picture: The most general one.
(彩图) painting: pictures with color.
(绘画 图画) drawing: A picture made with a pen, pencil and crayon. Sketch, diagrams
and graphs are all drawings.
(草图) sketch: A rough not detailed drawing.
(图解 图表) diagram: A drawing, figure that shows the arrangement of something.
(曲线图) graph: A diagram in which a straight line, curved, or zigzag line shows
how two sets of numbers or measurements are related.
(插图) illustration: A picture to go with words of a book.
(图样 草图) draft: The first rough written form of anything.
(平面图) plan: A line drawing of a building as it might been seen from above.
(主视图) elevation: A flat upright side of a building.
(海图) chart: A map esp. a detailed map of a sea area.