Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
Women often complain that dating is like a cattle market, and a paper just published in Biology Letters by Thomas Pollet and Daniel Nettle of Newcastle University, in England, suggests they are right. They have little cause for complaint, however, because the paper also suggests that in this particular market, it is women who are the buyers.
Mr. Pollet and Dr. Nettle were looking for evidence to support the contention that women choose men of high status and resources, as well as good looks. That may sound common sense, but it was often denied by social scientists until a group of researchers who called themselves evolutionary psychologists started investigating the matter two decades ago. Since then, a series of experiments in laboratories have supported the contention. But as all zoologists know, experiments can only tell you so much. Eventually, you have to look at natural populations.
And that is what Mr. Pollet and Dr. Nettle have done. They have examined data from the 1910 census of the United States of America that marriage is, indeed, a market. Moreover, as in any market, a scarcity of buyers means the sellers have to have particularly attractive goods on offer if they are to make the exchange.
The advantage of picking 1910 was that America had not yet settled down, demographically(人口统计学方面) speaking. Though the long-colonized eastern states had a sex ratio of one , or thereabouts, in the rest of the country the old adage(格言，谚语)“go west, young man” had resulted in a surplus of males. Mr. Pollet and Dr. Nettle were thus able to see just how picky women are, given the chance.
Rather than looking at the whole census, the two researchers relied on a sample of one person in 250.They then assigned the men in the sample a socioeconomic status score between zero and 96, on a scale drawn up in 1950.They showed that in states where the sexes were equal in number, 56% of low status men were married by the age of 30, while 60% of high status men were. As the men went west, then, so did their marriage opportunities.
47. A paper published in Biology Letters agreed with women that ________ .
48. What is the contention which is often denied by social scientists?
49. Although the experiments support the contention, all zoologists suggest that________ .
50. In the market of marriage, a scarcity of buyers means sellers have to________________________ to make the exchange.
51. What had given two researchers the chance to see how picky women were?
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
With the possible exception of equal rights, perhaps the most controversial issue across the United States today is the death penalty. Many argue that it is an effective deterrent (威慑) to murder, while others maintain there is no convincing evidence that the death penalty reduces murders.
The principal argument advanced by those opposed to the death penalty, basically, is that it is cruel and inhuman punishment, which is the mark of a brutal society, and finally that it is of questionable effectiveness as a deterrent to crime anyway.
In our opinion, the death penalty is a necessary evil. Throughout recorded history there have always been those extreme individuals in every society who were capable of terribly violent crimes such as murder. But some are more extreme than others.
For example, it is one thing to take the life of another in a fit of blind rage, but quite another to coldly plot and carry out the murder of one or more people in the style of a butcher. Thus, murder, like all other crimes, is a matter of relative degree. While it could be argued with some conviction that the criminal in the first instance should be merely isolated from society, such should not be the fate of the latter type murderer.
The value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime may be open to debate. But the overwhelming majority of citizens believe that the death penalty protects them. Their belief is reinforced by evidence which shows that the death penalty deters murder. For example, from 1954 to 1963, when the death penalty was consistently imposed in California, the murder rate remained between three and four murders for each 100,000 population. Since 1964 the death penalty has been imposed only once, and the murder rate has risen to 10.4 murders for each 100,000 population. The sharp climb in the state’s murder rate, which began when executions stopped, is no coincidence. It is convincing evidence that the death penalty does deter many murderers. If the bill reestablishing the death penalty is vetoed, innocent people will be murdered—some whose lives may have been saved if the death penalty were in effect. This is literally a life or death matter. The lives of thousands of innocent people must be protected.
52. The principal purpose of this passage is to___________.
A) speak for the majority
B) initiate a veto
C) criticize the government
D) argue for the value of the death penalty
53. The author’s response to those who urge the death penalty for all is likely to be _________.
A) negative B) friendly
C) supportive D) hostile
54. According to the Paragraph 4, it can be inferred that___________ .
A) the death penalty is the most controversial issue in the United States today
B) the second type of murderers should be sentenced to death
C) the veto of the bill reestablishing the death penalty is of little importance
D) the value of the death penalty as a deterrent to crime is not to be debated
55. The passage attempts to establish a relationship between_______________ .
A) the murder rate and the imposition of the death penalty
B) the effects of execution and the effects of isolation
C) the importance of equal rights and that of the death penalty
D) executions and murders
56. The author’s attitude towards “death penalty” is .
A) opposing B) supporting C) neutral D) sarcastic
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
One positive consequence of our current national crisis may be at least a temporary shadow in Hollywood’s culture of violence. Fearful of offending audiences in the wake of the terrorist attack, some moviemakers have postponed the release of film with terrorist themes. Television writers are delaying scripts with warlike and terrorist scenarios (剧本提纲).It is probably good thinking. My local video store tells me nobody is checking out “disaster” movies. Says the manager, “Currently, people want comedy. They want an escape from stories about violence and terrorism.” Similarly, in the music business, there’s a run on patriotic and inspirational tapes and CDs.
According to The New York Times, the self scrutiny among these czars (特权人物) of mass-entertainment taste is unprecedented in scale, sweeping aside hundreds of millions of dollars in projects that no longer seem appropriate. A reasonable concern is that this might be a short term phenomenon. Once life returns to something more normal, will Hollywood return to its bad old ways? The Times offers a glimmer of hope. The industry’s titans (巨头),it suggests, are struggling with much more difficulties, long range questions of what the public will want once the initial shock from the terrorist attacks wears off. Many in the industry admit they do not know where the boundaries of taste and consumer tolerance now lie.
This is an opportunity for some of us to suggest to Hollywood where that boundary of consumer tolerance is, especially those of us who have not yet convinced Hollywood to cease its descent into ever lower of the dumbness of our young.
The nonprofit Parents Television Council, which monitors the quality of TV programming, says in its latest report that today’s TV shows are more laced than ever with vulgarities, sexual immorality, crudities, violence, and foul language. The traditional family hour between 8p.m.and 9p.m., when the networks used to offer programs for the entire family, has disappeared. The problem looks like it will get worse.
That certainly looked to be the case before the Sept.11th assault. One pre attack New York Times story reported that TV producers were crusading (讨伐) for scripts that include every crude word imaginable. The struggles between net-work censors and producers, according to the report, were “growing more intense”. Producers like Aaron Sorkin of “The West Wing” planned to keep pushing hard. He was quoted as saying,“There’s absolutely no reason why we can’t use the language of adulthood in programs that are about adults”.
My guess is that a lot of adults don’t use the language Mr. Sorkin wants to use, and don’t enjoy having their children hear it. At this moment of crisis in our nation’s history, thought has become more thoughtful, prayerful, and spiritual. It may be the time to tell the entertainment industry that we want not a temporary pause in the flow of tastelessness, but a long term clean-up.
57. Some filmmakers hesitate to release new films with violent content because________ .
A) they want to show themselves to be patriots
B) they are afraid such films may anger audiences
C) films with violence in them are no longer popu1ar
D) films with terrorist themes are reflections on violence.
58. The “self-scrutiny” in the second paragraph refers to filmmakers attempt to____________ .
A) produce appropriate films with no violent content for the audiences
B) prevent themselves from slipping into their old bad ways
C) understand to what extent their films have contributed to the national crisis
D) find out where the boundaries of taste and consumer tolerance lie
59. The author thinks that it is time for the general audience to__________ .
A) tell filmmakers where the boundaries of their taste lie
B) point out to Hollywood how bad their films are
C) accuse the filmmakers of desensitizing their children
D) ask filmmakers to make films that reflect traditional family life
60. Which of the following statements is TRUE about Aaron Sorkin?
A) He is strongly against using crude language in films.
B) He starts the struggles between network censors and producer.
C) He insists no restraint be set to the language used in films.
D) He believes that it is time to clean up the entertainment industry.
61. The author’s purpose in writing this passage is_________ .
A) to acknowledge the current practice of the entertainment industry
B) to show his admiration for the current practice of the entertainment industry
C) to accuse the entertainment industry of their current practice
D) to show tolerance of the current practice of the entertainment industry
本文由大多数女人关于“约会如同选美市场”的抱怨谈起，通过英国纽卡斯尔大学的Thomas Pollet和Daniel Nettle在《生物学快报》上刚发表的一篇论文的描婚姻如同一个市场。两位研究者通过研究，发现美国出现了男女性别比例失衡问题，所以在择偶方面，女人比较挑剔。婚姻市场中，不同以往的是，由于男性人口多于女性，女人才是真正的买方。
47. dating is like a cattle market
【定位】 根据题干中的a paper和women定位到原文第一段第一句Women often complain that dating is like a cattle market, and a paper just published in Biology Letters by Thomas Pollet and Daniel Nettle of Newcastle University, in England, suggests they are right.
【解析】 本题提问该论文与多数女人一致的看法是什么。题干中的...suggest they are right提示该论文同意女人们常见的看法，即文章开篇提到的女人的抱怨，所以complain后的宾语从句就是本题的答案。
48．Women choose men of high status，resources and good looks.
【定位】 根据题干中的contention和which is often denied by social scientists定位到原文第二段第一句和第二句Mr. Pollet and Dr. Nettle were looking for evidence to support the contention that women choose men of high status and resources, as well as good looks. That may sound common sense, but it was often denied by social scientists...
49. you have to look at natural populations
【定位】 根据题干中的experiments和zoologists定位到原文第二段最后三句Since then, a series of experiments in laboratories have supported the contention. But as all zoologists know, experiments can only tell you so much. Eventually, you have to look at natural populations.
50. be particularly attractive
【定位】 根据题干中的market和scarcity of sellers定位到原文第三段They have examined...indeed, a market. Moreover, as in any market...if they are to make the exchange.
【解析】 题干是第三段整段的概括和简化，主旨为婚姻确实如同一个市场。而且，同其他市场一样,买主的稀缺迫使卖方必须拥有别具吸引力的商品才易。原文中描述的是普通市场的情况，而题干中已经明确界定了in the market of marriage,所以答案不应照搬原文，应当结合题干适当变化，变为形容词。意思是在婚姻的市场中，缺少买方就意味着卖方必须非常有魅力。
51. A surplus of males.
【定位】 根据题干中的how picky women were定位到原文第四段末两句 Though the long-colonised eastern states had a sex ratio of one ,...“go west, young man”had resulted in a surplus of males. Mr. Pollet...how picky women are, given the chance.
【解析】 原文意思是在“年轻人，去西部”的口号影响下，其他州考(试大呈现了男性过剩的局面。这一局面恰好为Pollet先生和Nettle博士提供机会，让他们清楚地发现女性对男性的选择是多么挑剔。结合题干和原文很容易找到问题的答案应该是A surplus of males。
52. D)。【定位】 由题干principal purpose of this passage is定位到全文内容。【解析】 主旨题。从整篇看，作者是在为实行死刑争辩，因此选D)。【避错指导】A)“为多数人辩护”、B)“行使否决权”和C)“指责政府”均不是文章主旨。
53. A)。【定位】 由题干author’s response to those who urge the death penalty定位到原文第四段第一句For example, it is one thing to take the life of another in a fit of blind rage, but quite another to coldly plot and carry out the murder of one or more people in the style of a butcher.【解析】 推断题。在第四段中，作者认为谋杀案情况不同，还有相对程度之分。他把谋杀分为两类：一类是在盛怒之下杀人，另一类是有预谋的特别残忍的谋杀。他认为前一种杀人犯可以把他们与社会隔离起来，不一定要处以极刑。所以说作者并不赞成把所有杀人犯都处以死刑，因此A)是正确答案。【避错指导】 B)“友好的”和C)“支持的”显然是不对的；作者对把所有杀人犯都处以死刑只是不赞成，而不是怀有“敌意”，因此D)也不对。
54. B)。【定位】 由题干定位到原文第四段。【解析】 推断题。第四段最后一句说，虽然我们可以争论有关“第一种案例中的罪犯只应该隔离于社会”这样的宣判，但是后一种杀人犯的结局不应该是这样的。即：后一种杀人犯不应该只隔离于社会，言外之意要判死刑。因而B)是正确选项。【避错指导】 A)认为死刑问题是当今美国最具争议的问题，可文章第一句话“With the possible exception of equal rights,”除了平等的权利之外，说明死刑排在第二位，A)错误；C)文章结尾讲到“如果恢复死刑的法案被否决，无辜的人们将被谋杀——如果执行死刑，一些人的生命就可能被挽救。确切地说来，这是一个是生还是死的问题。成千上万无辜者的生命必须得到保护。”那么不能说否决(veto)是不重要的,所以C）错误；D)原文就是在讨论这个问题，不能说是“无争议的”。因此D）错误。
55. A)。【定位】 由题干attempts to establish a relationship between定位到原文最后一段倒数第四句It is convincing evidence that the death penalty does deter many murderers.【解析】 推断题。作者在文章最后一段花了很大篇幅讲谋杀率与施行死刑的关系，结合倒数第四句可知，A)是正确选项。【避错指导】文章没有谈到平等权利和死刑之间的关系，因此C)不可能是正确答案；执行死刑与谋杀之间似乎有点关系，但文章中并没有专门谈到执行死刑的问题，因此D)也不对；文章虽然提到了执行死刑的作用问题，但没有提及隔离的作用问题，更没有讲到两者之间的关系，因此B)也应被排除。
56. B)。【定位】 由题干的The author’s attitude towards“death penalty”定位于全文。【解析】 态度题。作者开篇指出公众对待死刑的一些看法，有正面的，也有负面的，但字里行间透露着对死刑的辩护。由最后一段最后一句This is literally a life or death matter. The lives of thousands of innocent people must be protected.可进一步确定，作者是在为实行死刑辩护，因此B)是正确的。【避错指导】A)“反对的”；C)“中立的”和D)“讽刺的”均不是作者的态度。
57. B )。【定位】 由题干filmmakers hesitate to release new films定位到原文第一段第二句Fearful of offending audiences in the wake of the terrorist attack,some moviemakers have postponed the release of film with terrorist themes.【解析】细节题。从第一段可以看出,9.11恐怖袭击给人们带来了极大的震惊,为好莱坞电影暴力文化投下了阴影。由于害怕 “offending” 惊魂未定的大众,很多电影制片商have postponed the release of film with terrorist themes。由此可见B)符合题意,选项中的“afraid”与原文中的“fearful”意思上相同,“anger”为动词,与原文中的“offending”相对应,更可确定答案的正确性。【避错指导】A)在文章中并未提及；C)认为“充满暴力内容的电影在他们中间已经不再流行”与原文意思相反,如果误认为“them”指的是广大观众就很容易误选；D)将暴力电影等同于暴力,混淆了两个概念，同原文意思不相符,故错误。
58. D)。【定位】由题干The“selfscrutiny”in the second paragraph定位到第二段倒数第二句...1ong range questions of what the public will want once the initial shock from the terrorist attacks wears off.【解析】二段指出,电影制片商们对大众娱乐的品味进行自我反省,很可能是一个暂时现象,因为正如业界许多人士承认的那样,目前他们不知道where boundaries of taste and consumer tolerance now lie。与前文的Fearful of offending audiences in the wake of the terrorist attack这个原因相照应。正是因为不知道观众们目前希望看什么样的电影,害怕暴力电影在这个特殊时刻激怒观众,才不敢贸然制作,因此制片商们才对此进行自我分析。故D)符合题意。【避错指导】 A)认为制片商这么做是因为“想为观众们制作出不含有暴力内容的影片”不确切,因为第一段中指出,制片商们只是“postponed the release of films with terrorist themes”,而不是停止制作此类电影,故A）错误；B)制片商们自己回到制作暴力电影的老路上去”同文章中的讲述相反,故错误；C)选项原文中并未提及,故不合题意。
59. A)。【定位】由题干it is time for the general audience to定义到原文第三段第一句This is an opportunity for some of us to suggest to Hollywood where that boundary of consumer tolerance is.【解析】细节题。由于作者在第二段中指出制片商们不敢轻易制作电影,因为他们不知道观众的口味和对暴力电影的容忍度有多少,因此在第三段中指出,这正是一个好时机让观众告诉“口味如何及对暴力电影的容忍度有多大”。故 A)正确。【避错指导】B)犯了以偏概全的错误,人们反对的是好莱坞充斥暴力内容的电影,而不是所有好莱坞制作的电影，故不正确；作者只是指出人们可以借机向好莱坞提出电影未来方向的建议,建议他们cease its descent into ever lower of the dumbness of our young,而不是建议观众对此进行指责,故选项C)不确切；作者在文章第四段指出,传统的家庭电影时间“disappeared”,这一事实说明暴力电影的泛滥程度需要得到控制,但选项 D)“要求制片商们制作反映传统家庭生活的电影”在文中并未提及,故错误。
60. C)。【定位】由题干about Aaron Sorkin定义到原文中第五段最后两句Producers like Aaron Sorkin of “The West Wing”planned to keep pushing hard. He was quoted as saying,“There’s absolutely no reason why we can’t use the language of adulthood in programs that are about adults”.【解析】细节题。文章在第五段中举了Aaron Sorkin这个导演为例,来说明前面的观点The struggles between network censors and produce...were growing more intense。从文中可以看出,Aaron Sorkjn认为,在关于成人的电影中不用成人的语言绝对没有任何道理。而后面作者指出,很多成人根本不用Aaron Sorkin在电影中使用的语言,也不希望他们的孩子们听到这样的语言,由此可以看出Aaron Sorkin所强烈推崇在电影中使用的“the language of adulthood”正是前文中所说的 “crude word”(粗俗的言语)。故C)“他坚持认为不应该对电影中的语言进行限制”解释正确。【避错指导】A)同原文内容正好相反,故错误；B)不正确,因为原文只说他在这场较量中想“keep pushing hard”，并未表明是他首先引起了这场较量；D)“他认为应该彻底整顿电影业”同文章中对Aaron Sorkin的描述相反,因为作者所说的 “clean up the entertainment industry”正是指让电影内容更加积极,减少粗俗的语言和暴力的内容。
61. C)。【定位】由题干the author’s purpose定位到全文内容，尤其是首尾两段。【解析】推断题。从文章第一段的第一句话来看,作者认为恐怖主义活动带来了一个“positive consequence”。那就是冲击了好莱坞的暴力电影文化。既然作者认为这是一个积极影响,说明作者对好莱坞暴力电影持否定态度。同时在文章的最后一句中,作者亦指出,现在是时候该所需要的不仅仅是a temporary pause in the flow of tastelessness,而是长期的彻底整顿。由此可见，作者对现在娱乐界的做法持否定态度。因此C)正确。【避错指导】A)“了解”、B)“赞同”和D)“容忍”,均不符合文中所表达的作者的目的。