Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic "No Smoking in Public Places". You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions. For questions 1-7, mark Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage. N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information giv en in the passage. NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage. For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
What Is Culture Shock?
Culture shock can be described as the feeling of confusion and disorientation(迷惘)that one experiences when faced with a large number of new and unfamiliar people and situations. Many things contribute to it —smells, sounds, flavors and the very feeling of the air one is breathing.
The symptoms of culture shock can appear at different times. Although one can experience real pain from culture shock, it is also an opportunity of redefining one’s life objectives. It is a great opportunity of learning and acquiring new perspectives. Culture shock can make one develop a better understanding of oneself and stimulate personal creativity.
Sadness, loneliness, melancholy(忧郁)Preoccupation with health Aches, pains and allergies(过敏)Insomnia, desire to sleep too much or too little
Changes in temperament, depression, feeling vulnerable, feeling powerless
Anger, irritability, resentment, unwillingness to interact with others
Identifying with the old culture or idealizing the old country
Loss of Identity:
Trying too hard to absorb everything in the new culture or country
Inability to solve simple problems
Lack of confidence
Feelings of inadequacy or insecurity
Developing stereotypes about the new culture
Developing obsessions such as over-cleanliness
Longing for family
Feelings of being lost, overlooked, exploited or abused
Stages of Culture Shock
Culture shock has many stages. Each stage can be ongoing or appear only at certain times. The first stage is the incubation stage. In this first stage, the new arrival may feel euphoric and be pleased by all of the new things encountered. This time is called the "honey moon" stage, as everything encountered is new and exciting.
Afterwards, the second stage presents itself. A person may encounter some difficult times and crises in daily life. For example, communication difficulties may occur, such as not being understood. In this stage, there may be feelings of discontent, impatience, anger, sadness, and feeling incompetence. This happens when a person is trying to adapt to a new culture that is very different from the culture of origin. Transition between the old methods and those of the new country is a difficult process and takes time to complete. During the transition, there can be strong feelings of dissatisfaction.
The third stage is characterized by gaining some under-standing of the new culture. A new feeling of pleasure and sense of humor may be experienced. One may start to feel a certain psychological balance. The new arrival may not feel as lost and starts to have a feeling of direction. The individual is more familiar with the environment and wants to belong to it. This initiates an evaluation of the old ways versus those of the new.
In the fourth stage, the person realizes that the new culture has good and bad things to offer. This stage can be one of double integration(整合)or triple integration depending on the number of cultures that the person has to process. This integration is accompanied by a more solid feeling of belonging. The person starts to define himself / herself and establish goals for living.
The fifth stage is the stage that is called "reentry shock". This occurs when a return to the country of origin is made. One may find that things are no longer the same. For example, some of the newly acquired customs are not in use in the old culture.
These stages are present at different times and each person has his / her own way of reacting in the stages of culture shock. As a consequence, some stages will be longer and more difficult than others. Many factors contribute to the duration and effect of culture shock. The factors are the individual’s state of mental health, type of personality, previous experiences, socio-economic conditions, familiarity with the language, family and/or social support systems and level of education.
How to Fight Culture Shock
The majority of emigrant individuals and families have the ability to positively confront the obstacles of a new environment. Some ways to combat stress produced by culture shock are:
Develop a hobby. Don’t forget the good things you already have. Remember, there are always resources that you can use.
Be patient —the act of emigrating is a process of adaptation to new situations. It is going to take time.
Learn to be constructive. If you encounter an unfavorable environment, don’t put yourself in that position again. Be easy on yourself.
Don’t try too hard.
Learn to include a regular form of physical activity in your routine. This will help combat the sadness and loneliness in a constructive manner. Exercise, swim, take an aerobics class, etc.
Relaxation and meditation have been proven to be very positive for people who are passing through periods of stress.
Maintain contact with your ethnic group. This will give you a feeling of belonging and will reduce your feelings of loneliness and alienation.
Maintain contact with the new culture. Learn the language. Volunteer in community activities that allow you to practice the language that you are learning. This will help you feel less stress about language and be useful at the same time.
Allow yourself to feel sad about the things that you have left behind: your family, your friends, etc.
Recognize the sorrow of leaving your old country. Accept the new country. Focus your power on getting through the transition.
Pay attention to relationships with your family and your colleagues. They will serve as support for you in difficult times.
Establish simple goals and evaluate your progress.
Find ways to live with the things that don’t satisfy you 100%. Maintain confidence in yourself. Follow your ambitions and continue your plans for the future.
If you feel stressed, look for help. There is always someone or some service available to help you.
1. Culture shock can make one develop a better understanding of oneself and stimulate personal creativity.
2. You may feel culture shock when you go to live in a foreign culture.
3. You feel lonely and depressed during the first stage of culture shock.
4. A new feeling of pleasure and sense of humor may be experienced in the third stage.
5. only happens to young people that culture shock might be reversed.
6. One may find that things are no longer the same during "re-entry shock".
7. Emigrant individuals and families cannot combat the stress produced by culture shock.
8. The new arrival may not feel as lost and starts to ______ in the third stage.
9. Many things ____________ it —smells, sounds, flavors and the very feeling of the air one is breathing.
10. __________ relationships with your family and your colleagues. They will serve as support for you in difficult times.
Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once. Questions 11 to 20 are based on the following passage.
This year, the summer travel crush could prove to be one of the toughest on record: high fares, crowded planes and thousands of lost bags every day. Flight delays, already at their highest levels since 2001, could also bedevil(长期搅扰)travelers if thunderstorms or hurricanes(飓风)hit particularly hard. A few smart strategies 11 by analysts, travel consultants and airline representatives could help 12 the way.
Firstly, you can go on the Internet to look for package flights, or you can fly on low-demand days to find a cheap 13 . Secondly, if you get booted or find yourself on a flight going 14 , you’d better have a backup plan —a list of other flights on other airlines heading to the destination, and then get on the phone with the airline’s reservation service. If those carriers have open seats, 15 them right away. If your original airline still cannot find you seats on one of its flights, it will pay for your tickets on the other carrier. Thirdly, you can start your trip in the morning to 16 delays and cancellations. Because problems tend to mount 17 the day, it makes sense that earlier flights have a better chance of fewer delays; the chain effect can make an airline’s schedule worse later in the day. Finally, what can you do to ensure your bags make 18 to your destination with you? Here are some tips for reducing the risks of arriving without your bags and mitigating(减轻)the problems if you do:
●Make sure your baggage tags 19 where you are going.
●If traveling with a 20 , pack some of each other’s belongings in each bag. That way, if the airline misplaces one bag, you might arrive with the other and have a few items of clothing.
●Pack backup clothes in a carry-on bag.
●Fly an airline that does not lose many bags.
A) spouse I) avoid
B) reserve J) smooth
C) offered K) through
D) it L) match
E) fare M) cost
F) affecting N) anywhere
G) sensed O) specially
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished sentences. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Anthropologist Margaret Mead is known for her groundbreaking research on the effects of culture on gender roles. Her working hypothesis(假设)was that if gender behavior was the effect purely of biology, then what was considered masculine and feminine would be the same in all cultures. If gender behavior differed in different cultures, this would demonstrate that gender behavior resulted from culture rather than biology.
To test this hypothesis, Mead studied three different societies in New Guinea. The first society that she studied was the Arapesh (阿拉佩什人). In this society, she ob-served that behavior by men and behavior by women were remarkably similar. She found that both men and women exhibited characteristics that are traditionally considered feminine: they were sensitive to each others’ feelings and expressed emotions. The second society that she studied in New Guinea was the Mundugumor (蒙杜古马人), which was a society of headhunters and cannibals (食人肉者). The society was the opposite of the gentle and feminine Arapesh. In this second society, both men and women exhibited characteristics that are traditionally considered male: they were harsh and aggressive. In the third society that she studied, the Tchambuli(德昌布利人), Mead found that males and females exhibited very different types of behavior. What was unusual was that the roles were the opposite of what we have come to expect. Mead found that in this society, the men were emotional and submissive to the women, and the women were dominant and aggressive.
Based on these findings, Margaret Mead came to the conclusion that culture, more than biology, determines gender behavior.
21. According to the passage, Margaret Mead believed that________________.
A) what we consider masculine and feminine results from culture but not biology
B) we cannot prove the effects of culture on gender roles
C) there are no cannibals in the world
D) the Arapesh is a wonderful tribe
22. In the Arapesh society, behavior by men and behavior by women are remarkably similar, where ________.
A) the men are emotional and submissive to the women, and the women are dominant and aggressive
B) both men and women exhibit characteristics that are traditionally considered male
C) both men and women are sensitive to each others’feelings and express emotions
D) nobody knows why they act the way they do
23. The word "submissive" in the last sentence of Paragraph 2 means____________.
24. According to the passage, which of the following state ments is FALSE?
A) The Mundugumor is the society in which men and women are sensitive to each others’ feelings and express emotions
B) The Tchambuli is the society in which the men are emotional and submissive to the women, and the women are dominant and aggressive
C) Margaret Mead’s conclusion is based on the findings from the three societies in New Guinea
D) gender behavior results from culture rather than biology
25. The author’s purpose in writing the passage is ______.
A) to describe the three different societies in New Guinea
B) to introduce Margaret Mead’s hypothesis on gender behavior
C) to argue against the opinion that gender behavior is the effect purely of biology
D) to demonstrate that gender behavior should be the same in all cultures
Hemp(大麻)has been cultivated by many cultures for thousands of years. It can be made into paper, fuel, oils, textiles, food and rope. For many centuries, it was essential to the economies of many countries because it was used to make the ropes and cables used on sailing ships; colonial expansion and the establishment of a worldwide trading network would not have been possible without hemp. Nowadays, ships’ cables are usually made from wire or synthetic fibers, but scientists are suggesting that the cultivation of hemp should be revived for the production of paper and pulp(纸浆). According to its proponents, four times as much paper can be produced from land using hemp rather than trees, and many environmentalists believe that the large-scale cultivation of hemp could reduce the pressure on Canada’s forests.
However, there is a problem: hemp is illegal in many countries of the world. This plant, so useful for fiber, rope, oils, fuel and textiles, is a species of cannabis(大麻制品), related to the plant from which marijuana(大麻毒品)is produced. In the late 1930s, a movement to ban the drug marijuana began to gather force, resulting in the eventual banning of the cultivation not only of the plant used to produce the drug, but also of the commercial fiber-producing hemp plant. Although both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew hemp in large quantities on their own land, any American growing the plant today would soon find himself / herself in prison —despite the fact that marijuana cannot be produced from the hemp plant, since it contains almost no THC (the active ingredient in the drug).
In recent years, two major movements for legalization have been gathering strength. One group of activists believe that ALL cannabis should be legal —both the hemp plant and the marijuana plant —and that the use of the drug marijuana should not be an offense. They argue that marijuana is not dangerous or addictive, and that it is used by large numbers of people who are not criminals but productive members of society. They also point out that marijuana is less toxic than alcohol or tobacco. The other legalization movement is concerned only with the hemp plant used to produce fiber; this group wants to make it legal to cultivate the plant and sell the fiber for paper and pulp production. This second group has had a major triumph recently: in 1997, Canada legalized the farming of hemp for fiber. For the first time since 1938, hundreds of farmers are planting this crop, and soon we can expect to see pulp and paper produced from this new source.
26. Why was the hemp plant essential to world-wide trade in the past?
A) Because ships’ ropes were made from it.
B) Because hemp was a very profitable export
C)Because hemp was used as fuel for ships.
D)Because hemp was used as food for sailors.
27. Why do agriculturalists think that hemp would be better for paper production than trees?
A) Because it is cheaper to grow hemp than to cut down trees.
B) Because more paper can be produced from the same area of land.
C) Because hemp produces higher quality paper.
D) Because hemp can be made into paper, fuel, oils, textiles, food, and rope.
28.Why was hemp banned?
A) Because it was related to the marijuana plant.
B) Because it was illegal in many countries of the world.
C) Because it was no longer a useful crop.
D) Because it was destructive to the land.
29. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Fiber is a powerful chemical ingredient of the cannabis plants.
B) Some activists believe that both marijuana and hemp should be legal.
C) Canada has just legalized marijuana.
D) Hemp was illegal in George Washington’s and Thomas Jefferson’s time.
30. What is the main idea of the passage?
A) Hemp was essential to the economies of many countries.
B) Hemp is illegal in many countries.
C) Hemp plants are being legalized.
D) All of the above.
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage.
What does Dyslexia(诵读困难症) have to do with food or nutrition? At the 56th Annual Conference of the International Dyslexia Association in Denver, Dr. Susan Koger, a professor from Willamette University in Oregon, presented a(n) 31 paper on the risks of environmental toxins(毒素)for developing learning differences, 32 dyslexia. Dr. Koger emphasized that humans are 33 during their lifetime to potential exposure 34 75,000 or more synthetic chemicals. More than 98 percent of families and 80 percent of pregnant women are 35 to these potential chemical toxins. The metabolites(代谢产物)or breakdown 36 of these chemicals can be identified in the urine(尿)of 82 percent of adults and 92 percent of children. Dr. Koger postulated that basically every human on the planet has detectable amounts of one or more of these toxins in their system 37 one time or another.
It is our food supply that is of particular 38 , because these bio-toxins become concentrated as they make their way up the food chain. For instance, 891 pesticides have been 39 and used since 1941. Of these, 523 have been used 40 on our food or on feed stored for animals. Of those that are used in our food supply, 140 are 41 neuro-toxic(毒害神经的)and can injure the brain. 42 , they were designed to kill insects and rodents. Only 12 of these 140 neurotoxins have been 43 for potential harm to the brain. No test for potential brain injury from these chemicals is 44 before they are released 45 use. The concern that Dr. Koger’s research 46 , by extrapolation(推断), is that perhaps the older teachers may 47 part have been right, that the frequency of dyslexia in the student population was indeed once only two or three per-cent. The frequency now 48 , which is real at 17 to 25 percent, may be a reflection of the increased potential for damage to the developing brain of the fetus or newborn infant or toddler, perhaps 49 extending into the first few years of life, 50 by the toxic chemicals we have put into our environment. That is a frightening consideration.
31. A) enlightened B) enlighten
C) enlightening D) lightning
32. A) including B) include
C) included D) includes
33. A) bore B) endured
C) suffered D) subjected
34. A) to B) at
C) in D) with
35. A) explored B) imported
C) exposed D) exported
36. A) products B) produce
C) production D) providing
37. A) in B) with
C) at D) on
38. A) concern B) concerning
C) concerned D) concerns
39. A) devastated B) developed
C) deviled D) deduce
40. A) straightly B) indirectly
C) increasingly D) directly
41. A) inclusively B) mainly
C) specifically D) mostly
42. A) After all B) Moreover
C) Furthermore D) Beside
43. A) tested B) made
C) improved D) developed
44. A) asked B) required
C) rehearsed D) released
45. A) to B) for
C) in D) with
46. A) puts B) rises
C) raises D) lifts
47. A) at B) on
C) in D) by
48. A) sees B) seen
C) saw D) seeing
49. A) since B) even
C) yet D) still
50. A) reduced B) deduced
C) moved D) induced
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
51. The reservoir is _________(面积是10年前的3倍).
52. ___________________(由于天气原因), our airline flight has been delayed for over an hour.
53. _________________(毫无疑问) that war can be avoided if we get down to peace talk.
54. We should focus on the improvement of ourselves, _______(而不是) pursuing money for luxurious living.
55. ___________(就我看来), fashion belongs to women.
Part I Writing
One possible version:
No Smoking in Public Places
Some smokers still breathe out cigarette smoke in public places, although it is not allowed in these areas. A few of them even regard smoking as their own freedom and right.
It has been confirmed by many international medical research institutes that smoking is dangerous. For one thing, smoking can have harmful effects on humans’ health. Smoking has been linked to an endless list of serious health problems such as lung cancer, heart disease and so on. For another, by smoking in public places the smoker is forcing everyone in the vicinity to smoke too. For years, a lot of non-smokers have had to endure the unpleasant experience of inhaling stale cigarette smoke, especially those who work in public places, such as bars or restaurants.
Several measures should be adopted to stop smoking in public places. First, laws should be made in detail and those who break the laws should be severely punished; second, society should create an atmosphere where no smoking is the social norm. For this to be successful, overwhelming public support is necessary.
Part II Reading Comprehension
(Skimming and Scanning)
1. Y。参见第一部分第二段中"Culture shock can make one develop a better understanding of oneself and stimulate personal creativity."可知,文化冲击可以让人们可以更好地了解自我,激发个人创造力。
2. Y。参见第一部分第一段中"Culture shock can be described as the feeling of confusion and disorientation that one experiences when faced with a large number of new and unfamiliar people and situations."可知,在遇到大量全新而陌生的人或事的情况下,人们会因文化冲击而产生迷惘和困惑的感觉。
3. N。参见第二部分第一段中"In this first stage, the new arrival ... as everything encountered is new and exciting."可知,在第一个阶段里,人们会对全新的环境产生欣喜、兴奋的感 觉。
6. Y。参见第二部分第五段中"This occurs when a return to the country of origin is made. One may find that things are no longer the same. For example, some of the newly acquired customs are not in use in the old culture."可知,在这个阶段里,人们会因难以适应原文化环境而再次感到文化冲击。
7. N。参见第三部分第一段中"The majority of emigrant individuals and families have the ability to positively confront the obstacles of a new environment."可知,大多数移民个人或移民家庭都能积极地适应新环境。
8. have a feeling of direction。参见第二部分第三段中"The new arrival may not feel as lost and starts to have a feeling of direction."。
9. contribute to。参见第一部分第一段中"Many things contribute to it-smells, sounds, flavors and the very feeling of the air one is breathing."。
10. Pay attention to。参见第三部分中 "Pay attention to relationships with your family and your colleagues. They will serve as support for you in difficult times."。
Part III Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)
11. C)。此处需要一个动词。全句大意为:由相关人士提供的几条巧妙策略可以助你旅途畅通。故选C) offered。
12. J)。此处需要一个动词。句意参见上题解析。故选J) smooth。
13. E)。此处需要一个名词。全句大意为:你可以上网搜索包办航班,或选择淡季出行,这样可以买到便宜票。故选E) fare,意为"飞机票价,车费"。
15. B)。此处需要一个动词。全句大意为:一旦发现有空位,马上订下来。故选B) reserve,意为"预订,预约"。
16. I)。此处需要一个动词。全句大意为:你可以选择早上的航班,以免遇到航班被延误或取消的情况。故选I) avoid。
19. L)。此处需要一个动词。全句大意为:要确定行李标签上写的地方与你要去的地方相符。故选L) match,意为"与……相符或相一致"。
20. A)。此处需要一个名词。全句大意为:出行的夫妇可以分装各自的物品,这样可以防止所有的衣物都不翼而飞。故选A) spouse,意为"配偶"。
21. A)。通读全文可知,第一段讲Margaret Mead的设想:假设男性和女性的行为仅仅只是由生物学意义上的不同导致的,那么不同文化中的两性行为应该是一致的。反过来推理,如果不同文化下的两性行为不相同,则说明性别行为差异更依赖于文化特征而不是生物特征。在第二段中,Margaret Mead通过对3个部落的研究,来证明这种设想。第三段论证结果。故选A)。
22. C)。参见第二段中"She found that both men and women exhibited characteristics that are traditionally considered feminine: they were sensitive to each others’ feelings and ex-pressed emotions."可知,阿拉佩什人男女的行为相似,他们都很感性,善于表达感情。故选C)。
23. A)。参见第二段中"Mead found that males and females ... and the women were dominant and aggressive."可知,德昌布利人男女的行为相反:男人性格温顺,多愁善感;女人则性格强势,争强好斗。运用排除法。故选A) obedient,意为"服从的"。
24. A)。参见第二段中"In this second society, both men and women exhibited characteristics that are traditionally considered male: they were harsh and aggressive."可知,蒙杜古马人部落的男人和女人都表现粗野,具攻击性。故A)中的说法有误。
25. B)。纵观全文:第一段阐述Margaret Mead的设想;第二段讲述她对3个部落的观察和研究;最后一段则是结论。本文主旨大意是介绍Margaret Mead的设想和研究。故选B)。
26. A)。参见第一段中"..., it was essential to the economies ... would not have been possible without hemp."可知,大麻曾被用来制成航船上的绳索和船缆。可以说,如果没有大麻,殖民扩张和全球贸易网络不可能建立。故选A)。
27. B)。参见第一段中"..., but scientists are suggesting that the cultivation of hemp should be revived for the production of paper and pulp. According to its proponents, four times as much paper can be produced from land using hemp rather than trees, ..."可知,因为单位面积的大麻产出的纸是树产纸的四倍,所以科学家们认为应该恢复大麻的种植,以生产更多的纸浆和纸。故选B)。
28. A)。参见第二段中"However, there is a problem: hemp is illegal ... but also of the commercial fiber-producing hemp plant."可知,大麻是制作毒品的一种原料。因此,在许多国家里,种植大麻是违法的。20世纪30年代掀起了一场禁种大麻的运动。故选A)。
29. B)。参见最后一段中"One group of activists believe that ALL cannabis should be legal —both the hemp plant and the marijuana plant ..."可知,一方的观点认为生产大麻和大麻制品都是合法的。故选B)。
Part IV Cloze
31. C)。此处需要一个形容词作定语。全句大意为:Susan Koger博士在会议上宣读了一份很有启发性的报告,那就是大自然中某些有害物质可能导致人患诵读困难症等疾病。故选C) enlightening,意为"启发的"。
33. D)。此处考查短语subject sb / sth to sth,意为"经受,遭受"。全句大意为:Susan Koger强调说人一生当中有可能遭受7.5万甚至更多种人工合成化学物质的侵害。
34. A)。此处考查介词to的用法。exposure to sth表示"面临,遭受"。
35. C)。根据上文可知,此处考查be exposed to,意为"面临,遭受"。全句大意为:98%以上的家庭和80%以上的孕妇有可能遭受这些化学物质的侵害。
37. C)。此处考查at one time or another,意为"一度,曾经"。全句大意为:几乎人人都可能曾经被检测出尿液里含有这些有害物质。
38. A)。此处考查be of concern,意为"令人担忧的"。全句大意为:我们吃的食物中含有这些生化物质,这一点非常令人担忧。
40. B)。根据上下文,此处选B) indirectly。全句大意为:其中的523种生化物质间接出现在人的食物或动物饲料当中。
42. A)。此处选A) After all,意为"毕竟,究竟"。它起到对上句解释、说明的作用。全句大意为:毕竟,那就是这些生化物质为什么能杀死虫鼠的原因。
44. B)。此处选B) required最为合适。全句大意为:在投入使用之前,有关部门没有要求检测这些物质是否会对大脑有害。
45. B)。此处考查介词for的用法, 表示"为了"。
46. C)。此处选C) raises,意为"引起"。全句大意为:Koger博士的报告引起了人们的关注。
47. C)。此处考查短语in part,意为"部分地,在某种程度上"。全句大意为:在某种程度上,老教师们或许是对的,诵读困难症患者在学生群体中确实只占2%到3%。故选C)。
49. B)。此句前后形成递进关系,故选B) even。句意参见第48题的解析。
50. D)。此处选D) induced,意为"引起,导致"。句意参见第48题的解析。
Part V Translation
51. three times as big as it was ten years ago
52. Due to the bad weather
53. There is no doubt
54. rather than
55. As far as I am concerned