后一种杀人犯的结局不应该是这样的。即:后一种杀人犯不应该只隔离于社会,言外之意要判死刑。因而B)是正确选项。【避错指导】 A)认为死刑问题是当今美国最具争议的问题,可文章第一句话“With the possible exception of equal rights,”除了平等的权利之外,说明死刑排在第二位,A)错误;C)文章结尾讲到“如果恢复死刑的法案被否决,无辜的人们将被谋杀——如果执行死刑,一些人的生命就可能被挽救。确切地说来,这是一个是生还是死的问题。成千上万无辜者的生命必须得到保护。”那么不能说否决(veto)是不重要的,所以C)错误;D)原文就是在讨论这个问题,不能说是“无争议的”。因此D)错误。

  55. A)。【定位】 由题干attempts to establish a relationship between定位到原文最后一段倒数第四句It is convincing evidence that the death penalty does deter many murderers.【解析】 推断题。作者在文章最后一段花了很大篇幅讲谋杀率与施行死刑的关系,结合倒数第四句可知,A)是正确选项。【避错指导】文章没有谈到平等权利和死刑之间的关系,因此C)不可能是正确答案;执行死刑与谋杀之间似乎有点关系,但文章中并没有专门谈到执行死刑的问题,因此D)也不对;文章虽然提到了执行死刑的作用问题,但没有提及隔离的作用问题,更没有讲到两者之间的关系,因此B)也应被排除。

  56. B)。【定位】 由题干的The author’s attitude towards“death penalty”定位于全文。【解析】 态度题。作者开篇指出公众对待死刑的一些看法,有正面的,也有负面的,但字里行间透露着对死刑的辩护。由最后一段最后一句This is literally a life or death matter. The lives of thousands of innocent people must be protected.可进一步确定,作者是在为实行死刑辩护,因此B)是正确的。【避错指导】A)“反对的”;C)“中立的”和D)“讽刺的”均不是作者的态度。

  Passage Two

  美国遭受恐怖袭击后,好莱坞电影所推崇的暴力文化被投下了阴影。《纽约时报》报道电影巨头们对大众娱乐的品味进行了史无前例的自我分析。文章末尾作者指出在国家处于这样危急的历史时刻,人们比以前更虔诚地关注、思考精神与思想的问题。也许的确到了该彻底长期整顿电影的时候了,而不是像现在一样只是暂时停止制作品味极低的电影。

  57. B )。【定位】 由题干filmmakers hesitate to release new films定位到原文第一段第二句Fearful of offending audiences in the wake of the terrorist attack,some moviemakers have postponed the release of film with terrorist themes.【解析】细节题。从第一段可以看出,9.11恐怖袭击给人们带来了极大的震惊,为好莱坞电影暴力文化投下了阴影。由于害怕 “offending” 惊魂未定的大众,很多电影制片商have postponed the release of film with terrorist themes。由此可见B)符合题意,选项中的“afraid”与原文中的“fearful”意思上相同,“anger”为动词,与原文中的“offending”相对应,更可确定答案的正确性。【避错指导】A)在文章中并未提及;C)认为“充满暴力内容的电影在他们中间已经不再流行”与原文意思相反,如果误认为“them”指的是广大观众就很容易误选;D)将暴力电影等同于暴力,混淆了两个概念,同原文意思不相符,故错误。

 58. D)。【定位】由题干The“selfscrutiny”in the second paragraph定位到第二段倒数第二句...1ong range questions of what the public will want once the initial shock from the terrorist attacks wears off.【解析】细节题。文章第二段指出,电影制片商们对大众娱乐的品味进行自我反省,很可能是一个暂时现象,因为正如业界许多人士承认的那样,目前他们不知道where boundaries of taste and consumer tolerance now lie。与前文的Fearful of offending audiences in the wake of the terrorist attack这个原因相照应。正是因为不知道观众们目前希望看什么样的电影,害怕暴力电影在这个特殊时刻激怒观众,才不敢贸然制作,因此制片商们才对此进行自我分析。故D)符合题意。【避错指导】 A)认为制片商这么做是因为“想为观众们制作出不含有暴力内容的影片”不确切,因为第一段中指出,制片商们只是“postponed the release of films with terrorist themes”,而不是停止制作此类电影,故A)错误;B)制片商们的目的是“阻止自己回到制作暴力电影的老路上去”同文章中的讲述相反,故错误;C)选项原文中并未提及,故不合题意。

  59. A)。【定位】由题干it is time for the general audience to定义到原文第三段第一句This is an opportunity for some of us to suggest to Hollywood where that boundary of consumer tolerance is.【解析】细节题。由于作者在第二段中指出制片商们不敢轻易制作电影,因为他们不知道观众的口味和对暴力电影的容忍度有多少,因此在第三段中指出,这正是一个好时机让观众告诉“口味如何及对暴力电影的容忍度有多大”。故 A)正确。【避错指导】B)犯了以偏概全的错误,人们反对的是好莱坞充斥暴力内容的电影,而不是所有好莱坞制作的电影,故不正确;作者只是指出人们可以借机向好莱坞提出电影未来方向的建议,建议他们cease its descent into ever lower of the dumbness of our young,而不是建议观众对此进行指责,故选项C)不确切;作者在文章第四段指出,传统的家庭电影时间“disappeared”,这一事实说明暴力电影的泛滥程度需要得到控制,但选项 D)“要求制片商们制作反映传统家庭生活的电影”在文中并未提及,故错误。

  60. C)。【定位】由题干about Aaron Sorkin定义到原文中第五段最后两句Producers like Aaron Sorkin of “The West Wing”planned to keep pushing hard. He was quoted as saying,“There’s absolutely no reason why we can’t use the language of adulthood in programs that are about adults”.【解析】细节题。文章在第五段中举了Aaron Sorkin这个导演为例,来说明前面的观点The struggles between network censors and produce...were growing more intense。从文中可以看出,Aaron Sorkjn认为,在关于成人的电影中不用成人的语言绝对没有任何道理。而后面作者指出,很多成人根本不用Aaron Sorkin在电影中使用的语言,也不希望他们的孩子们听到这样的语言,由此可以看出Aaron Sorkin所强烈推崇在电影中使用的“the language of adulthood”正是前文中所说的 “crude word”(粗俗的言语)。故C)“他坚持认为不应该对电影中的语言进行限制”解释正确。【避错指导】A)同原文内容正好相反,故错误;B)不正确,因为原文只说他在这场较量中想“keep pushing hard”,并未表明是他首先引起了这场较量;D)“他认为应该彻底整顿电影业”同文章中对Aaron Sorkin的描述相反,因为作者所说的 “clean up the entertainment industry”正是指让电影内容更加积极,减少粗俗的语言和暴力的内容。

  61. C)。【定位】由题干the author’s purpose定位到全文内容,尤其是首尾两段。【解析】推断题。从文章第一段的第一句话来看,作者认为恐怖主义活动带来了一个“positive consequence”。那就是冲击了好莱坞的暴力电影文化。既然作者认为这是一个积极影响,说明作者对好莱坞暴力电影持否定态度。同时在文章的最后一句中,作者亦指出,现在是时候该告诉娱乐界人们所需要的不仅仅是a temporary pause in the flow of tastelessness,而是长期的彻底整顿。由此可见,作者对现在娱乐界的做法持否定态度。因此C)正确。【避错指导】A)“了解”、B)“赞同”和D)“容忍”,均不符合文中所表达的作者的目的。

  Part Ⅴ Cloze

  62. C)。【解析】连接词辨义。在词组by the communities 62 it operates中,名词communicates后有主语it和谓语动词operates,因此判断该从句为定语从句。而先行词在定语从句中作状语,即it operates in the communities,于是选择C)where。

  63. D)。【解析】 考查固定搭配。to...extent或者to the extent of...表示“达到…的程度”,因此答案为D)。 in, within, on 均不能与extent搭配。

  64. A)。【解析】名词辨义。由第一段我们得知,公司的公共形象,也就是来自社会各方面的对公司的关注,也即公司的大众吸引力。所以,空格处应选择A)attraction。attachment“附件,附加装置,配属”;affection“友爱,爱情,喜爱”;generalization “一般化,普遍化,概括,广义性”。

 65. C)。【解析】考查语义和固定搭配。因为stockholders, suppliers, creditors, government officials等都属于outsiders,是outsiders的下义词。而词组such...as...就是这种用法。因此答案为C)。

  66. B)。【解析】形近词辨义。as well as 连接意义相近的词,前面stockholders, suppliers, creditors, government officials等都是各不相同的群体,那么后面special groups也应是多种多样的。diverse表示“不同的,多种多样的”,因此选择B)。converse“相反的,颠倒的”;reverse“相反的,倒转的,颠倒的”;universe“宇宙,世界,万物,领域”。

  67. A)。【解析】动词辨义。根据后面的例子我们得知,高度自动化的工厂可能迎合了公司债权人和股东的想法,但是却会遭到公司员工的反对,因为他们可能面临失业的危险。因此,公司不可能满足所有公众的愿望。所以选择A)satisfy。treat“视为,对待,论述,治疗,款待”;amuse“使发笑,使愉快”;entertain“娱乐,招待,接受”。

  68. D)。【解析】考查句际关系。由上题可知,两句之间是转折关系。因此D)正确。so“因而,所以,那么,这样看来”;then“当时,那么,因而,然后,于是”;thus“因而,从而,这样,如此”。

  69. D)。【解析】名词辨义。本句中,两个分句是转折关系,而且作为利益对立双方creditors and stockholders 和employees,他们对待工厂自动化的态度也是对立的。前者有单词approval(赞成)表明态度,后者的态度就应是resistance(抵抗,反对)。support“支撑,支持,支援,维持,赡养”;identification“辨认,鉴定,证明,视为同一”;compliment“称赞,恭维,致意,问候,道贺”。

  70. C)。【解析】动词辨义。由上下文得知,工厂高度自动化遭到了工人们的抵制,而他们抵制的原因就在于他们的工作岗位受到威胁,他们将面临下岗。因此see their jobs threatened或者see themselves unemployed。故选择C)。ensure“保证,担保,使安全,保证得到”;promote“促进,发扬,晋升为”;unemployed“失业的,未被利用的”。

  71. B)。【解析】考查连词。本句话中空格前的从句的主语是high-quality products,空格后的从句的主语是low quality products,很明显,两句之间是对比关系,while表示“和…同时”,表示对比关系,因此B)正确。because表示因果关系,意为“由于,因为”;though表示转折关系,意为“虽然,尽管”。

  72. A)。【解析】近义词辨析。根据句义, 72 claims意为“不良的、不切实际的、或者虚伪的主张和要求”。false“错误的,虚伪的,假的,无信义的,伪造的”,因此,false符合题意。fake“假的,伪造的,冒充的 ”; artificial“人造的,假的,矫揉造作的,不自然的”; counterfeit“伪造的,假冒的”。

  73. B)。【解析】名词辨义。根据句义我们判断,具有良好的公众形象是一个企业珍贵的财富。这里“财富”一词并不指代拥有的金钱或财产,而是指代一种长处和优势。asset“财产”(anything owned),“可取之处”(a desirable thing),“优势”(advantage),因此B)正确。fortune“财富,好运,命运”; possession“拥有,占有,着迷,领土,财产(常用复数)”;property“财产,所有物,所有权,性质,特性”。

  74. A)。【解析】动词辨义。这句话的意思是:如果一个企业有良好的形象,那么对手就很难与之抗衡或者效仿。本句中空格一词应能与imitate并列,如果选择“打败”或者“抵制”,那么竞争者效仿这一获得良好形象的企业就无从谈起。counter“反对,反击,抗衡”,因此A)正确。defeat“击败,战胜,使失败,挫折”;repel“击退,抵制,使厌恶,使不愉快”;compel“强迫,迫使”。

  75. D)。【解析】 考查语义与词组搭配。在上下文中,由于企业具备了良好的形象,因此它就可以把价格定得更高,可以与最好的发行商和经销商合作等等。charge price (索价,要价)符合题意。pay, order, get均不与price搭配。

  76. C)。【解析】 形容词辨义。在诸多由良好的形象带给企业的好处中,企业有望能与债权人建立的关系应是对双方有利的,起促进作用的。favorable“赞成的,有利的,讨人喜欢的,起促进作用的”,因此C)正确。favorite“喜爱的,宠爱的,中意的”;prosperous“繁荣的”; prospective“预期的”。

 77. B)。【解析】固定搭配。price-earnings ratio“(股票市场上的)市盈率,价益比”。rate“比率,速度,等级,价格,费用”;ration“定量,配给量,定量配给”;interest“兴趣,关心,利息,利益”。

  78. B)。【解析】考查代词。在上下文中,我们判断空格是代替a number of factors的,因此They正确。

  79. D)。【解析】近义词辨析。根据语境,有很多因素影响了一个企业的公共形象,这些因素包括物理设备等等。因为这些设备会影响企业的公共形象,所以这些设备应该是公众能够接触到的设备、服务等硬件和软件的设施,facilities指为某一特殊活动或目的所提供的种种便利,包括设备、建筑物和服务等等,因此D)正确。appliance“用具,器具”,一般指电器设备,通常需要动力才能操作的家用电器和装置等;equipment“装备,设备,器材,装置”,一般指机械设备;device“装置,设计,图案,策略”,既可以是抽象的,也可以是具体的。

  80. B)。【解析】固定搭配。contact无论作动词还是名词,都与with搭配表示“与…联系”。

  81. A)。【解析】搭配与语义。首先判断空格一词能与to搭配,再通过句义判断词组prices 81 to competitors的意义为“能与同行竞争者相抗衡的价格”,relative to“相对于”,因此答案为A)。relative“有关系的,相对的,比较而言的”;related“叙述的,讲述的,有关系的”,related to“与…有关的”;reliable“可靠的,可信赖的”;reconcilable“可和解的,可调和的”。

  Part Ⅵ Translation

  82. he would sooner die than do such a thing

  【考点】①主语+would sooner+动词原形+than+动词原形表示“两者比较宁愿做…,也不愿意做另一件”,语气比较含蓄委婉,所以动词前不定式不必带to;sooner是soon 的比较级,表示“宁愿早点做…也不愿意做…”,强调意愿。该句型还有另外一种形式:Sooner than +动词原形…,(主句)主语+would+动词原形,主要是用于强调所比的对象,主句虽然放在后面,但不用倒装;②do such a thing表示“做这样的事”。

83. are students permitted to graduate in advance

  【考点】 ①句首是Only +介词短语,后面应用倒装句式,属于部分倒装,系动词+主语+其它;②are permitted to表示“被允许做…”;③in advance表示“提前”。

  84. the color of our skin is due to heredity

  【考点】 ①the color of our skin表示“肤色”;②due to表示“取决于…”;③heredity表示“遗传”,特指生物遗传;heritage 使用最广泛,不仅指一般的遗产,也指世代相传的具有特色的精神财富或物质财富;inheritance 指继承这一行为,不指继承的东西,为抽象名词。

  85. without written permission from the publishing house

  【考点】①介词短语:without written permission表示“未经允许”;②written permission表示“(书面)允许”;③the publishing house表示“出版社”。

  86. is most clearly observable in the surrounding field and river

  【考点】 ①is most clearly observable表示“完全可以看出来”,句型The...effect of...is...observable表示“…的效果是可以看出的”;②surrounding field and river表示“周围的田野和河流”。

    

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