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洛基英语
精英培训
四级真题详解
·2004年1月英语四级真题详解
·2003年9月英语四级真题详解
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·2000年1月英语四级真题详解
中国四六级考试网 >> 模拟试题
大学英语四级考试全真预测试卷
http://www.china-cet.com        来源:文都教育        发布时间:2008-12-18 08:29:39
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Model Test One

  Part IWriting(30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Choosing an Occupation. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese:

  1. 选择职业是一个人要面对的众多难题之一。

  2. 需要花时间去选择职业。

  3. 选择职业时可以向多人寻求建议和帮助。

Part IIReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)

  Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the question on Answer Sheet 1.

  For questions 1-7, mark

  Y (for YES)if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;

  N (for NO)if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;

  NG (for NOT GIVEN)if the information is not given in the passage.

  For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

  Will We Run Out of Water?

  Picture a “ghost ship” sinking into the sand, left to rot on dry land by a receding sea. Then imagine dust storms sweeping up toxic pesticides and chemical fertilizers from the dry seabed and spewing them across towns and villages.

  Seem like a scene from a movie about the end of the world? For people living near the Aral Sea in Central Asia, it’s all too real. Thirty years ago, government planners diverted the rivers that flow into the sea in order to irrigate(provide water for)farmland. As a result, the sea has shrunk to half its original size, stranding ships on dry land. The seawater has tripled in salt content and become polluted, killing all 24 native species of fish.

  Similar largescale efforts to redirect water in other parts of the world have also ended in ecological crisis, according to numerous environmental groups. But many countries continue to build massive dams and irrigation systems, even though such projects can create more problems than they fix. Why? People in many parts of the world are desperate for water, and more people will need more water in the next century.

  “Growing populations will worsen problems with water,” says Peter H. Gleick, an environmental scientist at the Pacific Institute for studies in Development, Environment, and Security, a research organization in California. He fears that by the year 2025, as many as onethird of the world’s projected 8.3 billion people will suffer from water shortages.

  Where Water Goes

  Only 2.5 percent of all water on Earth is freshwater, water suitable for drinking and growing food, says Sandra Postel, director of the Global Water Policy Project in Amherst, Mass. Twothirds of this freshwater is locked in glaciers and ice caps. In fact, only a tiny percentage of freshwater is part of the water cycle, in which water evaporates and rises into the atmosphere, then condenses and falls back to Earth as precipitation(rain or snow).

  Some precipitation runs off land to lakes and oceans, and some becomes groundwater, water that seeps into the earth. Much of this renewable freshwater ends up in remote places like the Amazon river basin in Brazil, where few people live. In fact, the world’s population has access to only 12,500 cubic kilometers of freshwater—about the amount of water in Lake Superior. And people use half of this amount already. “If water demand continues to climb rapidly,” says Postel, “there will be severe shortages and damage to the aquatic environment.”

  Close to Home

  Water woes may seem remote to people living in rich countries like the United States. But Americans could face serious water shortages, too especially in areas that rely on groundwater. Groundwater accumulates in aquifers, layers of sand and gravel that lie between soil and bedrock. (For every liter of surface water, more than 90 liters are hidden underground).Although the United States has large aquifers, farmers, ranchers, and cities are tapping many of them for water faster than nature can replenish it. In northwest Texas, for example, over pumping has shrunk groundwater supplies by 25 percent, according to Postel.

  Americans may face even more urgent problems from pollution. Drinking water in the United States is generally safe and meets high standards. Nevertheless, one in five Americans every day unknowingly drinks tap water contaminated with bacteria and chemical wastes, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. In Milwaukee, 400,000 people fell ill in 1993 after drinking tap water tainted with cryptosporidium, a microbe that causes fever, diarrhea and vomiting.

  The Source

  Where so contaminants come from? In developing countries, people dump raw sewage into the same streams and rivers from which they draw water for drinking and cooking; about 250 million people a year get sick from water borne diseases.

  In developed countries, manufacturers use 100,000 chemical compounds to make a wide range of products. Toxic chemicals pollute water when released untreated into rivers and lakes. (Certain compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, have been banned in the United States.)

  But almost everyone contributes to water pollution. People often pour household cleaners, car antifreeze, and paint thinners down the drain; All of these contain hazardous chemicals. Scientists studying water in the San Francisco Bay reported in 1996 that 70 percent of the pollutants could be traced to household waste.

  Farmers have been criticized for overusing herbicides and pesticides, chemicals that kill weeds and insects but that pollutes water as well. Farmers also use nitrates, nitrogenrich fertilizer that helps plants grow but that can wreak havoc on the environment. Nitrates are swept away by surface runoff to lakes and seas. Too many nitrates “over enrich” these bodies of water, encouraging the buildup of algae, or microscopic plants that live on the surface of the water. Algae deprive the water of oxygen that fish need to survive, at times choking off life in an entire body of water.

  What’s the Solution?

  Water expert Gleick advocates conservation and local solutions to waterrelated problems; governments, for instance, would be better off building smallscale dams rather than huge and disruptive projects like the one that ruined the Aral Sea.

  “More than 1 billion people worldwide don’t have access to basic clean drinking water,” says Gleick. “There has to be a strong push on the part of everyonegovernments and ordinary people—to make sure we have a resource so fundamental to life.”

  1. That the huge water projects have diverted the rivers causes the Aral Sea to shrink.

  2. The construction of massive dams and irrigation projects does more good than harm.

  3. The chief causes of water shortage are population growth and water pollution.

  4. The problems Americans face concerning water are ground water shrinkage and tap water pollution.

  5. According to the passage all water pollutants come from household waste.

  6. The people living in the United States will not be faced with water shortages.

  7. Water expert Gleick has come up with the best solution to waterrelated problems.

  1.[Y][N][NG]2.[Y][N][NG]3.[Y][N][NG]4.[Y][N][NG]

  5.[Y][N][NG]6.[Y][N][NG]7.[Y][N][NG]

  8. According to Peter H. Gleick, by the year 2025, as many as of the world’s people will suffer from water shortages.

  9.Two thirds of the freshwater on Earth is locked in.

  10.In developed countries, before toxic chemicals are released into rivers and lakes, they should be treated in order to avoid.
Part IIIListening Comprehension(35 minutes)

Section A

Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A],[B],[C] and[D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.


11.[A]Wait for the sale to start.

[B]Get further information about the sale.

[C]Call the TV station to be sure if the ad is true.

[D]Buy a new suit.


12.[A]He doesn’t think that John is ill.

[B]He thinks that perhaps John is not in very good health.

[C]He is aware that John is ill.

[D]He doesn’t think that John has a very good knowledge of physics.


13.[A]Before six.
[B]At six.
[C]After six.
[D]After seven.


14.[A]It is bigger.
[B]It is of a prettier color.

[C]It has a larger yard.
[D]It is brighter.


15.[A]Australian and American.
[B]Guest and host.

[C]Husband and wife.
[D]Professor and student.


16.[A]1∶30
[B]11∶00
[C]9∶30
[D]10∶00


17.[A]He prefers staying at home because the bus is too late.

[B]He prefers staying at home because he doesn’t like to travel.

[C]He prefers taking a bus because the plane makes him nervous.

[D]He prefers traveling with the woman.


18.[A]He thinks she should visit her cousin.

[B]Her cousin doesn’t visit very often.

[C]Her cousin is feeling a lot better today.

[D]He doesn’t think her cousin has been at home today.


Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

19.[A]Two different types of bones in the human body.

[B]How bones help the body move.

[C]How bones continuously repair themselves.

[D]The chemical composition of human bones.


20.[A]They defend the bone against viruses.

[B]They prevent oxygen from entering the bone.

[C]They break down bone tissue.

[D]They connect the bone to muscle tissue.


21.[A]They have difficulty identifying these cells.

[B]They aren’t sure how these cells work.

[C]They’ve learned how to reproduce these cells.

[D]They’ve found similar cells in other species.


22.[A]To learn how to prevent a bone disease.

[B]To understand differences between bone tissue and other tissue.

[C]To find out how specialized bone cells have evolved.

[D]To create artificial bone tissue.


Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

23.[A]A new fuel for buses.

[B]The causes of air pollution.

[C]A way to improve fuel efficiency in buses.

[D]Careers in environmental engineering.


24.[A]Her car is being repaired.

[B]She wants to help reduce pollution.

[C]Parking is difficult in the city.

[D]The cost of fuel has increased.


25.[A]A fuel that burns cleanly.

[B]An oil additive that helps cool engines.

[C]A material from which filters are made.

[D]An insulating material sprayed on engine parts.
Section B

Directions:In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D].Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.


Passage One

Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

26.[A]From three to five months.
[B]Three months.
[C]Five months.
[D]Four months.


27.[A]Watch traffic.
[B]Obey commands.
[C]Cross streets safely.
[D]Guard the door.


28.[A]Three weeks.
[B]Two weeks.
[C]Four weeks.
[D]Five weeks.


Passage Two

Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

29.[A]Two to four times.
[B]Four to six times.
[C]Four to eight times.
[D]Six to ten times.


30.[A]Sleeping pills made people go into REM sleep quickly.

[B]People had more dreams after they took sleeping pills.

[C]People became angry easily because they didn’t take sleeping pills.

[D]Sleeping pills prevented people from going into REM sleep.


31.[A]People dream so as to sleep better.

[B]People dream in order not to go into REM sleep.

[C]Because they may run into difficult problems in their dreams.

[D]Because in their dreams they may find the answers to their problems.


Passage Three

Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

32.[A]A sales representative.
[B]A store manager.
[C]A committee chairperson.
[D]A class president.


33.[A]To determine who will graduate this year.

[B]To discuss the seating arrangement.

[C]To choose the chairperson of the ceremonies.

[D]To begin planning the graduation ceremonies.


34.[A]Their names, phone numbers and job preference.

[B]The names and addresses of their guests.

[C]The names of the committee they worked on last year.

[D]Their dormitory name, address and phone number.


35.[A]In an hour.
[B]Next week.
[C]In one month.
[D]Next year.
Section C

  Directions:In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in you own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  In the English (36)system, students take three very important examinations. The first is the elevenplus, which is (37) at the age of eleven or a little past. At one time the (38)or (39)shown on the elevenplus would have (40)if a child stayed in school. Now, however, all children continue in (41) schools, and the elevenplus determines which courses of study the child will follow. At the age of fifteen or sixteen, the students are (42)for the Ordinary (43)of the General Certificate of Education. (44). Once students have passed this exam, they are allowed to specialize, so that twothirds or more of their courses will be in physics, chemistry, classical languages, or whatever they wish to study at greater length. (45). Even at the universities, students study only in their concentrated area, and very few students ever venture outside that subject again. (46).
Section C

  Directions:In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in you own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  In the English (36)system, students take three very important examinations. The first is the elevenplus, which is (37) at the age of eleven or a little past. At one time the (38)or (39)shown on the elevenplus would have (40)if a child stayed in school. Now, however, all children continue in (41) schools, and the elevenplus determines which courses of study the child will follow. At the age of fifteen or sixteen, the students are (42)for the Ordinary (43)of the General Certificate of Education. (44). Once students have passed this exam, they are allowed to specialize, so that twothirds or more of their courses will be in physics, chemistry, classical languages, or whatever they wish to study at greater length. (45). Even at the universities, students study only in their concentrated area, and very few students ever venture outside that subject again. (46).
Part ⅣReading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)(25 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions:In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

  Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  Shopping habits in the United States have changed greatly in the last quarter of the 20th century. 47 in the 1900s most American towns and cities had a Main Street. Main Street was always the heart of a town. This street was lined on the both sides with many 48 businesses. Here, shoppers walked into stores to look at all sorts of merchandise: clothing, furniture, hardware, groceries. In addition, some shops offered49. There shops included drugstores, restaurants, shoe repair stores, and barber or hairdressing shops. But in the 1950s, a change began to 50place. Too many automobiles had crowded into Main Street while too few parking places were 51to shoppers. Because the streets were crowded, merchants began to look with interest at the open spaces outside the city limits. Open space is what their car driving customers needed. And open space is what they got when the first shopping centre was built. Shopping centers, or rather malls, 52as a collection of small new stores away from crowded city centers.53b

  y hundreds of free parking space, customers were drawn away from 54areas to outlying malls. And the growing55of shopping centers led in turn to the building of bigger and better stocked stores. By the late 1970s, many shopping malls had almost developed into small cities themselves. In addition to providing the  56 of the stop shopping, malls were transformed into landscaped parks, with benches, fountains, and outdoor entertainment.

  [A]designed[F]convenience[K]cosmetics

  [B]take[G]services[L]started

  [C]Early[H]fame[M]downtown

  [D]Attracted[I]various[N]available

  [E] though[J] popularity[O]cheapness&
Section B

  Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D].You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  Culture is one of the most challenging elements of the international marketplace. This system of learned behavior patterns characteristic of the members of a given society is constantly shaped by a set of dynamic variables: language, religion, values and attitudes, manners and customs, aesthetics, technology, education, and social institutions. To cope with this system, an international manager needs both factual and interpretive knowledge of culture. To some extent, the factual knowledge can be learned; its interpretation comes only through experience.

  The most complicated problems in dealing with the cultural environment stem from the fact that one cannot learn cultureone has to live it. Two schools of thought exist in the business world on how to deal with cultural diversity. One is that business is business the world around, following the model of Pepsi and McDonald’s. In some cases, globalization is a fact of life; however, cultural differences are still far from converging.

  The other school proposes that companies must tailor business approaches to individual cultures. Setting up policies and procedures in each country has been compared to an organ transplant; the critical question centers around acceptance or rejection. The major challenge to the international manager is to make sure that rejection is not a result of cultural myopia or even blindness.

  Fortune examined the international performance of a dozen large companies that earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas. The internationally successful companies all share an important quality: patience. They have not rushed into situations but rather built their operations carefully by following the most basic business principles. These principles are to know your adversary, know your audience, and know your customer.

  57.According to the passage, which of the following is true?

  [A]All international managers can learn culture.

  [B]Business diversity is not necessary.

  [C]Views differ on how to treat culture in business world.

  [D]Most people do not know foreign culture well.

  58.According to the author, the model of Pepsi.

  [A]is in line with the theories of the school advocating the business is business the world around.

  [B]is different from the model of McDonald’s

  [C]shows the reverse of globalization

  [D]has converged cultural differences

  59.The two schools of thought.

  [A]both propose that companies should tailor business approaches to individual cultures

  [B]both advocate that different policies be set up in different countries

  [C]admit the existence of cultural diversity in business world

  [D]Both A and B

  60.This article is supposed to be most useful for those.

  [A]who are interested in researching the topic of cultural diversity

  [B]who have connections to more than one type of culture

  [C]who want to travel abroad

  [D]who want to run business on International Scale

  61.According to Fortune, successful international companies.

  [A]earn 20 percent or more of their revenue overseas

  [B]all have the quality of patience

  [C]will follow the overseas local cultures

  [D]adopt the policy of internationalization

  Passage Two

  Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.

  There are people in Italy who can’t stand soccer. Not all Canadians love hockey. A similar situation exists in America, where there are those individuals you may be one of them who yawn or even frown when somebody mentions baseball. Baseball to them means boring hours watching grown men in funny tight outfits standing around in a field staring away while very little of anything happens. They tell you it’s a game better suited to the 19th century, slow, quiet, and gentlemanly. These are the same people you may be one of them who love football because there’s the sport that glorifies “the hit”.

  By contrast, baseball seems abstract, cool, silent, still.

  On TV the game is fractured into a dozen perspectives, replays, closeups. The geometry of the game, however, is essential to understanding it. You will contemplate the game from one point as a painter does his subject; you may, of course, project yourself into the game. It is in this projection that the game affords so much space and time for involvement. The TV won’t do it for you.

  Take, for example, the third baseman. You sit behind the third base dugout and you watch him watching home plate. His legs are apart, knees flexed. His arms hang loose. He does a lot of this. The skeptic still cannot think of any other sports so still, so passive. But watch what happens every time the pitcher throws: the third baseman goes up on his toes, flexes his arms or bring the glove to a point in front of him, takes a step right or left, backward or forward, perhaps he glances across the field to check his first baseman’s position. Suppose the pitch is a ball. “Nothing happened,” you say. “I could have had my eyes closed.”

  The skeptic and the innocent must play the game. And this involvement in the stands is no more intellectual than listening to music is. Watch the third baseman. Smooth the dirt in front of you with one foot; smooth the pocket in your glove; watch the eyes of the batter, the speed of the bat, the sound of horsehide on wood. If football is a symphony of movement and theatre, baseball is chamber music, a spacious interlocking of notes, chores and responses.

  62.The passage is mainly concerned with .

  [A]the different tastes of people for sports

  [B]the different characteristics of sports

  [C]the attraction of football

  [D]the attraction of baseball

  63.Those who don’t like baseball may complain that.

  [A]it is only to the taste of the old

  [B]it involves fewer players than football

  [C]it is not exciting enough

  [D]it is pretentious and looks funny

  64.The author admits that.

  [A]baseball is too peaceful for the young

  [B]baseball may seem boring when watched on TV

  [C]football is more attracting than baseball

  [D]baseball is more interesting than football

  65.By stating “I could have had my eyes closed.” the author means (4th paragraph last sentence).

  [A]The third baseman would rather sleep than play the game

  [B]Even if the third baseman closed his eyes a moment ago, it could make no different to the result

  [C]The third baseman is so good at baseball that he could finish the game with eyes closed all the time and do his work well

  [D]The consequent was too bad he could not bear to see it

  66.We can safely conclude that the author.

  [A]likes football

  [B]hates football

  [C]hates baseball

  [D]likes baseball
Part ⅤCloze (15 minutes)

  Directions:There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Who won the World Cup 1994 football game? What happened at the United Nations? How did the critics like the new play? 67an event takes

  place; newspapers are on the streets68the details. Wherever anything happens in the world, reports are on the spot to69the news. Newspapers

  have one basic70, to get the news as quickly as possible from its source, from those who make it to those who want to71it. Radio, telegraph, television,and

  72inventions brought competition for newspapers. So did the development of magazines and other means of communication. 73, this competition merely spurred the newspapers on. They quickly made use of the newer and faster means of communication to improve the74and thus the efficiency of their own operations. Today more newspapers are75and read than ever before. Competition also led newspapers to branch out to many other fields. Besides keeping readers76of

  the latest news, today’s newspapers77and influence readers about politics and other important and serious matters. Newspapers influence readers’

  economic choices78advertising. Most newspapers

  depend on advertising for their very79.News

  papers is sold at a price that80even a small

  fraction of the cost of production. The main81of income for most newspapers is commercial advertising. The82in selling advertising depends on a

  newspaper’s value to advertisers. This83in terms of circulation. How many people read the newspaper? Circulation depends84on the work of the circulation department and on the services or entertainment85 in a newspaper’s pages. But for the most part, circulation depends on a newspaper’s value to readers as a source of information 86 the community, city, country, state, nation, and worldand even outer space.

  67.[A] Just when[B] While

  [C] Soon after[D] Before

  68.[A] to give[B] giving

  [C] given[D] being given

  69.[A] gather[B] spread

  [C] carry[D] bring

  70.[A] reason[B] cause

  [C] problem[D] purpose

  71.[A] make[B] publish

  [C] know[D] write

  72.[A] another[B]other

  [C] one another[D] the other

  73.[A] However[B] And

  [C] Therefore[D] So

  74.[A] value[B] ratio

  [C] rate[D] speed

  75.[A]spread[B] passed

  [C] printed[D] completed

  76.[A] inform[B] be informed

  [C] to informed[D] informed

  77.[A] entertain[B] encourage

  [C] educate[D] edit

  78.[A] on[B] through

  [C] with[D] of

  79.[A] forms[B] existence

  [C] contents[D] purpose

  80.[A] tries to cover

  [B]manages to cover

  [C] fails to cover

  [D] succeeds in

  81.[A] source [B] origin

  [C] course[D] finance

  82.[A] way[B] means

  [C] chance [D] success

  83.[A] measures[B] measured

  [C] is measured[D] was measured

  84.[A] somewhat [B] little

  [C] much[D] something

  85.[A] offering[B] offered

  [C] which offered[D] to be offered

  86.[A] by [B] with

  [C] at[D] about
Part ⅥTranslation(5 minutes)

Direction:Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.


87.There’s a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means (想找麻烦).


88.Why didn’t you tell me you could lend me the money? I (本来不必从银行借钱的).


89.(正是由于她太没有经验) that she does not know how to deal with the situation.


90.I (将在做实验) from three to five this afternoon.


91.If this can’t be settled reasonably, it may be necessary to (诉诸武力).

答案部分

写作思路】
本文是一篇关于择业的议论文。说明慎重择业相当重要,并提出多种指导择业的方法。

【参考范文】

Choosing an Occupation
One of the most important problems a young person faces is deciding what to do. There are some people, of course, who from the time they are six years old “know” that they want to be doctors or pilots or fire fighters, but the majority of us do not get around to making a decision about an occupation or career until somebody or something forces us to face the problem.
Choosing an occupation takes time, and there are a lot of things you have to think about as you try to decide what you would like to do. You may find that you will have to take special courses to qualify for a particular kind of work, or you may find out that you will need to get actual work experience to gain enough knowledge to qualify for a particular job.
Fortunately, there are a lot of people you can turn to for advice and help in making your decision. At most schools, there are teachers who are professionally qualified to give you detailed information about job qualifications. And you can talk over your ideas with family members and friends who are always ready to listen and to offer suggestions.
Part IIReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)


1.【解析】[Y]该句的意思是巨大的河流改道水利工程使得咸海缩小。从第二段的中间两句话可得出结论。Thirty years ago, government planners diverted the rivers that flow into the sea in order to irrigate(provide water for)farmland. As a result, the sea has shrunk to half its original size, stranding ships on dry land.与原文意思相同。


2.【解析】[N]该句句意为:巨坝和灌溉工程的建设好处多于坏处。解题依据为本文第三段第二句话But many countries continue to build massive dams and irrigation systems, even though such projects can create more problems than they fix. (虽然产生更多问题,许多国家仍继续建巨坝和灌溉工程。)由此可知,坏处多于好处,所以该题与原文之义不合。



3.【解析】[Y]该句句意为:缺水的主要原因是人口增长和水污染。本题解题依据可定位到本文第四段第一句话 Growing populations will worsen problems with water... 及第十一段第一句话But almost everyone contributes to water pollution. 两者都是水资源缺乏的原因,与原文之义相符。


4.【解析】[Y]该句句意为:美国人面临的有关水的问题为地下水的减少和污染。本题解题依据为第七段第二句话和第八段第三句话,这两句话加在一起即为美国人所面临的水资源方面的问题,与原文之义相符。


5.【解析】[N]该句句意为:根据这篇文章,所有水的污染都来自于家庭废弃物。本题解题依据为第十一段最后一句话...70 percent of the pollutants could be traced to household waste (百分之七十的污染物源于家庭废弃物),据此,本题之意与原文之义不合。


6.【解析】[N]该句句意为:美国人将不会面临缺水问题。该题解题依据为文章第七段第二句话 But Americans could face serious water shortages, too, especially in areas that rely on groundwater, 显然本题之意与原文之义不合。


7.【解析】[NG]该句句意为:水利专家Gleick 提供了与水相关的最佳解决方案。根据本文第十三段第一句话所述,专家Gleick 并未提供任何最佳解决方案。


8.【解析】onethird 解题依据为第四段最后一句话:He fears that by the year 2025, as many as onethird of the world’s projected 8.3 billion people will suffer from water shortages.


9.【解析】glaciers and ice caps 解题依据为第五段第二句话:Twothirds of this freshwater is locked in glaciers and ice caps.


10.【解析】water pollution 解题依据为第十段第二句话:Toxic chemicals pollute water when released untreated into rivers and lakes.
Part IIIListening Comprehension

Section A

11.W∶ I just saw an ad on television that said men’s suits were on sales today and tomorrow at Conrad’s Men’s Wear.


M∶Great! That’s just what I’ve been waiting for.


Q∶What will the man probably do?


【解析】[D]男士说男士套装的特价销售正是他一直等待着的。所以从他的态度可判断,他要去买件男装。


12.W: Is John really ill?

M:It’s hard to say. I doubt there’s anything wrong with him physically.


Q: What does the man mean?



【解析】[A]从男士的话:我怀疑约翰的身体没有任何问题中可看出答案。


13.M:Do you know if the book shop is still open?


W:Yes, it’s open till six.

Q:When do you think this conversation took place?


【解析】[A] 女士说书店现在还开着,一直开到六点呢,说明现在的时间是在六点之前。


14.M:Of the two houses we saw today, which do you prefer?


W:I think the white one is prettier, but the brick one has a bigger yard, so I like it better.


Q:Why does the woman like the brick house better than the white house?


【解析】[C]女士明确指出 the brick one has a bigger yard, so I like it better.


15. M:Honey, we’ll have a guest from Australia, a friend of mine. He’ll stay in California for two weeks.


W:Yes. Your friend Andy. He was your classmate at London University, wasn’t he?


Q:What is the probable relationship between the two speakers?


【解析】[C]男士称女士为 honey, 证明两人关系亲密,由此可判断两人关系为夫妻。


16.M: When will the meeting begin?

W:According to the schedule it should be at 9:30. It will last for an hour and a half.


Q:When will the meeting be closed?


【解析】[B]根据女士所说的话,根据时刻表会议9∶30开始,持续一个半小时,那么即11:00结束。


17. W:If I were you, I would take a plane instead of a bus. It will take you forever to go there.


M:But flying makes me so nervous.


Q: What does the man prefer to do?

【解析】[C] 女士建议男士乘飞机,男士回答说飞行让他精神紧张,说明男士还是愿意乘坐公共汽车。


18. W:I’ve been thinking about my cousin a lot today.


M:Why not go over for a visit?

Q:What does the man mean?

【解析】[A]男士说的 Why not go over for a visit 即是在建议女士去看望她的堂兄。


Now you’ll hear two long conversations.

Conversation One

W:Ok, last night you were supposed to read an article about human bones. Are there any comments about it?


M:Well, to begin with, I was surprised to find out there was so much going on in bones. I always assumed they were pretty lifeless.


W:Well, that’s an assumption many people make. But the fact is bones are made of dynamic living tissue that requires continuous maintenance and repair.


M:Right. That’s one of the things I found so fascinating about the article the way the bones repair themselves.


W:Ok. So can you tell us how the bones repair themselves?


M:Sure. See, there are two groups of different types of specialized cells in the bone that work together to do it. The first group goes to an area of the bone that needs repair. This group of cells produces the chemical that actually breaks down the bone tissue, and leaves a hole in it. After that the second group of specialized cells comes and produces the new tissue that fills in the hole that was made by the first group.


W:Very good. This is a very complex process. In fact, the scientists who study human bones don’t completely understand it yet. They are still trying to find out how it all actually works. Specifically, because sometimes after the first group of cells leaves a hole in the bone tissue, for some reason, the second group doesn’t completely fill in the hole. And this can cause real problems. It can actually lead to a disease in which the bone becomes weak and is easily broken.


M:Ok, I get it. So if the scientists can figure out what makes the specialized cells work, maybe they can find a way to make sure the second group of cells completely fills the hole in the bone tissue every time. That’ll prevent the disease from ever occurring.


Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

19.What is the discussion mainly about?

【解析】[C]对话一开始就谈论人类骨骼的问题,女士说 But the fact is bones are made of dynamic living tissue that requires continuous maintenance and repair. 后面的对话都是针对这个话题展开的讨论,可见整个对话讨论的话题是骨骼的自我修复能力。


20.What is the function of the first group of specialized cells discussed in the talk?

【解析】[C]男士解释了第一组细胞的作用,第一组细胞生成一种化学物质分解骨组织(This group of cells produces the chemical that actually breaks down the bone tissue…),由此可见答案是They break down bone tissue.


21.What does the professor say about scientists who study the specialized cells in human bones?

【解析】[B]女士说这种特殊细胞作用于人类骨骼的过程相当复杂,事实上,连研究人类骨骼的科学家都不能完全了解这个过程。从这一句中可以知道:In fact, the scientists who study human bones don’t completely understand it yet. 所以答案即是这些科学家也不完全知道这些细胞如何工作。


22.According to the student, what is one important purpose of studying specialized cells in human bones?

【解析】[A]学习这些人类骨骼中的特殊细胞的重要目的是为了学习如何预防骨头疾病。从男士的这一句话中可看出:That’ll prevent the disease from ever occurring. 这样可以在疾病发生之前预防疾病,可见[A]符合题意。


Conversation Two

M: Hi Diana, mind if I sit down?

W: Not at all, Jerry. How have you been?

M:Good. But I’m surprised to see you on the city bus. Your car in the shop?


W:No. I’ve just been thinking a lot about the environment lately. So I decided the air will be a lot cleaner if we all use public transportation when we could.


M:I’m sure you are right. The diesel bus isn’t exactly pollution free.


W:True. They’ll be running a lot cleaner soon. We were just talking about that in my environmental engineering class.


M:What could the city do? Install pollution filters in all their buses?


W:They could, but those filters make the engines work harder and really cut down on the fuel efficiency. Instead they found a way to make their engines more efficient.


M: How?

W:Well, there is a material that’s a really good insulator. And a thin coat of it gets sprayed on the certain part of the engine.


M: An insulator?

W:Yeah. What it does is reflect back the heat of burning fuel. So the fuel will burn much hotter and burn up more completely.


M:So a lot less unburned fuel comes out to pollute the air.


W:And the bus will need less fuel. So with the saving on fuel cost, they say this will all pay for itself in just six months.


M:Sounds like people should all go out and get some this stuff to spray their car engines.


W:Well, it’s not really that easy. You see, normally, the materials are fine powder. To melt it so you can spray a coat of it on the engine parts, you first have to heat it over 10000 degrees and then, well, you get the idea. It’s not something you or I will be able to do ourselves.



Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.


23.What is the conversation mainly about?

【解析】[C]女士说为了环保应该多乘坐公共交通设备,因此之后的话题便围绕如何节能保护环境的问题展开。这段对话主要讨论的是公共汽车的节能问题,讨论了如何让公共汽车燃料更有效的利用,因此[C]符合题意。



24.Why did the woman decide to ride the city bus?

【解析】[B]对话开头部分就交代了此题答案,那位女士说她不开自己的车而乘坐公车是为了降低环境污染。从她提到的So I decided the air will be a lot cleaner if we all use public transportation when we could 即可得知。


25.What is the new material?

【解析】[D] 这种新的材料是在引擎部位喷洒的一种绝缘材料。从女士的话中there is a material that’s a really good insulator. And a thin coat of it gets sprayed on the certain part of the engine即可得出。这种材料的用途是将燃料燃烧的热量反射回去,从而达到提高效率的结果。
Section B

Passage One
A guide dog is a dog especially trained to guide a blind person. Dogs chosen for such training must show good intelligence, physical fitness, and responsibility.
At the age of about fourteen months, a guide dog begins an intensive course that lasts from three to five months. It becomes accustomed to the leather harness and stiff leather handle it will wear when guiding its blind owner. The dog learns to watch traffic and to cross streets safely. It also learns to obey any command that might lead its owner into danger.
The most important part of the training course is a fourweek program in which the guide dog and its future owner learn to work together. However, many blind people are unsuited by personality to work dogs. Only about a tenth of the blind find a guide dog useful.

Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

26. How long does the intensive course last?

【解析】[A]文中明确提到an intensive course that lasts from three to five months,因此正确答案为 [A]。


27.Which of the following is not a necessary skill guide dogs have to learn?

【解析】[D]答案依据是The dog learns to watch traffic and to cross streets safely. It also learns to obey any command that might lead its owner into danger. 从这两句中可看出看家不属于导盲犬训练范围内的技能。



28.How long does the most important training course last?

【解析】[C]最重要的训练课程持续四周。文中明确指出了本题答案。The most important part of the training course is a fourweek program,从此句中即可看出。



Passage Two
People dreams four to six times a night. They dream while they are in the REM stage of sleep, which means rapid eye movement stage in one’s sleep. Sleepers go into the REM stage about every 90 minutes. The first dream of the night may last about ten minutes. Each dream gets a little longer. The last dream of the night may be an hour long.
People need their dreams. Younger children spend more time dreaming. Babies spend almost half of their sleep in the REM stage.
One experiment showed that everyone needs to dream. Doctors gave some people sleeping pills. These sleeping pills didn’t let them going to REM sleep. After a few nights without dreams, they began to feel bad. They became angry easily, they worried a lot, and they wanted to fight with everyone. Then they stopped taking the sleeping pills. They all began to dream all night for a few nights to catch up.
Why do people dream? Dreams give them time to find the answers to some of their problems. If they think they will have difficult problems the next day, they may spend more time on REM sleep the night before. In their dreams, they may find an answer to their problems.

Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

29.How often does a person dream each night?

【解析】[B]文章一开始即交待了一个人一晚上要做梦四到六次。从第一句就可看出People dreams four to six times a night.因此,答案为 [B]。



30.What is true according to this passage?

【解析】[D]安眠药会阻止人们进入REM睡眠状态。These sleeping pills didn’t let them going to REM sleep.可看出 [D] 项正确。


31.Why do people dream?

【解析】[D]文中明确给出了答案Dreams give them time to find the answers to some of their problems.因为在梦中人可以找到自己的问题的答案。


Passage Three
O.K., everybody. Can we start the meeting now? I’m Jeff Milton, the chairperson of the Graduation Committee for this year. You’ve all been selected as representatives to plan the graduation ceremonies. I’m sending around the sheet of paper for you to fill in your name and telephone number. Also, please write down what part of the ceremonies you would like to work on. Remember, as a representative, you will have a lot of responsibilities. So only sign up if you feel you have the time to participate. When everyone has finished writing down the information, please return the paper to me. At our next meeting one week from today, we’ll start to discuss the details of the ceremonies.

Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

32.Who is the speaker?

【解析】[C]从文章开头说话者的自我介绍就可知道他是这个委员会的主席。


33.What is the purpose of the meeting?

【解析】[D]在座的代表都是被选来计划毕业典礼的事。


34.What should the students write on the paper?

【解析】[A]在座的学生应该在表格上填写姓名、电话以及工作意向。


35.When is the next meeting?

【解析】[B]从这句话At our next meeting one week from today可知下次会议在下周召开。
Section C

36.【答案解析】educational

【解析】本文讲的是英国的教育系统,主要讲了英国学生要参加的三次重要的考试。


37.【答案解析】taken

【解析】英国学生的首次升学考试是在十一岁左右进行。学生参加考试,此处是被动态主语是考试,因此用taken。


38.【答案解析】ability

【解析】学生的能力和才智将在elevenplus的升学考试里得到体现,从而决定其是否应留在学校继续学习,此空格即是能力ability一词。


39.【答案解析】aptitude

【解析】此空格内容与前一空格内容相关联,学生的能力和才智将在升学考试中得到体现,aptitude 是才智、智能的意思。


40.【答案解析】determined

【解析】英国学生参加的首次考试 elevenplus的结果将决定他们是否继续留校学习,因此此处空格填决定一词,而且又为被动语态,即为 determined。


41.【答案解析】comprehensive

【解析】现在所有的学生都进入综合中学继续学习,comprehensive意为“广泛的、综合的”。


42.【答案解析】tested

【解析】学生接受测试,主语是学生,语态为被动语态,因此用tested。


43.【答案解析】Level

【解析】一般水平即是ordinary level。Level即为水平、水准之意。


44.【答案解析】This examination covers a wide range of subjects.


45.【答案解析】The final examination, at eighteen, covers only the content of the special subjects.


46.【答案解析】In a real sense, the English boy or girl is a specialist from the age of fifteen.
Part ⅣReading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)


Section A

【短文大意】本文主要介绍了美国城镇人们购物方式的变化。

47.【解析】[C]20世纪早期,大多数美国城市和城镇都有一条主街道。20世纪早期即用early in the 1900s。


48.【解析】[I]这条街道排成一列,街道两边都是各式各样的商店。various 意为“不同的、各种各样的”


49.【解析】[G]另外,一些商店还提供服务。提供服务可用固定的搭配 offer services。


50.【解析】[B]所填词take 才能与后面的词place搭配,take place 为固定词组,意为“发生”。But in the 1950s, a change began to take place 意为20世纪50年代发生了巨大的变化。


51.【解析】[N]主街道充斥着太多的汽车,却没有地方给顾客停车。available 意为“可用到的、可利用的”,这里指没有可用的地方给顾客停车。


52.【解析】[L]Shopping centers, or rather malls, started as a collection of small new stores away from crowded city centers. 远离拥挤的城市中心很多小型的新商场聚集在一起构成了大规模购物中心。start 在此处是开业的意思。


53.【解析】[D]顾客们被许多免费的停车场所吸引,attracted 是被吸引之意。


54.【解析】[M]customers were drawn away from downtown areas to outlying malls.顾客们被从市中心区吸引到郊区的购物商场。市中心区即用downtown 一词。


55.【解析】[J]购物中心越来越流行,popularity即普及、流行之意。


56.【解析】[F]购物中心除了提供停车的便利之外,还提供其他服务。提供便利即用 provide convenience。


Section B

Passage One

【短文大意】本文主要讲述文化背景对商业运作的影响,文中列举了商界中存在的对于文化多样性的两种观点。

57.【解析】[C]推断题。意为“在商业中怎样对待文化有着不同意见”。 文化在商业中是一个很具挑战性的因素。不同的国家与地区可能会有不同的文化体系。在商业中,应该怎样对待不同的文化,商业界存在着不同的看法。


58.【解析】[A]细节题。Pepsi采纳的是国际化的商业风格,这与那些主张国际化的派别的意见是相一致的。


59.【解析】[C]推断题。意为“承认商业世界中文化的多元性”。两个派别都承认商业世界中文化的多元性。他们的不同在于,如何对待不同的文化,应该搞国际化还是对不同的文化采取不同的策略。


60.【解析】[D]主旨题。由文中的例子可以知道,作者主要关心的并不是研究多种文化形态,而是文化背景对商业运作的影响。所以D是正确答案。


61.【解析】[B]细节题。意为“都具有耐心这一素质”。即他们并不急于对号入座而是依据最基本的商业原则谨慎地建立自己的运行模式。


Passage Two

【短文大意】本文主要讲述垒球的特征及欣赏。

62.【解析】[D]主旨题。文章第一段简述了人们对垒球所持的偏见——认为它毫无活力、从容和缓,不像橄榄球那样高潮迭起、令人激动。文章的第二、三、四、五段探讨了垒球的根本特征及欣赏角度,文章的最后一句话用一个比喻概括了垒球的魅力:“如果橄榄球是一曲交响乐的话,那么,垒球中所表现出来的运动恰似一曲优美的室内乐。”可见,本文主要探讨的是垒球的特点及其欣赏。 A不对,第一段也确实提到了不同观众对不同运动形式的偏好,但这只是用以引出对垒球的特征及欣赏的讨论。


63.【解析】[C]细节题。文章第一段指出:许多人不喜欢垒球,一提起垒球这些人就打哈欠甚至皱眉头。对他们来说,看垒球意味着眼巴巴地观望着身着运动装(outfit)的人呆立在球场上,东瞧瞧西望望,很少有什么(激动人心的)事发生——没意思透了。他们认为这样的运动更适合上个世纪的人的口味,不像橄榄球那样充满活力。 A意为:“它只适合老年人的口味。”注意:原文说的是适合上个世纪的人的口味,二者意味不一样。 D意为:“它矫揉造作、滑稽可笑。”这与说它gentlemanly(具有绅士风度,矜持,即:没有冲撞或拼抢)不一样。


64.【解析】[B]推断题。第三段指出,在电视上,垒球运动被切换成不同角度的画面,而且不断地使用重放、特写等电视制作技术,这破坏了该运动的整体运动感,使观众无法将自己投入(project)到运动中去,以体会到这种寓动于静的运动之美。电视做不到这一点(The TV won’t do it for you),因此,电视上的垒球比赛看上去(seems)孤孤单单、冷冷清清、沉沉静静、慢慢腾腾。C、D不对,作者仅指出了不同运动有不同运动的特征,并未说哪种运动优于哪种。参阅文章最后一句。


65.【解析】[B]推断题。第四段整个都在描述垒球场上的一个场景:拿三垒的运动员假设对方全投出好球,做好了一切准备,但是对方投出的并不是好球。所以在那时候他的准备做不做都不会影响比赛结果。他说本来可以闭上眼睛,意思就是B项所写的。A、C、D都不符合作者的意图。这道题需要完整地了解第四段内容才能作好选择。


66.【解析】[D]推断题。在本文中,作者主要探讨了垒球的特征及欣赏,作者着重指出的是:只有根据垒球的特征来欣赏它,才能体会到它的魅力。在他看来,观察到垒球比赛中运动员的各种动作、垒球位之间的关系等是欣赏它的关键(第三段第二句)。只有从整体来把握它,才能看到每一个小的动作、每一个眼神乃至于“静止”的意义,也只有这样,才能全身心地投入比赛中,欣赏到它的魅力。可见,作者对垒球有很深的理解而且非常喜爱垒球。主要参考第三、四、五段。



Part ⅤCloze


67.【解析】[A]just在此为副词,意为“刚刚”,做状语。此句意为“一个事件刚刚发生,街上就有报纸报道详情了。”说明报纸对新闻的反应之快。


68.【解析】[A]to give和giving都合乎语法,但giving强调的是正在发生的动作,而此处重点表达的是“反应快”,不是正在做什么。


69.【解析】[A]消息,信息要靠收集。


70.【解析】[D]后面的不定式短语表示目的


71.【解析】[C]提供信息的目的是为了让他人知道,所以选C。


72.【解析】[B] other意为“其他的”。此句意为:无线电,电报,电视,及其他发明,成为报纸的竞争对手。


73.【解析】[A]根据句中的merely及其后所述内容,应选however,表转折。


74.【解析】[D]使用更新,更快的通信工具,目的是提高速度。


75.【解析】[C]报纸是印出来的,先印后看(读)。


76.【解析】[D]“keep sb. 过去分词”是一种复合结构,sb.与过去分词为被动关系,意为保持这种关系的继续。此句的意思是:报纸不断地为读者提供新闻信息。


77.【解析】[C]关于politics之类的严肃话题,只能选educate。


78.【解析】[B]此句意为:报纸通过广告影响读者在经济生活中的选择。


79.【解析】[B]大多数报纸依靠广告收入来维持生存,此现象人人皆知。


80.【解析】[C]报纸的售价之低,不足以抵付成本的一小部分。符合上下文关于广告收入的说法。


81.【解析】[A]收入来源应该用source。因为source指河流,泉水的发源地;常指抽象事物的根源或来源以及资料,信息的出处或来源。origin起源,起因。指事物后来发生,发展变化的最初起点,或指人的出身和血统。


82.【解析】[D]succeed in为固定短语。此句意为:广告业务的成功,取决于报纸在客户(要打广告的人)心中的价值。


83.【解析】[C]根据上下文,此处应该用一般现在时的被动语态,此句意为:报纸在客户心中的价值,是靠发行量衡量的。


84.【解析】[C]该句意为:发行量的大小,很大程度上取决于发行部门的工作及报纸所提供的服务功能和娱乐功能。


85.【解析】[B]offered作services和entertainment的定语。


86.【解析】[D]information后面接介词about,表示“关于”。
Part ⅥTranslation


87.【答案解析】to make trouble

【解析】找麻烦用固定词组make trouble即可,make trouble 即制造麻烦,捣乱之意。


88.【答案解析】needn’t have borrowed it from the bank.

【解析】本题考查虚拟语气的用法,needn’t have done的结构是本不必这样做而做了的意思。


89.【答案解析】It is because she is too inexperienced

【解析】没有经验可以用一个形容词来翻译,即inexperienced。


90.【答案解析】will be doing/conducting the experiment

【解析】本题考查将来时态的用法,做实验既可用do experiment也可用conduct experiment。


91.【答案解析】resort to force

【解析】本题亦考查固定词组用法,诉诸武力有固定词组resort to force。

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