Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled On Paying back Student Loans. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
On Paying back Student Loans
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions：In this part you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer sheet 1.
For questions 1-4, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Reading Baby's Mind
The helpless, seemingly awkward infant staring up at you from his little bed, has a lot more going on inside his head than you ever imagined. A wealth of new research is leading child psychologists to rethink their long-held beliefs about the emotional and intellectual abilities of even very young babies. Science is now giving us a much different picture of what goes on inside their hearts and heads. Long before they form their first words or attempt the feat of sitting up, they are already mastering complex emotions-jealousy, empathy (移情), frustration-that were once thought to be learned much later.
A New Baby Research
Little Victoria Bateman is blue-eyed and as cute a baby as there ever was. At 6 months, she is also trusting and unsuspecting, which is a good thing, because otherwise she'd never go along with what's about to happen. It's a sunny June afternoon in Lubbock, Texas, and inside the Human Sciences lab at Texas Tech University, Victoria's mother is settling her daughter into a high chair, where she is the latest subject in an ongoing experiment aimed at understanding the way babies think. Sybil Hart, an associate professor of human development and leader of the study, trains video cameras on mother and daughter. Everything is set. Hart hands the mother, Cheryl Bateman, a children's book, Elmo Pops In, and instructs her to engross herself in its pages. "Just have a conversation with me about the book, " Hart tells her. "The most important thing is, do not look at Victoria. " As the two women chat, Victoria looks around the room, feeling a little bored.
After a few minutes, Hart leaves the room and returns cradling a lifelike baby doll. Dramatically, Hart places it in Cheryl Bateman's arms, and tells her to embrace the doll while continuing to ignore Victoria. "That's OK, little baby, " Bateman coos, hugging and rocking the doll. Victoria is not bored anymore. At first, she cracks her best smile. When that doesn't work, she begins kicking. But her mom pays her no mind. That's when Victoria loses it. Soon she's crying so hard it looks like she might spit up. Hart rushes in. "OK, we're done, " she says, and takes back the doll. Cheryl Bateman goes to comfort her daughter. "I've never seen her react like that to anything, "she says. Over the last 10 months, Hart has repeated the scene hundreds of times. It's the same in nearly every case: tiny babies, overwhelmed with jealousy. Even Hart was stunned to find that infants could experience an emotion, which, until recently, was thought to be way beyond their grasp.
Findings of Baby Research
The new research is sure to confuse new parents-see, Junior is a genius-but it's more than just an academic exercise. Armed with the new information, pediatricians (儿科医生) are starting to change the way they evaluate their youngest patients. In addition to tracking physical development, they are now focusing much more deeply on emotional advancement. The research shows how powerful emotional well-being is to a child's future health. A baby who fails to meet certain key "emotional milestones" may have trouble learning to speak, read and, later, do well in school. By reading emotional responses, doctors have begun to discover ways to tell if a baby as young as 3 months is showing early signs of possible psychological disorders, including depression, anxiety, learning disabilities and perhaps autism.
One of the earliest emotions that even tiny babies display is, admirably enough, empathy. In fact, concern for others may be hard-wired into babies' brains. Place a newborn down next to another crying infant, and chances are, both babies will soon be wailing (悲叹) away. "People have always known that babies cry when they hear other babies cry, " says Martin Hoffman, a psychology professor at New York University who did the first studies on infant empathy in the 1970s. "The question was, why are they crying?" Does it mean that the baby is truly concerned for his fellow human, or just annoyed by the racket? A recent study conducted in Italy, which built on Hoffman's own work, has largely settled the question. Researchers played for infants tapes of other babies' crying. As predicted, that was enough to start the tears flowing. But when researchers played babies, recordings of their own cries, they rarely began crying themselves. The verdict:"there is some empathy in place, right from birth, " Hoffman says. The intensity of the emotion tends to fade over time. Babies older than 6 months no longer cry but grimace (作苦相) at the discomfort of others. By 13 to 15 months, babies tend to take matters into their own hands. They'll try to comfort a crying playmate. "What I find most charming is when, even if the two mothers are present, they'll bring their own mother over to help, " Hoffman says.
Part of that empathy may come from another early-baby skill, the ability to discern emotions from the facial expressions of the people around them. "Most textbooks still say that babies younger than 6 months don't recognize emotions, " says Diane Montague, assistant professor of psychology at LaSalle University in Philadelphia. To put that belief to the test, Montague came up with a twist on every infant's favorite game, and recruited dozens of 4-month-olds to play along. She began by peeking around a cloth with a big smile on her face. Predictably, the babies were delighted, and stared at her intently-the time-tested way to tell if a baby is interested. On the fourth peek, though, Montague emerged with a sad look on her face. This time, the response was much different. "They not only looked away, "she says, but wouldn't look back even when she began smiling again. Refusing to make eye contact is a classic baby sign of distress. An angry face got their attention once again, but their faces showed no pleasure. "They seemed primed to be alert, even vigilant, "Montague says. "I realize that's speculative in regard to infants. . . I think it shows that babies younger than 6 months find meaning in expressions. "
They are also far more sophisticated intellectually than we once believed. Babies, as young as 4 months, have advanced powers of deduction and an ability to understand the intricate patterns. They have a surprisingly visual palette(燃料，调色板), which enables them to notice small differences, especially in faces, that adults and older children lose the ability to see. Until a baby is 3 months old, he can recognize a photograph of his mother just as quickly as a photo in which everything is in the right place.
Challenges and Dangers of Baby Research
This might be a good place to pause for a word about the challenges and dangers of baby research. Since the subjects can't speak for themselves, figuring out what's going on inside their heads is often a matter of reading their faces and body language. If this seems speculative, it's not. Over decades of trial and error, researchers have fine-tuned their observation skills and zeroed in on numerous consistent baby responses to various stimuli: how long they stare at an object, what they reach out for and what makes them recoil in fear or disgust can often tell experienced researchers everything they need to know. More recently, scientists have added EEGs and laser eye tracking, which allow more precise readings.
1. The passage is mainly about those researches that focus on the emotional and intellectual abilities of those very young babies.
2. The purpose of the experiment on Victoria Bateman is to find out how important the mother's love is to her baby.
3. In the experiment, Victoria Bateman cried because she thought that her mother didn't love her any more.
4. Only through reading emotional responses can doctors tell whether a 3-month baby will get possible psychological disorders.
5. Pediatricians are now paying less attention to physical development of their baby patients but more to _________________.
6. Hoffman's study revealed that babies are born to show other crying babies _________________.
7. The findings of Diane's test demonstrated the baby's ability to recognize _________________.
8. It is amazing to find that the visual palette of a baby helps him to notice _________________.
9. As for the challenges, those researchers have to obtain those findings about babies' mind by reading _________________.
10. In order to gain more precise readings about babies' mind, scientists have adopted the skills of EEGs and _________________.
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A) The man should stick to what he's doing.
B) The man should take up a new hobby.
C) The man should stop playing tennis.
D) The man should find the cause for his failure.
12. A) He is very forgiving and tolerant. B) He probably has a poor memory.
C) He is well liked by his customers. D) He has been introduced to the staff.
13. A) She'd like to have the windows open.
B) She likes to have the air-conditioner on.
C) The air is heavily polluted.
D) The windows are already open.
14. A) She is not interested in the course.
B) She doesn't like the way the professor teaches.
C) She's having a hard time following the professor's lectures.
D) She's having difficulty with the heavy reading assignments.
15. A) The deadline is drawing near. B) She can't meet the deadline.
C) She turned in the proposals today. D) They are two days ahead of time.
16. A) On the 6th of June. B) On the 8th of June.
C) On the 9th of June. D) On the 19th of June.
17. A) The man was sorry to miss the football game.
B) The man attended the concert, but didn't like it.
C) The man was sorry that he didn't attend the concert.
D) The man is more interested in football than classical music.
18. A) She's going away for a while.
B) She did well in the test.
C) She worked hard and earned a lot of money.
D) She didn't have to work hard for the exam.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) She has a temperature. B) She suffers from a headache.
C) She has a sore throat. D) She often feels dizzy.
20. A) She didn't have enough sleep. B) She has caught a bad cold.
C) She is dying from a serious disease. D) She is too nervous to feel at home.
21. A) She should take some medicine and more water.
B) She should take care of her rest and drink more water.
C) She should give up her term paper for her health.
D) She should receive more check-up.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
22. A) He doesn't want to take final exams.
B) He hasn't prepared well for his tests.
C) He has too many exams on the same day.
D) He needs to get full scores on his tests.
23. A) He should go to the Dean of Students Office.
B) He ought to talk immediately to his professors.
C) He should begin studying at once.
D) He ought to decide which tests are most important.
24. A) They are both excellent students.
B) They both have to take history and psychology tests.
C) They haven't taken final exams before.
D) They live in the same dormitory.
25. A) Psychology. B) History. C) Advanced Mathematics. D) Chemistry.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A) They worked on their own land.
B) They produced whatever their families needed.
C) They could get along well by relying on themselves.
D) They didn't keep commercial ties with others.
27. A) Banks and railroads. B) Weather and their own efforts.
C) The specialized crops they sold. D) Commercial ties with others.
28. A) Their lives are free and simple like that of the 19th century.
B) They have more worries than those in the past.
C) They suffer from the shipping rates set by the railroads.
D) They miss the simple life in the 19th century.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) The painting materials used by Grandma Moses.
B) The major artistic influences on Grandma Moses.
C) The folk art of Grandma Moses.
D) The life of Grandma Moses.
30. A) She started it without much success. B) She started it in her sixties.
C) She started it after much study. D) She started it by producing greeting cards.
31. A) Building. B) Needlework.
C) Photographs. D) Country life. Passage Three
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) More than 130 people. B) At least 400 people.
C) Hundreds of people. D) The deaths were still unknown.
33. A) Lack of safety measures. B) Checks on weather conditions.
C) Underload. D) Lightning strikes.
34. A) Epidemic disease. B) Ferry disaster.
C) Big fire in the forest. D) Car accidents.
35. A) The government has banned all the fishing boats at daytime.
B) The government has banned all night ferries and night boats.
C) The government has completely banned shipping.
D) The government has paid for all the shipping lost.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46, you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
A group date differs from a (36) date in several ways. First, there are no special relationships in the group. No particular girl and boy are together all the time. Second, the group date may (37) on a weekend, but it may not be (38) in advance. A group of young people may decide on Saturday afternoon that they want to spend Saturday evening together. They may all decide to go to a movie, or to some other events. On a group date, no one is (39) with anyone else. As a result, every person pays for his or her own (40). This means that the girls must pay for themselves. They must pay their own (41) for the movies, for a cup of coffee, or for anything else that(42) money during the date.
Many young people find the group date to be a great deal of(43). The young men on a group date are under no pressure. (44) . They do not have to pay for anyone but themselves. They do not have to be especially polite of formal during the date. Everyone can relax and have a good time. Group dates may lead to serious relationships for some members of the group. (45). They may spend more time together, with the group, and with each other. But usually, (46). No one worries about a serious relationship.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension （Reading in Depth） (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
They are people who struggle to make their voice heard, but the world is likely to hear more and more about them. If they all belonged to one nation, it would be a fair size, as big as Chile or Kazakhstan. Yet by definition, they belong to no country at all:they are the world's growing band of stateless people who have no citizenship rights, and are often unable to claim the things that states can provide, like travel documents and education. According to international officials whose job is to cope with human flotsam and jetsam, the problem of statelessness is growing fast, despite a modest decline in the number of refugees in the strict sense.
Some people become stateless because they are forced out of one country, and no other nation will accept them, or even grant them the rights which "refugees"-people who seek shelter because of a proven risk of persecution-can claim. Some people never leave home but find they are stranded by the shift in borders. Also being ranked among the stateless are marginal groups who cannot claim civic rights because their births went unrecorded.
As a classic case of statelessness, take the Biharis of Bangladesh. They mostly took the West Pakistani side in the 1971 war that led to the creation of Bangladesh, ensuring that they were unwelcome in the new state. Some were moved in organised exchanges-until Pakistan stopped taking them. Perhaps 300 000 remain stateless.
In fact, legal limbo(前途未卜) is not an either-or condition; there are degrees of statelessness. Among the Palestinians who fled during the war that followed Israel's creation, some-those in Jordan-were given passports, but in other Arab states, they simply got "refugee travel documents". No Arab state wanted to naturalise the newcomers, but the level of rights has varied from place to place.
António Guterres, the current high commissioner for refugees, says more and more countries agree, at least, that statelessness is a problem; and several have taken steps to alleviate it.
47. If the stateless people belonged to one nation, their number would equal the population of ______________.
48. Why do refugees leave their home country and seek protection somewhere else?
49. The situation that people who never leave home become stateless results from______________.
50. Why were the Biharis unwelcome in the newly established Bangladesh?
51. Arab states' treatments of the fleeing Palestinians are different from place to place in terms of______________.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Getting ready to go back to school in the good old days of, say, 1998 meant a few trips to the mall and a quick check of the bus route. This year, for many parents, there are some new things to remember: The teacher's e-mail address, the school's website and which night online homework helps chat will be offered. "The 1999-2000 school year will be the one when the majority of parents really feel the Internet's influence on their children's education at the everyday level, "says Jonathan Carson, chairman of the Family Education Co. , which offers a parenting website at www. family education. com and a framework for local schools to create and maintain their own sites.
This year promises to show a quantum leap in the spread of school technology: Parents in many districts can expect to be able to check the school lunch menu, read class notes, see activity calendar and view nightly homework assignments-all online. "The schools are wired, "says Carson. "A majority of parents now have access and the educators are ready to go. "
Over the summer, parents of high school German students in Ithaca, N. Y. got to be part of a class to Europe, through their home computers. The class brought a digital camera and laptop with them to Germany and documented their visit on their web page. Hazy Ash, father of 16-year-old traveler Brian, found it reassuring to see his son's smiling face from half a world away. Before their kids left, parents had checked the site for scheduling information, a list of activities and advice on cultural differences.
When it's designed well, a district, school or classroom website can change the relationship between the parents and the school, says Cynthia Lapier, Ithaca's director of information and instructional technology. "The more you can involve parents in school, the better, "Lapier says. "The technology gives us another way to reach them, especially parents of secondary school students, who tend to be less involved. "
Ithaca high school physics teacher, Stever Wirt, gets e-mail from parents regular1y, some from the parents he believes might otherwise not pick up the phone with a concern. Using software called Blackboard Course Info, Wirt conducts online chats with his students often reviewing for a quiz or discussing homework problems.
The way things are going, by the end of this year, many parents may be fully converted-and in fact dependent upon their schools' technological capabilities. At a recently wired school in Novi, Michigan, the school webmaster was just a few hours late posting the lunch-menu calendar on the website. In that time, more than a dozen parents called him by telephone to request the information. "A year ago, it never would have been there, "says Carson. And now parents are finding it's tough to get by without it.
52. Many parents now remember the teacher's e-mail address and the school's website because __________.
A) by doing so they needn't go to the store to buy stationery for their children
B) they can reach their children's school and the teachers without traveling there
C) the e-mail and the website can help them find out what their children do
D) they can observe how the Internet affect their children's education every day
53. "The schools are wired. A majority of parents now have access and the educators are ready to go. "(Lines 3-4, Para. 2) means that __________.
A) the schools and parents are connected by the Internet so that teachers will leave school
B) parents can find out what happens to their children in school by visiting Internet
C) parents and educators may discover that schools are strange by using computers
D) the schools are online and parents now can teach their children and the teachers are to go
54. The example of Ithaca high school is used to show __________.
A) how important the school website is for parents to be involved in education
B) that the school online can reassure the parents about what their children do
C) how the parents of the students got to be part of a class trip to Europe
D) it is more likely for parents to send teachers e-mails than to phone them
55. According to the last paragraph, the attitude of parents towards the lunch-menu calendar on the website is.
A) reliant B) optimistic C) baised D) opposite
56. According to this passage，which of the following will be changed most?
A) The relationship between teachers and schools.
B) The connection between students and schools.
C) The relationship between parents and schools.
D) The association between websites and schools.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Traffic statistics paint a gloomy picture. To help solve their traffic woes, some rapidly growing U. S. cities have simply built more roads. But traffic experts say building more roads is a quick fix solution that will not alleviate the traffic problem in the long run. Soaring land costs, increasing concern over social and environmental disruptions caused by road-building, and the likelihood that more roads can only lead to more cars and traffic are powerful factors bearing down on a 1950s' style constructions program.
The goal of smart-highway technology is to make traffic systems work at optimum efficiency by treating the road and the vehicles traveling on them as an integral transportation system. Proponents of this advanced technology say electronic detection systems, closed-circuit television radio communication, ramp metering (斜坡坡度计量), variable message signing, and other smart highway technology can now be used at a reasonable cost to improve communication between drivers and the people who monitor traffic.
Pathfinder, a Santa Monica, California based smart highway project in which a 14 mile stretch of the Santa Monica Freeway, making up what is called a "smart corridor", is being instrumented with buried loops in the pavement. Closed circuit television cameras survey the flow of traffic, while communications linked to properly equipped automobiles advise motorists of the least congested routes or detours (便道).
Not all traffic experts, however, look to smart-highway technology as the ultimate solution to traffic jam. Some say the high-tech approach is limited and can only offer temporary solutions to a serious problem.
"Electronics on the highway addresses just one aspect of the problem: how to regulate traffic more efficiently, "explains Michael Renner, senior researcher at the Worldwatch Institute. "It doesn't deal with the central problems of too many cars for roads that can't be built fast enough. It sends people the wrong message. ""They start thinking, ‘Yes, there used to be a traffic congestion problem, but that's been solved now because we have an advanced high-tech system in place. '"Larson agrees and adds, "smart highway is just one of the tools that we will use to deal with our traffic problems. It's not the solution itself, just part of the package. There are different strategies. "
Other traffic problem-solving options being studied and experimented which include car pooling, rapid mass-transit systems, staggered or flexible work hours, and road pricing, a system whereby motorists pay a certain amount for the time they use a highway. It seems that we need a new, major thrust to deal with the traffic problems of the next 20 years. There has to be a big change.
57. In Para. 1, "a quick fix solution"is closest in meaning to __________.
A) a best solution B) a fast solution
C) a ready solution D) an efficient solution
58. According to the passage, the smart highway technology is aimed to __________.
A) deploy sophisticated facilities on the interstate highways
B) provide passenger vehicles with a variety of services
C) optimize the highway capabilities
D) improve communication between driver and the traffic monitors
59．According to this passage the method of Highways Get Smart is __________.
A) the ultimate solution to traffic congestion
B) a wrong solution for the traffic problems
C) a venture to remedy traffic woes
D) part of the package to relieve traffic gridlock
60. According to Larson, to redress the traffic problem, __________.
A) car pooling must be studied
B) rapid mass-transit systems must be introduced
C) flexible work hours must be experimented
D) overall strategies must be coordinated
61. Which of the following is true according to the whole passage?
A) Two contrasting views of a problem are presented.
B) Traffic problem is examined and complementary solutions are proposed or offered.
C) Latest developments are outlined in order of importance.
D) An innovation is explained with its importance emphasized.
Part Ⅴ Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Putting feelings into words makes sadness and anger less intense, U. S. brain researchers said on Wednesday, in a finding that explains why 62 to a therapist often makes people feel better.
They said talking about negative feelings 63 a part of the brain 64 for impulse control. "This region of the brain seems to be 65 in putting on the brakes, "said researcher Matthew Lieberman. He and colleagues 66 the brains of 30 people-18 women and 12 men between 18 and 36-who were shown pictures of faces 67 strong emotions. They were asked to 68 the feelings in words like sad or angry, or to choose between two gender-specific names 69 "Sally or Harry" that matched the face.
70 they found is that when people 71 a word like "angry" to an angry-looking face, the 72 in the portion of the brain that handles fear, panic and other strong emotions decreased. "This seems to dampen down the response in these basic emotional 73 in the brain"Lieberman said in a telephone interview.
What lights 74 instead is the part of the brain that controls impulses. "This is the only region of the entire brain that is more active when you choose an emotional word for the picture 75 when you choose a name for the picture, " he said.
He said the same region of the brain has been found in 76 studies to play a role in motor control. "If you are driving along and you see a yellow light, you have to inhibit one response in order to 77 on the brake, " he said. "This same region helps to inhibit emotional responses as well. "
The researchers did not find significant differences along gender lines, 78 Lieberman said prior studies had hinted at some 79 in the benefits men and women derived from talking about their feelings. "Women may do more of this 80 , but when men are instructed to do it, they may get 81 benefit from it, " he said.
62 A) going B) resorting
C) talking D) complaining
63 A) activates B) stimulates
C) sparkles D) assimilates
64 A) suitable B) applicable
C) responsive D) responsible
65 A) engaged B) involved
C) encountered D) evolved
66 A) studied B) investigated
C) scanned D) examined
67 A) showing B) expressing
C) having D) presenting
68 A) describe B) generalize
C) change D) categorize
69 A) as B) like
C) by D) with
70 A) Thing B) Result
C) What D) which
71 A) talked B) referred
C) pointed D) attached
72 A) response B) action
C) activity D) motion
73 A) expressions B) movements
C) circuits D) responses
74 A) up B) in
C) off D) on
75 A) as B) than
C) to D) comparing
76 A) early B) original
C) senior D) prior
77 A) stop B) step
C) stamp D) drive
78 A) and B) therefore
C) but D) because
79 A) similarities B) discoveries
C) studies D) differences
80 A) willingly B) reluctantly
C) unconsciously D) spontaneously
81 A) more B) less
C) no D) much
Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
82. When you get men into that state of anger, ________________(他们很容易出麻烦）.
83. _________________________________(尽管我很崇拜他是个作家), I don't like him as a man.
84. His eyes were reading books_____________________________________(脑子却在胡思乱想).
85. The identical twins resemble each other ________________________________(长相相似但性格不同).
86. I would rather join you in research work_____________________________(而不愿到海滨去度假).
Part Ⅰ Writing
On Paying back Student Loans
①Nowadays，college students who need financial aid can apply for student loans provided by state-owned commercial banks. ②The money can help them pay their tuition fees and cover their necessary daily expense. The policy not only gives chances to the students eager to continue their study but also is beneficial to commercial banks.
③However，to our disappointment，there is an increasing rate of students who have failed to refund the loans in time. ④Some students are really unable to repay the money after graduation because of unemployment or some other reasons. But there are a number of students refusing to pay it back even though they can.
⑤In my opinion, college students should increase their awareness of credit. Anyone in debt should try his best to repay the loans in due time. ⑥If they are really in great difficulty, it is proper to inform the bank as soon as possible and apply for a delayed repayment. ⑦Only in this way can both college students and banks benefit from the policy.
② 介绍助学贷款的性质以及其发行目的。其中 cover their necessary daily expense"支付日常开支"是高分表达, "not only. . . but also. . . "结构使句式多样化。
③ 用"however"这个转折词，导出一部分学生拒绝还贷这一现象。to our disappointment"令我们失望的是..."，an increasing rate of"逐渐增长的"都能为文章增色。
④ 这一部分结构为："Some students. . . but there are a number of students. . . "。指出不能还贷的两种原因。
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
[定位] 通过题干中的Victoria Bateman和experiment等，定位到第一个小标题第一段前三句，Little Victoria Bateman is blue-eyed. . . high chair, where she is the latest subject in an ongoing experiment aimed at understanding the way babies think.
[精解] 本题是要考查Victoria Bateman所参加的试验的目的，根据原文可知，本次试验的目的是要理解婴儿思考的方式，而不是题干中所说的是去发现母爱对婴儿的重要性，题干说法与原文不符。
[定位] 由题干中的Victoria Bateman和cried，定位到第一个小标题第二段第九句和倒数第二句Soon she's crying so hard it looks like she might spit up. . . It's the same in nearly every case:tiny babies, overwhelmed with jealousy.
[精解] 通过分析原文可知，上百次的试验取得了同样的结果，那就是婴儿有嫉妒心理，Victoria Bateman会哭是因为妈妈对一个布娃娃特别关爱而产生嫉妒心理，由此可知，题干说Victoria Bateman哭的原因是因为妈妈不再爱她的说法与原文不符。
[定位] 由题干中的数字3-month baby，emotional responses和psychological disorders可以定位到第二个小标题下首段最后一句By reading emotional responses, doctors have begun to discover ways to tell if a baby as young as 3 months is showing early signs of possible psychological disorders. . .
5. emotional advancement
[定位] 由题干中的Pediatricians和physical development等定位到第二个小标题下首段第二句和第三句Armed with the new information, pediatricians are starting. . . tracking physical development, they are now focusing much more deeply on emotional advancement.
[精解] 此处需要填入名词性成分作介词to的宾语。通过原文可知，儿科医生现在除了观察身体的发展变化之外，更加深层的关注情感的发展，题干将原文的focusing much more deeply on替换为pay more attention to，所以答案为emotional advancement。
6. some empathy
[定位] 由题干中的专有名词Hoffman, study可以定位到第二个小标题下第二段第七句和第十一句A recent study conducted in Italy, which built on Hoffman's own work, has. . . The verdict:"there is some empathy in place, right from birth, "Hoffman says.
[精解] 此处需要填入名词性成分作show的宾语，构成show sb. sth. 的短语结构。本题要考查Hoffman试验的发现，根据原文可知，Hoffman发现婴儿的同情心理是从一出生就有的，所以是天生的而不是后天的。题干中的be born to与原文的right from birth对应，可知答案为some empathy。
[定位] 由题干的Diane和ability等可以定位到第二个小标题下第三段开头Part of that empathy may come from another early-baby skill, the ability to discern emotions from the facial expressions of the people around them. "Most textbooks still say that babies younger than 6 months don't recognize emotions, "says Diane Montague.
8. small differences
[定位] 由题干中的visual palette和 notice等可以定位到第二个小标题下第四段第三句话 They have a surprisingly visual palette, which enables them to notice small differences. . .
[精解] 此处需要填入名词性成分作notice的宾语。根据原文，这块调色板能够使婴儿注意到细微的差别。题干将原文中的enable them to notice替换为help him to notice，可知此处应填写small differences。
9. their /babies' faces and body language
[定位] 由题干中的challenges和reading定位到第三个小标题下首段第二句Since the subjects can't speak for themselves, figuring out what's going on inside their heads is often a matter of reading their faces and body language.
[精解] 此处需要填入名词性成分作 reading的宾语。从原文可知，因为作为研究对象的婴儿们不会为自己的行为进行解释，所以研究者要想了解婴儿在想什么，就得通过观察他们的脸部表情和身体语言。题干将原文中的figuring out替换为obtain，所以可得出答案their /babies' faces and body language。
10. laser eye tracking
[定位] 由题干中的more precise reading 和 EEGs 等可以定位到第三个小标题下首段最后一句 More recently, scientists have added EEGs and laser eye tracking, which allow more precise readings.
[精解] 此处需要填入名词性成分来和EEGS并列。从原文可知，近来科学家们在研究婴儿心智和情感时采用了EEGs技术和激光眼搜寻技术，通过这些技术可以得到很精确的结果。题干将原文中的allow more precise readings 替换为in order to gain more precise readings, 所以答案为laser eye tracking。
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension
11. M: I think I'm going to give up playing tennis. I lost the game today again. Maybe it's not the right sport for me.
W: Just because you lost, is that the reason to quit?
Q: What does the woman imply?
A)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项均是The man should 开头，可知本题内容与男士应当采取的行动有关。女士的话可能为建议。
[精解] 因为输了比赛(lost the game)，男士考虑放弃打网球(give up playing tennis)，女士问，仅仅是输了比赛，就是放弃的理由吗(the reason to quit)。可知，女士认为男士应该继续打网球。故正确答案为A)。
12. M: The new sales manager says he has never met you before. Are you sure you know him, Allen?
W: We've been introduced about three times. He seems a little forgetful.
Q: What do we learn about the new sales manager?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项均是以He开头，另外根据选项中出现的customers和staff可以猜测，本题内容涉及到的男士可能是从事销售行业，谈话内容涉及他的性格行为。
[精解] 根据女士说的，她和新经理(The new sales manager)已经经人介绍三次了(been introduced about three times)，由此可以得出结论，新销售经理有点健忘(a little forgetful)。故正确答案为B)。
13. M: Do you want to turn on the air-conditioner or open the windows? It's really oppressive in the room.
W: Yes, it's a hot today. I love fresh air if you don't mind.
Q: What can be inferred from the woman's answer?
A)。 [听前猜测] 从四个选项当中的window，air-conditioner，air等词可以推测，此题的内容跟环境有关系。
[精解] oppressive意为"憋闷"。男士询问女士的意见，是开空调(turn on air-conditioner)还是开窗户(open the windows)。女士说，喜欢新鲜空气(fresh air)。由此可见，女士想要开窗户。故正确答案为A)。
14. M: How do you like Professor Bockman's course on the History of Philosophy? He is a distinguished scholar on that subject.
W: He is a great teacher, but I'm having a hard time with the reading list. I feel I can't ever finish it.
Q: What problem does the woman have with the course?
D)。 [听前猜测] 从四个选项当中的course，professor，lecture，assignment等词可知，此题的内容是跟课程有关的。
[精解] 男士说教授是一个在哲学史(History of Philosophy)方面很杰出的学者(distinguished scholar)。女士表示同意，但补充说不能完成教授的阅读书目(reading list)。故正确答案为D)。
15. M: When are we supposed to submit our project proposals, Jane?
W: They are due by the end of the week. We've only two days left. We'll just have to hurry.
Q: What does the woman mean?
A)。 [听前猜测] 从四个选项当中的deadline，today，ahead of time等词可知，此题的内容是跟时间有关的。
[精解] 从女士说的我们仅剩下两天时间(only two days left)，必须要尽快(have to hurry)，因此可知截止日期已经非常近。故正确答案为A)。
16. M: Excuse me. I'd like to make two reservations on Flight 651 for June 8th.
W: I'm sorry, sir. We're booked up on the 8th. But we still have a few seats available on the 9th.
Q: When does the man want to leave?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项均为日期。可知此题的内容是询问日期。
[精解] 此题比较明确，日期为六月八日（June 8th）。前面的航班号码Flight 651有一定的迷惑性，考生应注意多练习听数字。故正确答案为B)。
17. W: It's a pity you missed the concert yesterday evening. It was wonderful.
M: I didn't want to miss the football game. Well, I'm not a classical music fan anyway.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
D)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项均以The man开头，内容涉及football game和concert，推测此题的内容为男士的活动。
[精解] 男士说不想错过足球比赛，而且自己也不是一个古典乐迷(classical music fan)。可见和古典音乐比起来，他对足球更感兴趣。故正确答案为D)。
18. M: Congratulations. You certainly did quite well and I must say you deserve that grade.
W: Well, I really studied hard for that exam. I've been preparing for it for more than a month. Now, I can relax for a while.
Q: Why is the woman so happy?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项均以She开头，推测此题是对女士活动内容的描述。
[精解] 男士祝贺女士考得很好(did quite well)。女士回答说为了考试，她非常努力地准备了一个多月(preparing for it for more than a month)。可知女士考试成绩很不错，所以很开心。故正确答案为B)。
M: Hello, Miss. What brings you here today?
W: (19) I am not feeling myself. This has been going on for days, and I have a sore throat.
M: Don't worry. Let me have a check. Do you have a fever or headache?
W: No. But I'm afraid I felt a little dizzy when I got up this morning.
M: Well, open wide and say "Aaa".
M: Eh, your throat looks a little red. Let me check your tongue. . . Mmm, it seems okay.
W: Doctor, what's the matter with me?
M: Well, there is nothing serious, and you needn't worry. Now tell me, did you sleep late recently?
W: To tell you the truth, (20) I stayed up very late last week and only slept four or five hours every night. My term paper was crushing the vitality out of me. I tried my best to prepare for it.
M: That may explain something. You are wearing yourself out. (21) Now what you should do is have a good rest and drink more water.
W: That's all? I thought you would give me a lot of medicine and ask me to stay in bed for a couple of days. Thank heavens! I almost thought I was dying!
M: You really needn't worry. Just take care of your bedtime. Lacking of sleep can lead a lot of problems. You don't want to be ill during the summer vacation, do you?
W: Of course not. Thank you so much. Goodbye!
19. What is wrong with the woman?
C)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项均为描述生病症状的句子，表明本题可能考查病人的具体病情。
[精解] 女士回答男士的话，说她感觉不舒服(not feeling myself)，而且这已经有一段时间了(going on for days)，她还感觉嗓子疼(have a sore throat)，但她否认有发烧（fever）或者头疼（headache）的症状。故正确答案为C)。
20. Why does the woman feel ill?
A)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项均为描述与生病相关的句子，表明本题询问内容可能围绕病人的病情、病因。
[精解] 女士回答上个星期持续熬夜(stayed up very late)，并且每天都只睡四、五个小时。可知这引发了疾病。故正确答案为A)。
21. What does the man suggest the woman to do?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项均有should一词，可以推断此问题内容为提出的建议以及相应的做法。
[精解] 男士建议女士好好休息(have a good rest)并且多喝水(drink more water)，并没有给她开药。故正确答案为B)。
M: Hi, Janet. Have you seen the exam schedule for this term yet?
W: No, I haven't. How many exams should I take?
M: Well. It all depends on the classes you're taking and whether your professors are giving final exams.
W: I know that! And that's why I'm so nervous. I think I've got tests in every class I'm taking.
M: (22) Would you believe that I have four exams scheduled on the same day?
W: You've got to be kidding. Isn't there some school regulation about that you're not required to take more than three on the same day?
M: Well if there is a rule. I'm certainly going to find out about it. I'm not sure if I can even handle two or three tests, much less four.
W: (23) You really should check with the Dean of Students Office. The same thing happened to Richard last year and he was able to reschedule one of his.
M: By the way, do you want to know (24) when our history and psychology tests are?
W: Sure, why not?
M: History is 4th period on Tuesday the 15th and psychology is 2nd period on Wednesday the 16th.
W: I'm not much worried about the psychology test, (25)but Professor Gore said that the history test was going to be on everything we covered this term. You know those historians.
M: Yeah. That sounds terrible. My advanced mathematics and chemistry tests are probably going to be tough.
预览四道题的选项，由选项中的final exam，test，students office，professor，以及第25题中的四门学科等可以推测，短文很可能与学校生活、选课、考试等内容相关。
22. Why is the man upset?
C)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项是以He开头，和考试有关的句子，由此可以推测，本题考查内容与某人的考试相关。
[精解] 男士跟女士抱怨说，你能相信吗，我四门考试被排在了同一天(four exams scheduled on the same day)。可见男士郁闷的原因在于，他同一天有太多的考试。故正确答案为C)。
23. What does the woman suggest the man do?
A)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都是He应该采取什么行动，由此可以推测，本题考查内容可能与某人应该做的决定有关。
[精解] 女士建议男士去联系一下学生事务办公室(the Dean of Students Office)。故正确答案为A)。
24. Which of the following can be inferred about the two students?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都是以They开头的句子，由此可以推测，本题考查内容与两个人物有关系。可能是他们之间的对比、共同点等等。
25. What exam does the woman think will be especially difficult?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都是课程名称，由此可以推断本题考查内容与某一门课程有关。
[精解] 女士说，Gore教授的历史学考试会覆盖本学期所有学过的历史学内容 (be on everything)。由此可见女士认为历史学考试会非常难。故正确答案为B)。
One of the most popular myths about the United States in the 19th century was that the free and simple life of the farmer. It was said that the farmers worked hard on their own land to produce whatever their families needed. They might sometimes trade with their neighbors, but in general they could get along well by relying on themselves, (26) not on commercial ties with others. This is how Thomas Jefferson idealized the farmer. At the beginning of the 19th century, sweeping changes in agriculture were well under way as farmers began to specialize in the raising of crops such as cotton or wheat.
By late in the century revolutionary advances in farm machinery had vastly increased production of specialized crops and expensive network of railroads had linked farmers throughout the country to markets in the east and even overseas. By raising and selling specialized crops, farmers could afford more and finer goods and achieved a much higher standard of living but at a low price. Now farmers are no longer dependent just on the weather and their own efforts. (27)Their lives are increasingly controlled by banks, which have power to grant or deny loans for new machinery, (27)and by the railroads which set the rates for shipping their crops to markets. As businessmen, (28) farmers now have to worry about the national economic depressions and the influence of the 19th century. The era of Jefferson's independent farmer had come to a close.
26. Which of the following is Thomas Jefferson's ideal of farmers?
D)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都是以They开头，由此可以猜测，本题考查内容可能是关于某一类人的描述有关的。
[精解] 文中提出大多数农民，跟其他人并没有商业联系(not on commercial ties with others)，可知，Thomas Jefferson把农民形象理想化了(idealized)。故正确答案为D)。
27. Which of the following is increasingly controlling the farmers' lives?
A)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都是描述事物，且差异较大，由此推断，本题考查的内容可能是某件事情的原因或者影响。
28. What can we learn about today's farmers according to the passage?
B)。 [听前猜测] 从选项中的in the 19th century，in the past可以推断，本题考查的内容侧重于今昔对比。
[精解] 文章结尾处提到了农民现在不得不担心国家经济衰退(the national economic depressions)等问题，由此可推断与过去相比，他们现在需要担心更多的问题。故正确答案为B)。
(29) Of all the folk artists in the United States, the most well-known of the 20th century is certainly Grandma Moses-Anna Mary Robertson Moses (1860-1961). She was also the most successful within her lifetime and her work was reproduced on greeting cards and calendars and in prints. Like many folk artists, (30) her career as a painter started late in life, at the age of 67, but she continued painting until her death at the age of 101, so her active painting life still spanned over 34 years.
Her painting was preceded by the production of landscapes in needlework. From these early sources she began to compose original paintings such as "Housick Falls", "New York in Winter"(1944) that replied on her surroundings and her memories of country life and activities; these paintings display an increasing technical ability. Her subjects are based on the New England countryside and evoke a strong mood of nostalgia. By 1940s her work had become a marketable commodity and collectors created a demand for her paintings.
Like many painters of the 19th and 20th centuries, (31) Grandma Moses made use of photographs for information, for figures, for fragments of landscape, and for buildings, but her work, especially that of her later years, was not a mindless copying of these but compositions using them as source material. Her output was remarkable, and consequently her work is varying quality. Although much of her public appeal is based on the touchy image of the "Grandma" figure producing naive pictures of country life, her paintings place her among the top folk painters of the 19th and 20th centuries.
预览三道题的选项，从第29 题每个选项中出现的Grandma Moses，art和painting等词可以推测，短文内容可能是关于一位叫作Grandma Moses的艺术家。
29. What is the main topic of the passage?
C)。 [听前猜测] 根据四个选项可以推测本题考查的内容必然和Grandma Moses有关。
[精解] 通篇讲的都是Grandma Moses的民间艺术，她作品的材料，她的影响和她的生活只是其中的一部分。故正确答案为C)。
30. How did Grandma Moses start her painting career?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都以She started it 开头，可以推测本题考查的内容跟人物开始从事某项活动的情况有关。
[精解] 主人公在67岁的高龄时，绘画生涯才开始(her career as a painter started)。故正确答案为B)。
31. What was the source material of Grandma Moses' paintings?
C)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都是名词，可以推测，本题考查的内容可能是某项活动涉及的范围。
[精解] 主人公用照片记录信息(made use of photographs for information)，尤其在她的晚年(her later years)，她用照片作为素材(source material)。故正确答案为C)。
(32) Rescuers have found the bodies of over 130 people killed in two ferry disasters in Bangladesh. The accidents happened during a storm that hit the country on April 21. Hundreds more are missing or feared dead.
The two ferries sank in different rivers near the capital city of Dhakfi as strong winds and rain hit the South Asian countries.
(35)The government has since banned all ferries and other boats from traveling at night during the April-May storm season.
One of the ferries, MV Mitali, was carrying far more people than it was supposed to. About 400 passengers fitted a space made for just 300, police said. The second ferry carried about 100 passengers.
An official in charge of the rescue work said the number of deaths is certain to rise. No one really knows how many people were on board and how many of them survived.
Ferries in Bangladesh don't always keep passenger lists, making it difficult to determine the exact number of people on board.
Besides the ferry accidents, at least 40 people were killed and 400 injured by lightning strikes, falling houses and trees and the sinking of small boats.
Storms are common this time of year in Bangladesh, as are boating accidents. (34)Ferry disasters take away hundreds of lives every year in a nation of 130 million people.
(33)Officials blame these river accidents on a lack of safety measures, too many passengers in boats and not enough checks on weather conditions.
32. How many people were found killed in the accidents?
A)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项中三个为数字描述，另一个出现deaths，可以推测本题考查的内容可能跟死亡人数有关。
[精解] 超过130具尸体(bodies of over 130 people)被发现，此数字即为死亡人数。故正确答案为A)。
33. Which is the reason for all these river accidents?
A)。 [听前猜测] 根据四个选项内容可以推测，本题考查内容可能涉及事故的原因。
[精解] 官方认为，这些事故的起因是缺乏安全标准(a lack of safety measures)、船只超载(too many passengers in boats)以及没有注意天气情况(weather conditions)。三种情况综合起来，导致了这些恶果。故正确答案只有A)。B）、C）与文意相反，D）不是一般情况，与船出事故无关。
34. Which disaster causes large casualties in Bangladesh every year?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都是关于灾难的词，由此可以推测，本题考查的内容可能是关于某种灾难的。
[精解] 每年渡船事故(ferry disasters)都会带走这个有1. 3亿人口的国家(a nation of 130 million people)成百上千人的生命（hundreds of lives）。故正确答案为B)。
35. What has the government done during the storm season in Bangladesh?
B)。 [听前猜测] 四个选项都是讲政府对渡船的政策，由此可以推测，本题考查的内容可能是关于政府的管制措施的。
[精解] 四月到五月风暴季节中(the April-May storm season)政府取缔了所有的渡轮(all ferries)，并且禁止其他船只在夜间航行(other boats from traveling at night)。其他选项均不正确。故正确答案为B)。
[听前猜测] a great deal of 后应接不可数名词。
44. They do not have to be with any particular girl during the evening
45. Maybe a girl and a boy on a group date find that they have a lot in common and enjoy being together
46. everyone on a group date is just interested in a good time
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
47. Chile or Kazakhstan
[定位] 根据题干中的belonged to one nation和stateless people定位到第一段第二句If they all belonged to one nation, it would be a fair size, as big as Chile or Kazakhstan.
[精解] 题目问的是如果无国籍人属于同一个国家，他们的人数将相当于...的人口。第一段第二句提到，如果他们全都属于同一个国家，这个国家的人口规模将和智利或哈萨克斯坦相当。题干中的number would equal the population of是对原文it would be a fair size as big as的转述，故答案为Chile or Kazakhstan。
48. Because of a proven risk of persecution.
[定位] 根据题干中的refugees定位到原文第二段首句Some people. . . "refugees"-people who seek shelter because of a proven risk of persecution. . .
[精解] 题目问的是难民为什么要离开原国籍前往别国寻求保护。原文第二段首句提到，难民是指因为有确实理由恐遭迫害而寻求庇护的人。题干中seek protection是对原文seek shelter的同义转述，原文中的because of恰恰说明了难民迁徙的原因，故答案为Because of a proven risk of persecution。
49. the shift in borders
[定位] 根据题干中的never leave home定位到原文第二段第二句Some people never leave home but find they are stranded by a shift in borders.
[精解] 题目问的是一些人从未离开原居住地却成为无国籍人，什么原因导致了这种状况。原文第二段第二句提到，边界的变迁使一些从未离开过家园的人陷于无国籍的境地。题干中的become stateless是对原文are stranded的转述，原文stranded by. . . 恰恰说明了陷入该境地的原因，故答案为the shift in borders。
50. Because they took the West Pakistani side in the 1971 war.
[定位] 根据题干中的Biharis定位到原文第三段前两句As a classic case of statelessness, take the Biharis of Bangladesh. They mostly took the West Pakistani side in the 1971 war that led to the creation of Bangladesh, ensuring that they were unwelcome in the new state.
[精解] 题目问的是比哈尔人（Biharis）在孟加拉国不受欢迎的原因。原文前两句提到，比哈尔人是无国籍人状态的典型例证，1971年的战争导致了孟加拉国的建立，而比哈尔人在战争中支持西巴基斯坦，因此他们在新成立的孟加拉国不受欢迎。原文中的ensuring that意为导致了某种后果，因此前文的took the West Pakistani side就是造成该后果的原因，故答案为Becasue they took the West Pakistani side in the 1971 war。
51. the level of rights
[定位] 根据题干中的Arab states和from place to place定位到原文第四段末句 No Arab state wanted to naturalise the newcomers, but the level of rights has varied from place to place.
[精解] 题目问的是就什么而言阿拉伯国家对待流亡的巴勒斯坦人的方式各不相同。第四段末句提到，阿拉伯国家不愿给予巴勒斯坦人国籍，但是巴勒斯坦人在各国享有权利的等级却各不相同。题干中的are different. . . in terms of是对原文has varied的转述，故答案为the level of rights。
在像1998年那样经济繁荣的岁月里，父母为孩子开学返校需要做的准备工作包括去逛几次商场和文具店, 快速核实一下校车路线。对许多家长来说, 今年还有一些新的事情需要记住:老师的电子邮件地址、学校的网址, 以及在哪个晚上可以得到网上作业辅导交谈。家庭教育公司的董事长乔纳森·卡森说:"在1999-2000学年, 大多数的家长都将能够在日常生活中真正感受到互联网对孩子教育的影响。"家庭教育公司提供上层网站(www. family education. com), 并为地方学校提供一个用以创建和维护它们自己网站的框架。
今年预示着校园技术的扩展将出现突飞猛进的变化:(52)许多地区的家长要求能核查学校的午餐菜单, 阅读课堂记录, 查看活动日程表和观看晚上留给学生的家庭作业--所有这些都是通过联机进行的。(53)卡森说:"学校都已上网。大多数家长现在都能接入学校网络, 而老师们也准备这么做。"
(54)夏天期间, 纽约州伊萨卡中学的德国籍学生家长通过他们家里的电脑, 参与了学校组织的学生欧洲旅游。这个班赴德国时带了一架数码摄像机和一台笔记本电脑, 将拍下的旅游秀编成文档放在他们的网页上。16岁的布莱恩的父亲哈里·阿什在相隔半个地球的距离外看到自己儿子的笑脸时感到宽心多了。在孩子们离开前, 家长们就已经查看过网站上的日程安排信息、活动一览表和有关文化差异的忠告。
(56)伊萨卡中学信息和教学技术主任辛西娅·拉皮尔说, 如果网站设计良好, 一个街区、一所学校或者一个班级的网站能够改变家长和学校的关系。她还说:"越让家长参与到学校中去, 就越好。技术给了我们另一种方式去接近家长, 特别是中学生的家长, 因为他们往往很少参与学校事务。"
伊萨卡中学物理老师斯蒂弗·沃特常常从家长那里收到电子邮件, 甚至收到了那些他认为可能连电话都懒得打的家长的电子邮件。沃特使用一种被称为"黑板课程信息"的软件, 与他的学生进行网上聊天, 常常就测验进行讲评, 或者讨论家庭作业中的问题。
事情就这样发展下去, 到今年年底, 许多家长完全改变了观念--事实上依赖于他们学校的技术能力。密歇根州诺维市的一所学校刚刚联网, 这个学校的网站管理员仅仅迟了几个小时将学校的午餐菜羊安排表放到网站上, 结果就有十多位家长打电话给他, 询问有关信息。卡森说:"一年前, 谁都不知道。"(55)但现在, 家长们觉得没有了网站他们很难过日子了。
[定位] 由题干的Many parents now remember the teacher's e-mail address and the school 's website定位到原文第二段第二句Parents in many districts can expect to be able to check the school lunch menu, read class notes, see activity calendar and view nightly homework assignments-all online.
[精解] 推断题。通过文章内容的叙述, 家长可以通过网络检查学校的午餐菜单、阅读班级记录、浏览活动安排日历、查阅家庭作业的安排。第三段还举了Ithaca学校学生在德国进行参观考查, 家长可以及时获得学生的信息这样的例子, 说明网络可以帮助家长了解学生在学校各方面的情况, 掌握相关的信息, 并非观察网络对孩子的教育产生什么样的影响, 故答案为C)。
[避错] A)曲解了文章第一句的含义；B)表示家长通过网络可以与孩子的学校和老师取得联系, 但最终目的还是了解学生的在校情况, 所以B)的表述不确切。D)中的every day过于绝对，故排除。
[定位] 由题干定位到原文第二段最后两句"The schools are wired, " says Carson. "A majority of parents now have access and the educators are ready to go. "
[精解] 推断题。第二段引用了家庭教育有限公司经理兼首席执行官Jonathan Carson 的话。"学校联网了。大多数家长有机会了解孩子在校的情况, 教育者们也准备好了。"此处的含义为学校、教师和家长都能够利用现代科学技术的便利条件, 推进教育的发展, 并非说明教师要失业下岗了, 故本题答案选B)。
[定位] 由题干的example of Ithaca high school is used to show定位到原文第三段第一句Over the summer, parents of high school German students in Ithaca, N. Y. got to be part of a class to Europe, through their home computers.
[精解] 细节题。第三段作者举了Ithaca中学的例子。学生们暑假时去德国进行实地参观考查。父母在家里也成为了这一考查的参与者。学生们带去了数码相机和笔记本电脑, 从网上传回了他们参加活动的情况。在网页上看到孩子的笑脸, 家长感到很欣慰, 这一例子说明了网络技术在教育中起到越来越重要的作用, 信息技术可以促使一切因素参与学校教育, 所以本题答案为A)。
[避错] B)说明的是学校上网带来的方便, 但只是说明了Ithaca学校这一例子的表面原因，根本原因是A)；C)是对 Ithaca 学校举行的活动的描述；第五段提到有些家长可能更愿意通过网络同学校和教师取得联系, 但这并不是作者举Ithaca 学校这一例子的目的, 所以D)错误。
[定位] 由题干的the last paragraph定位到原文最后一段末句。
[精解] 细节题。其实此题想要考查学生对最后一个句子And now parents are finding it's tough to get by without it的理解，tough 和without构成了一个双重否定句，实为肯定。作者想表达家长已经离不开学校提供的网络服务了，"it"所指的是"the lunch-menu calendar on the website"所以A)"依赖的"为正确答案。
[定位] 由题干will be changed most定位到原文第四段第一句When it's designed well, a district, school or classroom website can change the relationship between the parent and the school, says Cynthia Lapier, Ithaca's director of information and instructional technology.
[精解] 推断题。第四段第一句提到负责信息技术的Cynthia Lapier 谈到如果社区、学校或教室的网站设计得好, 会改善家长与学校之间的关系。第五段也引用了Ithaca学校一位物理教师的观点说明网络这种方式方便了家长与学校、教师之间的联系；故最大的改变应该是家长与学校之间的关系, 答案为C)。
assignment n. 功课, 任务
majority n. 多数, 大半
laptop n. 膝上型计算机, 便携机
capability n. 能力, 容量
calendar n. 日历, 日程表
digital adj. 数字的
get by 过活，过得去
在加利福尼亚的Santa Monica就有一项名为"探路者"的智能公路工程，其中有一条长达14英里的Santa Monica 的免费高速公路，组成了所谓的"智能走廊"。这一工程所铺的路面中都装置了封闭的电路设备，闭路电视的摄像头可以查测交通流量，之后通过与汽车上所装备的接收系统相连，将所采集到的路况信息传达给司机，从而为其指明哪些道路的交通堵塞情况最轻。
[定位] 由题干"a quick fix solution"is closest in meaning to定位到原文第一段第三句But traffic experts say building more roads is a quick fix solution that will not alleviate the traffic problem in the long run.
[精解] 语义题。quick fix solution所在的句子后一部分，即定语从句部分(. . . that will not alleviate the traffic problem in the long run)是对quick fix solution的一个解释说明，意思是"...从长远来看不能解决交通问题"。因此，这种办法不是最佳的、最有效的办法，只是一种临时的应急手段。而B)"一种快速的办法"和quick fix意思最接近。
[定位] 由题干the smart highway technology is aimed to定位到原文第二段第二句Proponents of this advanced technology say electronic detection systems, closed-circuit television radio communication, ramp metering, variable message signing, and other smart highway technology can now be used at a reasonable cost to improve communication between drivers and the people who monitor traffic.
[避错] A)"在州际公路上配置先进的设施"与原文不符，因为原文并没有提到州际公路；原文也没有提到B） "为客车提供各种服务"；D)"提高司机和交通监察员之间的交流"在第二段最后一句提到，但这不是智能高速公路技术的最终目的，而是采用一些其他先进的高速公路智能化技术的作用。
[定位] 由题干的the method of Highways Get Smart is定位到第四段第二句Some say the high-tech approach is limited and can only offer temporary solutions to a serious problem.
[精解] 推断题。本文探讨的是解决交通拥堵的办法，文中重点探讨了一种解决办法，即智能高速公路工程(smart highway projects)，但一些专家认为这种方法不是最终的解决办法(ultimate solution)，只是一种临时的解决办法(temporary solution)。故D)正确。
[避错] A)和文中一些专家的观点矛盾，第一段提到解决交通问题的一种应急的手段(quick fix solution)是多修路；B)是一种错误的解决方法，与原文不符；C)"解决交通问题的一个冒险办法"和原文不符。
[定位] 由题干的redress the traffic problem定位到原文最后一段第一句Other traffic problem solving options being studied and experimented which include car pooling, rapid mass-transit systems, staggered or flexible work hours, and road pricing, a system whereby motorists pay a certain amount for the time they use a highway.
[定位] 由题干中的 according to the whole passage可知，需从全文内容进行考虑。
alleviate v. 减轻, 使......缓和
likelihood n. 可能, 可能性
detection n. 探知，侦查
pathfinder n. 探险者，开创者
corridor n. 走廊, 回廊
deal with 与......交易
traffic congestion 交通拥挤
lead to 导致
Part Ⅴ Cloze
[精解] 动名词辨义。根据文章首段首句Putting feelings into words makes sadness and anger less intense(把情感说出来可以减轻伤痛和愤怒)，可知文章主题是Putting feelings into words(用语言把情感说出来)。由此可推测此处表达的应是"向医生倾诉可以使病人感觉好些"。talk to更强调的是一种语言上的表达与倾诉，与文中所表达意思最符合，故答案选C) talking。
[避错] go/resort to表示的是"向某人求助"，这种求助可以是多方面的，不一定只局限于言语上的；而complain to表达的是"向某人抱怨"，和文意并不是很贴切。
[精解] 动词辨义。根据空格前的信息"调查者认为把消极的情绪、感受说出来可以把大脑的一部分..."根据文章主旨和后面的信息和常识我们可以判断应填一意思为"刺激"的词。选项中activate和stimulate均有"刺激"的意思，但通常stimulate还褒含"促进"的意思，趋向于好的方面刺激，而activate通常只是单纯的字面意思，无褒贬之分，据文意此处选activate更符合文意。C), D)项不符合文意。故答案选A)。
[避错] stimulate"激励"；sparkle"发火花, (使)闪耀"；assimilate"吸收"。
[精解] 形容词辨义。根据空格前的名词brain和空格后的for，可以判断空格处应该填入可跟for构成搭配的形容词来修饰brain。只有A）、D）可以与for连用，根据语意，答案选D） responsible。
[避错] suitable(常与for连用)"适当的，相配的"；applicable(常与to连用)"可适用的, 可应用的"; responsive(常与to连用)"反应的；表示回答的；易反应的"。
[精解] 动词辨义。根据语义"大脑的这一区域似乎完全陷入了关闸状态"，可知此处应填一意为"陷入，卷入"的词。be involved in 有多重意思"包含在，与...有关，卷入"。可以表达文中所述意思。故答案选B)。
[避错] engaged in意为"从事于"不合题意。encountered 意为"遭遇"；evolved 意为"进化的"，显然两者均不合题意，排除。
[精解] 动词辨义。据题意：他和他的同事仔细查看了30个人的大脑...。scan"细看, 审视, 浏览, 扫描"，符合题意。故答案选C)。
[避错] study"学习研究"，一般强调学术上的研究 ； investigate"调查研究"，强调实际考察、调查；examine"检查, 调查"，强调对某一事物的检测，如对学生的测验。虽然三个词都有研究的意思，但是都不如scan用的精确，尤其宾语是the brains。
[精解] 分词辨义。express emotion 是习惯表达，"表达情绪"。在此处，expressing strong emotion 用做后置定语，修饰faces。
[避错] show"指示，说明，显示"；present"赠送, 上演, 呈现"have"拥有"。
[精解] 动词辨义。根据文章上下文，可以推断，此处是研究人员让接受调查的人用悲伤或生气来分类他们所看到的图片中人的表情。categorize "以类别分类"。categorize sth in(into) 是习惯表达。
[精解] 介词辨义。like"像是, 如同"。在此处是举例的含义。
[避错] as"当做"；by"经, 由, 依据, 按照"；with"用, 同..., 由于"。
[精解] 连接词。what引导主语从句，与they found构成主语，在主语从句中what作found的宾语。
[避错] 也可以理解thing或 result加后置定语they found来构成名词做主语。但是因为名词后有定语从句，那么其前面要有定冠词the表示限定。
[精解] 动词辨义。attach sth. to. . . 是固定搭配，"加于...之上"。
[精解] 名词辨义。response"回答, 响应, 反应"。根据空格前面的语意"研究人员发现，当接受调查的人把一个词，比如生气与一张发怒的脸相联系时"，可以判断后面是接受调查的人的头脑反应。
[避错] action"动作"；activity"行动, 行为"；motion"运动, 动作"。
[精解] 名词辨义。题意：这似乎阻碍了大脑中基本情绪...的反应。纵观四个选项：expression"表情，脸色，声调"；movement"运动，移动"；circuit"电路, 一圈, 周游"；response"回答，反应"。空格前有response。此处用来询问哪里的response，所以首先排除response。再根据题意不难发现答案为C)。
[避错] expression 和movement 在这里均不准确。
[精解] 介词辨义。根据空格后的instead与that is more active，可以推断此处大脑的情形与前面的decreased是相反的情况，所以答案为light up。light sth up"使...明亮"。
[避错] light on"偶遇"。light作动词时一般不与in和off连用。
[精解] 介词辨义。根据空格前的 more active可以明确后面要用than表示比较。。
[精解] 形容词辨义。prior"在前的，先前的"。在下一段里也有提示lieberman said prior studies have hinted. . . .
[避错] early"早期的"；original"最初的, 原始的"；senior"高级的"。
[精解] 动词辨义。step on the brake"踩刹车"。
[避错] stamp"跺(脚), 顿(足)"。
[精解] 连词的选用。根据题意：研究人员发现在性别上不存在很大的差异，. . . Lieberman说一些线索也表明了在男女获益上面的...，可以判断它们之间是转折关系，所以要用but来连接。
[精解] 名词辨义。根据空格前significant differences along gender lines和空格后"Women may do more of this 80 , but when men are instructed to do it可以推断此处是说明男女差异的，所以答案为differences。
[避错] similarity"类似, 类似处"。
[精解] 形容词辨义。根据题意：女人可能...做得更多一些。spontaneously表示"自然地, 本能地"，符合文意。故选D)。
[避错] willingly"自动地, 欣然地"；reluctantly"不情愿地, 嫌恶地"；unconsciously"无意中, 不知不觉"均不符合文中所表达意思。
Part Ⅵ Translation
82. they are apt to make trouble
[考点] ①be apt to表示"易于做某事"，指人的机体或精神上的固有的或习惯的倾向等；②make trouble表示"惹麻烦"。
83. Much as I admire him as a writer
[考点] ①让步状语从句：much as表示"尽管..."，as 引导的让步状语从句，其主要结构为：形容词/副词/名词 + as / though + 主语 + 谓语"，much表示程度；②admire him as a writer表示"崇拜他是作家"。
84. while his mind was wandering
[考点] ①while表示"却..."；② mind was wandering表示"胡思乱想"。
85. in appearance but not in character
[考点] ①in appearance表示"外表"，往往包括衣着，而looks 复数形式表示容貌，单数形式则表示"表情、神色"，尤指高兴时的表情；②in character表示"性格"。
86. than go on holiday to the seaside
[考点] ①虚拟语气：than go on holiday表示"不如..."，其结构为：主语＋would rather＋动词谓语+than+动词原形，表示"宁可..."、"与其...不如(做)，不愿"；②on holiday表示"度假"。③seaside表示"海滨"。