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洛基英语
精英培训
四级真题详解
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中国四六级考试网 >> 模拟试题
星火08年12月英语四级模拟试卷与答案
http://www.china-cet.com        来源:星火英语        发布时间:2008-12-05 16:32:53
2天记住4000单词的秘密... 点击进入!!
    Part Ⅰ        Writing                  (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled The Decrease of Public Transportation Ticket Fare. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:

  1. 近来一些城市政府实施多项举措降低公共交通票价,大力发展公共交通;

  2. 此措施带来的好处;

  3. 作为市民应如何响应政府的号召。

  The Decrease of Public Transportation Ticket Fare

  Part Ⅱ            Reading Comprehension      (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)

  Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.

  For questions 1-7,choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).

  For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

  The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods

  For thousands of years farmers have used a process of selection and cross breeding to continually improve the quality of crops. Traditional breeding methods are slow, requiring intensive labor: while trying to get a desirable trait in a bred species, undesirable traits will appear and farmers must continue the process over and over again until all the undesirables are bred out. In contrast, organisms acquire one specific gene or a few genes together through genetic modification, without other traits included and within a single generation. However, this technology too is inherently unpredictable and some scientists believe it can produce potentially dangerous results unless better testing methods are developed. Traditional breeding is based on sexual reproduction between like organisms. The transferred genes are similar to genes in the cell they join. They are conveyed in complete groups and in a fixed sequence that harmonizes with the sequence of genes in the partner cell. In contrast, bioengineers isolate a gene from one type of organism and collect it randomly into the DNA of a dissimilar species, disrupting its natural sequence. One of the main differences between conventional and genetically modified crops is that the former involves crosses either within species or between very closely related species. However, GM crops can have genes from closely related species or even from bacteria and viruses. Benefits: one side of the debate Economical? GM supporters tell farmers that they stand to reap enormous profits from growing GM crops. It takes a shorter time to produce the desired product. It is precise and there are no unwanted genes. To produce the GM crops, modern biotechnology is used which requires highly skilled people and sophisticated and expensive equipment. Large companies need considerable investments in laboratories, equipment and human resources, hence the reason why GM crops are more expensive for farmers than traditional crops. Herbicide-resistant crops So what other advantages do GM crops hold for farmers? GM crops can be produced to be herbicide (除草剂) resistant. This means that farmers could spray these crops with herbicide and kill the weeds, without affecting the crop. In effect, the amount of herbicide used in one season would be reduced, with a subsequent reduction in costs for farmers and consumers. Biotechnology companies are even experimenting with crops that can be genetically modified to be drought and salt-tolerant, or less reliant on fertilizer, opening up new areas to be farmed and leading to increased productivity. However, the claims of less herbicide usage with GM crops have till now not been independently supported by facts. Better quality foods Even animals can be genetically modified to be leaner, grow faster, and need less food. They could be modified to have special characteristics, such as greater milk production in cows. These modifications again lead to improved productivity for farmers and finally lower costs for the consumers. Modified crops could perhaps prevent outbreaks such as foot and mouth disease, which has badly influenced many farmers and local economies. No such products have been released to date; however, some are under consideration for release. For example, GM salmon, capable of growing almost 30 times faster than natural salmon, may soon be approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the U.S. for release into open waters without a single study on the impact on human health or the environment. Risks: the other side of the debate Environmental damage The problem with GM crops is that there is little known about what effect they will have in, say, 20 years time. The genetic structure of any living organism is complex and GM crop tests focus on short-term effects. Not all the effects of introducing a foreign gene into the complex genetic structure of an organism are tested. Will the pests that a crop was created to resist eventually become resistant to this crop? Then there is always the possibility that we may not be able to destroy GM crops once they spread into the environment. Risk to food web. A further complication is that the pesticide produced in the crop may unintentionally harm creatures. GM crops may also pose a health risk to native animals that eat them. The animals may be poisoned by the built-in pesticides. Tests in the U.S. showed that 44% of caterpillars (毛虫) of the monarch butterfly died when fed large amounts of pollen(花粉)from GM corn. Disease. Another concern is disease. Since some crops are modified using the DNA from viruses and bacteria, will we see new diseases emerge? What about the GM crops that have antibiotic-resistant marker genes? Marker genes are used by scientists to determine whether their genetic modification of a plant was successful. Will these antibiotic-resistant genes be transferred to microorganisms that cause disease? We already have a problem with ineffective antibiotics. How can we develop new drugs to fight these new bugs? Until further studies can show that GM foods and crops do not pose serious threats to human health or the world's ecosystems, the debate over their release will continue. Living organisms are complex and tampering with their genes may have unintended effects. It is in our common interest to support concerned scientists and organizations, such as Friends of the Earth who demand required labeling of these food products and independent testing for safety and environmental impacts.

  1. What is the main difference between conventional breeding and genetic breeding?

  A) The former is based on sexual reproduction between like organisms while the latter can have genes even from bacteria and viruses.

  B) The former is unpredictable while the latter is predictable.

  C) The former is applied by farmers while the latter by scientists.

  D) The former has a long history while the latter a short one.

  2. Which of the following is the possible benefit of GM crops?

  A) They can be herbicide-resistant.    B) They can fertilize the field.

  C) They can produce salt.           D) They can be more delicious.

  3. What will probably happen to the genetically modified animals?

  A) They may grow slower.          B) They may improve the production.

  C) They may digest more food.      D) They may spread disease quickly.

  4. What can we learn from GM salmon according to the passage?

  A) It can grow very slowly.          B) It will eat less.

  C) It won't do harm to environment.   D) It may cause some disease.

  5. The reason why GM crops will probably lead to environmental damage is that .

  A) GM crop tests do not focus on far-reaching effects

  B) there are no GM crop tests before they are being approved of

  C) there is no single study on the impact of GM crops on the environment

  D) GM crops may bring out foot or mouth disease

  6. This article has mentioned risks about GM crops.

  A) six              B) five         C) four                 D) three

  7. The author's attitude towards GM crops is .

  A) objective        B) biased       C) affirmative            D) negative

  8. The native animals that eat GM crops might be poisoned by__________.

  9. Scientists relied on Marker genes to test the results of __________.

  10. Friends of the Earth claim that all GM food should be tested for__________.

  Part Ⅲ         Listening Comprehension         (35 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

11. A) He doesn't like cheese in the cafeteria.   B) He prefers his own cooking.

  C) The man's favorite is the chicken salad.  D) He doesn't have any favorite food.

  12. A) In a shop.                     B) In a bookstore.                                         

  C) In a library.                        D) In a school.

  13. A) Doctor and patient.                  B) Nurse and patient.

  C) Teacher and student.                 D) Father and daughter.  

  14. A) Because he was a man.

  B) Because he went to a right section.

  C) Because he was the person the job needed.

  D) Because he was the most outstanding person.

  15. A) They are talking about clothes.         B) They are talking about carpet.

  C) They are talking about curtain.         D) They are talking about flowers.

  16. A) Jobs are easier to find in the city.       B) Living in the city is not expensive.

  C) Her job is in the city.                D) She can go to the cinema every day.

  17. A) His wife deposited some money.       B) His wife also opened an account.

  C) His wife also spent some money.      D) There is something wrong with the bank.

  18. A) She bought a sweater in the end.       B) She bought a blouse finally.

  C) She bought a skirt finally.            D) She bought a coat in the end.

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  19. A) He wants to buy a house.        

  B) He wants to rent several rooms for himself.

  C) He wants to rent a furnished room for himself.

  D) He wants to buy several rooms in the house.

  20. A) A house with no storeys.

  B) A free-standing house with three storeys.

  C) A detached house with three storeys.

  D) A semi-detached house with three storeys.

  21. A) It's a lovely area.

  B) It's an area where there are Chinese people.

  C) It's an area where there are people from different places.

  D) It's a place that is very convenient.

  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  22. A) To see movies.                 B) To watch birds.                     

  C) To smell the roses.              D) To paint model planes.

  23. A) Play a role in a movie.           B) Enjoy the pleasure of life.

  C) Earn more and more money.       D) Save money for his children.

  24. A) Stop working.                  B) See movies in leisure time.

  C) Take full advantage of life like kids. D) Earn money and give it to his children.

  25. A) He has to consider money when he wants to keep his hobby.

  B) The more money he has, the happier he is.

  C) He can't earn more money unless he works more hours a day.

  D) He can appreciate money only when he earns it by himself.

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  26. A) Gathering non-relevant materials.      B) Stealing another person's idea.

  C) Sharing notes with someone else.      D) Handing in assignments late.

  27. A) In the student's own words.           B) In direct quotations.

  C) In short phrases.                    D) In shorthand.

  28. A) It should be assimilated thoroughly.     B) It should be enclosed in quotation marks.

  C) It should be paraphrased by the student. D) It should be authorized by the author.

  Passage Two

  Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  29. A) They read poetry aloud.

  B) They delivered a speech.

  C) They took objective tests.

  D) They discussed questions with expert in a particular field.

  30. A) There  are more candidates than before.

  B) The modern industry is developing slowly.

  C) The written examinations are much easier than before.

  D) The written examinations are more objective than the spoken ones.

  31. A) The objective test always deals with the personal opinions.

  B) The objective test is timed exactly by electric clocks.

  C) The question of the objective test has only one correct answer.

  D) The objective test resembles a group of workers at an automobile factory.

  Passage Three

  Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  32. A) The history of Benjamin Franklin.

  B) The history of the U.S.mail.

  C) The changes of writing letters.

  D) The history of the U.S..

  33. A) To deliver the mail from Boston on horseback to its destination.

  B) To take charge of the mail for all the colonies in North America.

  C) To introduce the use of stagecoaches to carry mail.

  D) To deliver mail to the communities from railways by horse and wagon.

  34. A) The British government.

  B) The American government.

  C) Benjamin Franklin.

  D) George Washington.

  35. A) He established a government service.

  B) He developed a system called "star routes".

  C) He built a lot of post offices.

  D) He established the postal system.

Section C

  Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  American cities are similar to other cities around the world. In every country, cities reflect the (36)_______ of the culture. Cities contain the very best aspects of a society: (37) _______ for education, employment, and entertainment. They also contain the very worst parts of a society: violent crime, racial conflict, and (38) _______. American cities are changing, just as American society is changing.   After World WarⅡ, city residents became wealthier, more prosperous. They had more children. They needed more (39). _______. They moved out of their apartments in the city to buy their own homes. They bought houses in the (40) _______ areas near a city where people live. These are (41) _______ without many offices or factories. During the 1950s the American "dream" was to have a house in the suburbs.   Now things are changing. The children of the people who left the cities in the 1950s are now (42). _______. They, unlike their parents, want to live in the cities. Many young professionals, doctors, lawyers, and (43) _______ are moving back to the city. (44) _______. They prefer the city to the suburbs because their jobs are there; they are afraid of the fuel shortage; (45) _______. A new class is moving into the city-a wealthier, more mobile class. (46) _______. Some city residents now see a bright, new future. Others see only problems and conflicts. One thing is sure: Many dying cities are alive again.

  Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)(25 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

  Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  More than forty women have been killed in the war in Iraq. Hundreds of others have been ___ 47___.The war began in March of 2003.Two___ 48___published books tell two different stories of women who served in Iraq. One is by Janis Karpinski. She was the Army general who ___ 49___military police at prisons in Iraq. These included the Army Reserve soldiers who ___ 50___ the Abu Ghraib Prison near Baghdad. Some have received prison ___51_for mistreating prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Miz Karpinski became the highest-level officer to be punished in connection with the ___ 52___.She left the service in July after being reduced from a brigadier general(准将) to a colonel(上校).Her book is called "One Woman's Army: The Commanding General of Abu Ghraib Tells Her Story." Miz Karpinski says she was unfairly blamed for conditions beyond her control. She also tells of her difficulties as a rising woman ___ 53___in the Army. Another former member of the Army, Kayla Williams, wrote a book called "Love My Rifle More Than You." The name is taken from a ___ 54___ song. Miz Williams was an Arabic translator in Iraq. She says her book describes what it is like to be young and ___ 55__ in the Army. One famous 56 called it "a frank, hocking and honest look at life in the military."

  A) abused                 F) case               K) marching

  B) female           G) commanded          L) simply

  C) wounded             H) soldier          M) guarded

  D) officer          I) reviewer              N) beautiful

  E) treatments    J) recently              O) sentences

  Section

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  Iron production was revolutionized in the early eighteenth century when coke was first used instead of charcoal (木炭) for refining iron ore. Previously the poor quality of the iron had restricted its use in architecture to items such as chains and tie bars for supporting arches, vaults (拱顶),and walls. With the improvement in refining ore, it was now possible to make cast-iron beams and columns. During the nineteenth century further advances were made, notably Bessemer's process for converting iron into steel, which made the material more commercially feasible.

  Iron was rapidly adopted for the construction of bridges, because its strength was far greater than that of stone or timber, but its use in the architecture of buildings developed more slowly. By 1800 a complete internal iron skeleton for buildings had been developed in industrial architecture replacing traditional timber beams, but it generally remained concealed. Apart from its low cost, the appeal of iron as a building material lay in its strength, its resistance to fire, and its potential to span vast areas. As a result, iron became increasingly popular as a structural material for more traditional styles of architecture during the nineteenth century, but it was invariably concealed.

  Significantly, the use of exposed iron occurred mainly in the new building types produced by the Industrial Revolution: in factories, warehouses, commercial offices, exhibition halls, and railroad stations, where its practical advantages far outweighed its lack of status. Designers of the railroad stations of the new age explored the potential of iron, covering huge areas with spans that surpassed the great vaults of medieval churches and cathedrals. Paxton's Crystal Palace, designed to house the Great Exhibition of 1851,covered an area of 1848 feet by 408 feet in assembled units of glass set in iron frames. The Paris Exhibition of 1889 included both the widest span and the greatest height achieved so far with the Halle des Machines, spanning 362 feet, and the Eiffel Tower 1,000 feet high. However, these achievements were mocked by the artists of Paris as expensive and ugly foolishness. Iron, despite its structural advantages, had little aesthetic (审美的) status. The use of an exposed iron structure in the more traditional styles of architecture was slower to develop.

  52. What does the passage mainly discuss?

  A) Advances in iron processing in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  B) The effects of the Industrial Revolution on traditional architectural styles.

  C) Advantages of stone and timber over steel as building materials.

  D) The evolution of the use of iron in architecture.

  53. Iron replaced stone and timber in the building of bridges because iron was considered_________.

  A) more beautiful

  B) new and modern

  C) much stronger

  D) easier to transport

  54. According to Paragraph 3,the architectural significance of the Halle des Machines was its ________.

  A) wide span

  B) great height

  C) unequaled beauty

  D) assembled units of glass

  55. How did the artists react to the buildings at the Paris Exhibition?

  A) They tried to copy them.

  B) They laughed at them.

  C) They praised them.

  D) They refused to pay to see them.

  56. It can be inferred that the delayed use of exposed iron structures in traditional styles of architecture is best explained by________.

  A) the impracticality of using iron for small, noncommercial buildings

  B) the association of iron architecture with the problems of the Industrial Revolution

  C) the general belief that iron offered less resistance to fire and harsh weather than traditional materials

  D) the general perception that iron structures were not beautiful in appearance

  Passage Two

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  Four months before Crown Prince Felipe says "si" ( "yes" in Spanish) to television journalist Letizia Ortiz,royal wedding fever is gripping Spain.

  Shops are offering the biggest variety of wedding souvenirs (纪念品),from plates and bottle-openers to copies of the couple's engagement ring.

  The couple have made only a few carefully staged public appearances to reduce the scrutiny (仔细检查).

  Spanish people waited for more than a decade for the 36-year-old son of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia to find a suitable bride. And more important, the May 22 wedding will be a landmark event in other ways.

  Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano,31,is the daughter of a nurse and a journalist. So, she will be the first commoner on a throne once occupied by Queen Isabella, who sent Christopher Columbus to the Americas.

  The pretty, elegant former news anchor (主持人)will also become Spain's first home-grown queen in more than a century. The lively and professionally accomplished Letizia has been welcomed by Spanish people as a new type of queen for a modern monarchy.

  Spanish people were accustomed to seeing her in television news broadcasts and she arouses tremendous curiosity. Journalists are investigating even the most ordinary aspects of her past which resembles that of so many other young Spanish professional women.

  Spanish people have also taken note that she tried to interrupt the prince when they talked to the press after getting engaged in November. "Let me talk," she told the heir to the Bourbon throne.

  Such behavior is regarded as understandable in a woman who went to Mexico by herself at age 23 and later reported on the September 11 terrorist attacks and the Iraq war for state television TVE.

  Her strong character, frankness and critical mind could also be disadvantages for a royal who is rarely expected to speak her mind, reporters have said.

  The palace has struggled to protect her from scrutiny and to give her time to adapt to her new role.

57. By saying "royal wedding fever" (Line 2,Para.1), the author means "_________".

  A) a lot of royal weddings follow

  B) the Spanish people are surprised at the royal wedding

  C) the royal wedding makes a stir in the whole country

  D) the royal wedding becomes a fashion

  58. The most important reason why royal wedding causes such a great interest is that_________ .

  A) a commoner is married into a royal family

  B) the prince finally finds his bride

  C) a famous TV journalist gets married

  D) the wedding is expensive

  59. Letizia used to be a news anchor who was _________.

  A) world-famous

  B) frank

  C) serious

  D) capable

  60. Letizia's interruption of the prince when they talked to the press was most probably prompted by her_________ .

  A) curiosity

  B) innocence

  C) outspokenness

  D) rudeness

  61. The difficulty for Letizia to fit in the royal life may lie in _________.

  A) how to meet the requirements of the Queen

  B) how to change her character to fit in the royal family

  C) how to continue her career after marriage

  D) how to face her former audience as a princess

  Part Ⅴ            Cloze    (15 minutes)

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Acupuncture (针灸) is quite mysterious. People see the most is a person with needles sticking out of the flesh. Understandably being wary ___62___ sharp pointed objects, patients often needs to__63___this obstacle. The best way to do this is becoming educated about how acupuncture is __64___, and where it came from. The earliest __65___ of the use of acupuncture go back to 2,000 years ago. The __66___dates back to as early as the Stone Age. When you experience pain it is an instinctive __67___ to apply pressure to that location. Also the body may experience pain __68___ the infection is not localized. Your body __69___ sends you warning signals. The Ancient Chinese utilized these warnings, and developed an intricate system of these points__70___ observation. It is easy to infer that applying pressure to __71___ pain with your hands evolved __72___ the use of needles instead. Tortoise _73___ have been found recording the use of acupuncture. The first actual written text__74___ the use of acupuncture is called Nei Ching Su Wen. This book basically __75___ all the different points, but it is mostly a book on theory and concept. The Nei Ching Su Wen __76__the basic rules of philosophy on health. These philosophies branched from two mainstream_77__ during the Warring States period. The first is Confucianism. The teachings of this stress that human body is sacred and is __78___ dissection or surgery. This makes acupuncture a perfect means of __79___ illness because applying pressure to the __80__ body, you can relieve internal disease. The other major __81__of thought is called Taoism. Maintaining harmony is the stressed idea; you must have a balance between Yin and Yang.

  62. A) with    B) for 

  C) of      D) about

  63. A) overcome           B) succeed      

  C) defeat               D) fail

  64. A) practiced            B) executed     

  C) accomplished        D) performed

  65. A) recordings           B) scripts      

  C) handwritings         D) copies

  66. A) reason              B) origin      

  C) source               D) root

  67. A) incentive            B) reaction      

  C) stimulus            D) reflection

  68. A) which              B) what      

  C) when              D) where

  69. A) incidentally         B) especially      

  C) naturally           D) definitely

  70. A) through            B) with 

  C) by                D) in

  71. A) control            B) suffer     

  C) relive             D) inflict

  72. A) from              B) into 

  C) out               D) as

  73. A) claws             B) bones    

  C) shells            D) feet

  74. A) exclaimed         B) acclaimed     

  C) reclaimed         D) claimed

  75. A) lays out           B) lays about     

  C) lays aside         D) lays down

  76. A) observes          B) proves    

  C) sets             D) violates

  77. A) structures          B) religions     

  C) schools           D) conceptions

  78. A) from             B) for    

  C) against           D) versus

  79. A) preserving         B) curing     

  C) recovering         D) restoring

  80. A) terminal           B) personal     

  C) marginal          D) external

  81. A) series            B) train   

  C) chain            D) succession

  Part Ⅵ  Translation     (5 minutes)

  Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.

  82. If you take this kind of medicine three times a day, it________________________ (可以治愈你的胃病).

  83. Instead of waiting to be asked, you should ________________________ (主动开始谈话).

  84. The police ________________________ (正在搜寻一个蓄着胡子的年轻人),but they haven't found him till now.

  85. These courses ________________________ (使我具备了必要的知识)for more advanced studies in Chemistry.

  86. My brother is seriously ill, so I beg to________________________  (请一周的假).

 

答案

PartⅠWriting

  【审题与构思】① 审题及布局。这篇作文根据提纲,可以分为三个段落写作。可以根据自己对这三个方面的了解程度决定详写和略写的段落。第一段说明一些城市政府实施多项举措降低公共交通票价,大力发展公共交通的情况,如果要把这一段作为详写的段落,可以列举城市政府采取的一些具体的措施。第二段写发展公共交通带来的好处,可以写人们的交通费用降低,同时也可以叙述随着越来越多的人出门乘坐公共交通工具,降低了私家车的出行频率,从而能缓解交通和环境问题。第三段写如何响应政府的号召,最好的方法就是尽量在出行时,使用公共交通工具。②语言。注意段落之间、句子之间的衔接,从而使其成为一个表达清晰,符合逻辑的整体。

  范文点评

  The Decrease of Public Transportation Ticket Fare

  Recently, ① some municipal governments have taken a series of measures to develop public transportation including decreasing public transportation ticket fare. ② On the one hand, they strengthen financial support to public transportation companies. On the other hand, IC cards are issued to offer discount of subway and bus ticket fare.  

  The benefits can be seen obviously. ③ One advantage is that the daily transportation expense is reduced. Due to the low prices, more and more people are willing to go out by public vehicles with less cars streaming in the street, ④ the street is clearer and the air is cleaner.    

  ⑤ To my mind, traveling via public vehicles is the best way to respond to governments' appeal. Besides, trying to make every trip efficient and reducing the frequency of vehicles is also a good answer.

  ①开门见山,说明一些城市政府实施多项举措降低公共交通票价,大力发展公共交通。municipal"城市的"为高分词。 

  ②用On the one hand 和On the other hand,清晰地表明一些城市政府采取的具体措施。

  ③这段阐述发展公共交通带来的好处,采用了因果法。发展公共交通导致交通费降低,而它又使更多人选择公共交通,而其又能缓解交通,改善环境。环环相扣,逻辑严密。

  ④分别用了clear "无堵塞的"和clean"清洁的",用词简单而生动,说明政府的举措有利于解决交通问题和污染问题。

  ⑤表达个人观点,提出了两个建议。

  Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)

  本文首先比较传统的作物培育方法和转基因培育作物的方法,然后讨论转基因作物及食物给人类以及自然带来的利弊,最后指出人类必须密切关注转基因技术的发展及其影响。

  1. A)。[定位]由题干中的conventional breeding和main difference定位到本文第四段。

  [精析]段首设题。这段明确指出,传统种植过程是在物种之间或者非常相近的物种间进行杂交;GM crops的基因可以取自非常相近的物种,甚至是细菌和病毒。A)项为正确答案。B)项认为传统种植不可预测,而基因培植可以预测,由原文第二段...organisms...through genetic modification.... However, this technology too is inherently unpredictable知该项陈述错误;C)项认为农民用传统种植法,科学家用基因培植法,这与科学家致力于推广该技术的表述不符;D)项认为传统种植法时间长,但基因法短暂,这不是主要的区别。

  2. A)。[定位]由选项的herbicide-resistant,drought-tolerant和salt-tolerant定位到Herbicide-resistant crops这一部分。

  [精析]段落中设题。由该部分下前两句 "So what other advantages do GM crops hold for farmers? GM crops can be produced to be herbicide-resistant."知A)选项正确;第二段首句"Biotechnology companies are even experimenting with crops that can be genetically modified to be drought and salt-tolerant."知C)项陈述错误。B)、D)两项文中没有提及。

  3. B)。[定位]由题干中的genetically modified animals定位到Better Quality Foods这一部分的第一段。

  [精析]段首设题。由首句"Even animals can be genetically modified to be leaner, grow faster, and need less food."知A)、C)两项的陈述与原文陈述相悖,由本段最后一句"Modified crops could perhaps prevent outbreaks such as foot and mouth disease..."知D)项陈述专指转基因食物可以防止口蹄疫,D)项陈述也不符合原文;B)项认为这类动物可以提高产量,即本段第三句"These modifications again lead to improved productivity for farmers",故B)项为正确答案。

  4. D)。[定位]由题干中的GM salmon定位到Better Quality Foods小标题下的第二段第二句。 

  [精析]举例处设题。由"GM salmon, capable of growing almost 30 times faster than natural salmon"知A)项陈述不正确;由...without a single study on the impact on human health or the environment"知转基因鲑鱼有可能会对环境和健康造成威胁,C)项陈述不正确、D)项陈述正确。B)项在本段没有提及。

  5. A)。[定位]由题干中的environmental damage定位到Environmental damage这一部分。

  [精析]段首设题。由该部分下第一段的前两句"The problem with GM crops is that there is little known about what effect they will have in, say, 20 years time....GM crop tests focus on short-term effects."可知主要原因是目前的转基因作物的试验着眼于短期影响,无法预知长远的影响。B)、C)项的表述与原文不符;D)项陈述的是可能的结果不是原因,而且与环境没有直接的关系。故A)为正确答案。

  6. D)。[定位]由题干中risks和GM crops定位到Risks: the other side of the debate这一部分。

  [精析]标题处设题。该部分下设三个小标题,分别为:Environmental damage,Risk to food web和Disease。故文章共提到3个潜在危险。D)项为正确答案。

  7. A)。[定位]需要迅速浏览全文,注意标题和小标题。

  [精析]作者态度题。该文的标题为The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods,同时陈述时有两方对立的观点,即Benefits: one side of the debate和Risks: the other side of the debate。由此可知作者在转基因食品的问题上是比较客观的,A)项为正确答案。

  8. built-in pesticides

  [定位]由题干中的eat GM crops和poisoned定位到Risk to food web小标题下的第二句GM crops may also pose a health risk to native animals that eat them. 和第三句The animals may be poisoned by the built-in pesticides.

  [精析]此处需填名词性成分或者动名词。题干将第二和第三个句子重新改写,第二句话中的主语GM crops放到第三句话中充当the animals 的定语,所以此处应该填写名词性成分built-in pesticides。

  9. their genetic modification of a plant

  [定位]由题干中的Marker genes定位到Disease小标题下的第四句Marker genes are used by scientists to determine whether their genetic modification of a plant was successful.

  [精析]此处需填名词性成分。题干将原文的被动句Marker genes are used by scientist改写成主动句Scientists relied on...,并且把原文中的use, determine分别用同义词rely on,test代替;空前给出一个介词of,故可推断空格处应填名词形式,结合原文可知应填写their genetic modification of a plant。

  10.safety and environmental impacts

  [定位]由题干中的Friends of the Earth定位到文章末段末句...Friends of the Earth who demand required labeling of these food products and independent testing for safety and environmental impacts. 

  [精析]此处需填名词。题干将原文中定语从句改写成一个that引导的宾语从句;题干中的claim和原文的demand对应;空格前给出一个介词for,故可推断后面是名词形式,结合原文可知应填写safety and environmental impacts。

  Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension

  Section A

  11. W: I think I'll have lunch in the cafeteria. I like their mushroom and cheese.

  M: The chicken salad is good but there's nothing like home cooking.

  Q: What do we know about the man?

  B)。根据选项可知问题是关于"He"对饮食的选择。 "there's nothing like home cooking"意为这里没有什么比得上家里做的。女士说要在食堂吃午饭,她喜欢那里的蘑菇和奶酪。男士说鸡肉沙拉不错,但那儿没有什么能比得上家里做的。因此男士喜欢吃自己做的食物。故正确答案为B)。

  12. M: Can I borrow this magazine, please?

  W: Sorry, the newest issue is only allowed to read in the reading room. You can borrow the older ones.

  Q: Where did this conversation most probably take place?

  C)。根据选项可知本题询问地点。本题关键词为reading room"阅览室"。男士问能否借阅这本杂志。女士说最新的只能在阅览室阅读,可以借阅旧的。因此对话发生在图书馆。故正确答案为C)。

  13. M: You were absent from class yesterday, Sandy. Where were you? 

  W: I couldn't come, Mr. Hart. I hurt my foot, and my mother took me to the doctor.

  Q: What is the probable relationship between the two speakers?

  C)。根据选项可知本题询问人物关系。男士问女士昨天为什么没来上课。女士说昨天没法来,脚受伤了,妈妈带她去看医生。可推测这两个人应该是老师和学生。故正确答案为C)。

  14. M: You've been hoping to get that job, haven't you? Why do you think they gave it to Thomas but not to you?

  W: I think I'm the wrong sex, that's all.

  Q: Why did Thomas get the job according to the woman?

  A)。根据选项可知问题询问原因。男士对女士说:"你一直期待那份工作,为什么他们把工作给了Thomas而不是你?"女士说:"我是女性的缘故吧(I'm the wrong sex)",可知Thomas得到这份工作是因为他是位男士。故正确答案为A)。

  15. M: It's mostly blue and green with a pattern of flowers in the middle. There's a dark green border.

  W: Yes, it matches the curtains well. We are going to put it down in the sitting room.

  Q: What are they talking about?

  B)。根据选项可知本题询问谈论对象。本题关键句为put it down in..."把它铺在..."。男士说它几乎是蓝绿相间的,中间有花卉图案,边是墨绿色的。女士说它和窗帘刚好相配,我们把它铺在起居室吧。可知他们在讨论地毯。故正确答案为B)。

  16. M: Have you decided where you are going to live when you get married?

  W: I would like to live in the city, but my boyfriend wants a house in the suburbs, which means a long way from my office.

  Q: Why does the woman want to live in the city?

  C)。根据选项可知对话可能关于工作和居住地。 suburbs 意为"郊外"。男士问女士有没有决定结婚后住哪里。女士说想住城里,但她男友想在郊外买房,那就离她公司很远了。因此女士想住城里因为工作在那儿。故正确答案为C)。

  17. M: I really can't understand it. I kept a very careful record of my checks and the total was much less than we deposited.

  W: But perhaps your wife also wrote some checks, Charlie.

  Q: What does the woman imply?

  C)。根据选项可知对话可能关于储蓄和花钱。 wrote some checks意为"开了一些支票(花了一些钱)"。男士说真不明白,我的支票记录得很仔细,可总额比我存入的少很多。女士说可能你妻子也开了一些支票,也花了一些钱。故正确答案为C)。

18. M: Did you get what you wanted?  I remember you said you wanted to get a sweater.

  W: No, a blouse. But by that time, the ones on sale were all gone, so I settled for skirt.

  Q: What did the woman finally buy?

  C)。根据选项可知问题询问"She"最终买什么了。本题关键词为"settle"(定下)。男士说:决定要什么了没?我记得你说想要一件毛衣。女士说:是一件衬衫。但那时特价的都卖完了,所以买了短裙。故正确答案为C)。

  Conversation One

  W: Hello. 85469959.

  M: Hello. I'm calling about the advertisement in the newspaper.(19)Are the rooms still available now?

  W: Yes, they are. Would you like to make an appointment to come and see them? It's very convenient to get here by bus or subway.

  M: Well, I'm very interested in the room. But could I ask you a few questions first?

  W: Yes, of course. Go ahead.

  M: What sort of house is it?

  W: Well,(20)it's a semi-detached house with three floors. And eight rooms all together. I usually have seven people living here, sharing the kitchen and bathroom.

  M: (19)Are the rooms fully furnished? You see, I'll only be here for three months.

  W: Yes, there's a single bed, a wardrobe, a desk, a chair and a book case.

  M: And what about the kitchen? You see, I'm Chinese, so I'd like to cook for myself because I'm not used to Western food.

  W: Ah, you're from China, are you? I've heard Chinese food is delicious. The kitchen has most things but it doesn't have one of those special Chinese pans.

  M: Ok. What about the surroundings in the community?

  W: (21)It's not far from the bus station and the subway, and there's a Chinese Supermarket near here.

  M: Ok, thank you very much. I will think it over and phone you this afternoon to make an appointment.

  19. Why does the man make the phone call?

  C)。根据选项可知本题关于"He"想要租/买房子。本题关键句为"Are the rooms still available now?"男士询问房间是否还有。此外他还询问房间有无家具,他要在此地住三个月"Are the rooms fully furnished? You see, I'll only be here for three months."因此可知他想为自己租一间有家具的房间。故正确答案为C)。

  20. What sort of house is it?

  D)。根据选项可知问题询问房屋类型。本题关键句为"it's a semi-detached house with three floors."这是三层的半独立式房子。storey意为"层"。故正确答案为D)。

  21. How does the lady describe the area?

  D)。根据选项可知问题询问地区情况如何。本题关键句为"It's not far from the bus station and the subway, and there's a Chinese Supermarket near here."女士说附近有公交站、地铁站和超市。因此可知,女士的意思是该地区非常方便。故正确答案为D)。

  Conversation Two

  M: I recently started painting model airplanes.When I was young I would buy models and then paint them. It was a painstaking effort, but I was young.

  W: Is it expensive?

  M: I try not to think about the cost. It's my hobby. It's the time for me. How can I put a price on that? I waste money. I don't care. I enjoy it.

  W: (22)I used to watch birds when I was a youngster. I could identify every species and gender of bird.

  M: What happened?

  W: I stopped doing it and started working for a living.

  M: We can get caught up in living an ordinary life.(23)I, at least, want to have some pleasure while I am still young. Old age comes very fast.

  W: Life is like a movie sometimes. You think that only a month has passed but really it has been a year. One year turns to ten years.

  M: Ten years turns to a lifetime. What's wrong with a little enjoyment?

  W: Nothing. (24)Kids know how to take full advantage of life.

  M: When I am getting old, I have to remind myself of stopping to smell the roses. I just can't work 15 hours a day and be happy about it. Money is only money. When I die, I can't take it with me.

  W: You can give it to your kids.

  M:(25)They won't appreciate money unless they earn it like I earned it.

  W: I guess I can understand.

  M:(24)The real joy in life is in the doing. Seize the moment.

  W: Let's seize the day.

  22. What did the woman enjoy doing when she was young?

  B)。根据选项可知四选项均为休闲活动,问题询问"某人做某事"。本题关键句为"I used to watch birds when I was a youngster."我小时候常常观察鸟类。故正确答案为B)。

  23. What does the man want to do?

  B)。根据选项可知问题询问"某人做某事"。本题关键句为"I, at least, want to have some pleasure while I am still young."男士想在年轻时至少能愉快地生活。故正确答案为B)。

  24. What's the real joy in life according to the two speakers?

  C)。根据选项可知本题可能关于工作或休闲。本题关键句为"Kids know how to take full advantage of life."女士说孩子们知道如何充分享受生活。"...The real joy in life is in the doing."男士认为钱乃身外之物,生活真正的乐趣就是享受现在。故正确答案为C)。

  25. What's the man's attitude towards money?

  D)。根据选项可知本题关于"赚钱"。本题关键句为"They won't appreciate money unless they earn it like I earned it."男士认为他的孩子如果不是像他一样自己赚钱,是不会珍惜钱的。因此如果钱是他自己赚的,就会珍惜。故正确答案为D)。

  Section B

  Passage One

  Your assignments this term will be writing two major research papers. One of the most important things about writing a research paper is giving proper credit for your sources of information. Failure to do this is called plagiarism.

  (26) Plagiarism is a kind of stealing or at least an unauthorized borrowing of someone else's ideas. Sometimes inexperienced students will plagiarize unintentionally, and then be surprised when the teacher won't accept their papers, or gives them a failing grade.

  The best way to avoid unintentional plagiarizing is to be very careful in gathering your information. As you take notes on books and magazine articles about the topic you've selected, first try to assimilate the information thoroughly. Second,(27) write it down in your own words. This is called paraphrasing. If you do a good job of paraphrasing, you'll capture the main idea from your source without actually plagiarizing any phrases from it. Most of your notes should probably be paraphrased. However, occasionally you may find something you wish to quote directly in your research paper. In this case, be sure that you copy the quotation precisely in your notes and (28) enclose it in quotation marks. That way when you're finalizing your research paper, you will be able to remember which of your notes are directly quoted. You can incorporate them appropriately and give the original author proper credit.

  26. What does the speaker warn the students against doing?

  B)。通过预读选项可推断出问题是关于一种不规范的学术行为。短文中提到plagiarism(剽窃),文章第二段开头部分就明确对此进行了解释Plagiarism is a kind of stealing or at least an unauthorized borrowing of someone else's ideas,与B)基本一致。

  27. According to the speaker,how should most of the notes be taken?

  A)。短文最后一段开头部分对如何避免无意的剽窃提出了几点建议。第一条就是:As you take notes on books and magazine articles about the topic you've selected,first try to assimilate the information thoroughly(彻底理解吸收所选择的信息),随后又指出,用paraphrasing的方法,即write it down in your own words,与A)相同。

  28. What does the speaker say a direct quotation should be used?

  B)。题干中的关键词direct quotation,短文最后的部分提出,在直接引用的情况下be sure that you copy the quotation precisely in your notes and enclose it in quotation marks,随后又对这种方法的优点进行了具体的解释,A)和C)是避免无意剽窃的总方法,D)没有提到。

  Passage Two

  In ancient times the most important examinations were spoken, not written. In the schools of ancient Greece and Rome, testing usually consisted of saying poetry aloud or giving speeches. In the European universities of the Middle Ages, students who were working for advanced degrees (29) had to discuss questions in their field of study with people who had made a special study of the subject. This custom exists today as part of the process of testing candidates for the doctor's degree.

  Generally, however, modern examinations are written. The written examination, where all students are tested on the same questions, was probably not known until the nineteenth century. Perhaps it came into existence (30) with the great increase in population and the development of modern industry. A room full of candidates for a state examination, timed exactly by electric clocks and carefully watched over by managers, resembles a group of workers at an automobile factory. Certainly, during examinations teachers and students are expected to act as machines.

  One type of test is sometimes called an objective test. It is intended to deal with facts, not personal opinions. To make up an objective test the teacher writes a series of questions,(31) each of which has only one correct answer.

  29. How did students in Middle Ages take a test?

  D)。根据选项可知文章与学习、考试有关。古希腊、罗马学校的学生考试包括saying poetry aloud or giving speeches;而中世纪的欧洲大学生要discuss questions in their field of study with people who had made a special study of the subject,这种考试属于subjective test(主观考试)。objective test意思为"客观考试"。

  30. What might be the reason for the application of written examination?

  A)。文中提到it came into existence with the great increase in population and the development of modern industry,随着人口增长和现代工业的发展,笔试产生了。学生越来越多,A room full of candidates,笔试也就进而得到发展和更广泛的应用。所以答案为A)。

  31. What can we learn from the passage?

  C)。四个选项中都提到了objective test,可推断这是听音的重点。短文最后一段提到(objective test) is intended to deal with facts,not personal opinions,排除A),随后指出客观考试中the teacher writes a series of questions,each of which has only one correct answer,可知C)正确。B)和D)是关于written state examination的内容。

Passage Three

  The first postal service in North America began in New England in the 17th century. All mail arriving in Massachusetts colony was sent to the home of appointed official in Boston. In turn, the mail would be delivered from Boston on horseback to its destination, receiving one penny for each good article of mail. Later in the century postal services were established between Philadelphia and Delaware. In 1691,(33) (34) the British crown appointed the first postmaster general to have charge of the mail for all the colonies in North America. Later, Benjamin Franklin served as the postmaster general for the British government and then (35) was made postmaster by the newly formed United States' postal systems on a permanent basis. He increased the number of post office, introduced the use of stagecoaches to carry mail, and started a package service system. They were used to carry mail into the towns. Some communities, especially those out west, were far from the services of transportation. To serve them, the post office developed a system called"star routes".Private contractors paid to deliver mail to the communities from railways by horse and wagon.(32) The postal service, which was started 3 centuries ago, has developed into an extensive government service with post offices in every city, town, and village in the United States.

  32. What is the main topic of this passage?

  B)。这是一道主旨题。文章通篇出现了postal service,mail等词汇,全文最后一句话是总结。从关键词started...developed into都可以看出,本文讲述了美国邮政业的发展史。

  33. What is the task of the first North America postal general?

  B)。根据选项可推断这是一道表示任务或目的的题目。关于the first North American postal general,短文只提到了一句:the British crown appointed the first postmaster general to have charge of the mail for all the colonies in North America,答案为B)。A)是first postal service的内容;C)是Benjamin Franklin采取的措施;而D)则是star routes的内容。

  34. Who appointed the first postmaster general?

  A)。四个选项均为名词短语,可推断这是一道细节题,答案在文章中间的部分In 1691,the British crown appointed...。其中British crown指"英国政府",crown本是指"皇冠",这里代表government,后面的 postmaster general表示"邮政部长"。

  35. Why did Benjamin Franklin deserve credit?

  D)。题干中的credit表示"信任,称赞",Franklin当上新成立的美国政府邮政部长后,负责建立美国的邮政系统,因此做了许多事,例如增加邮局的数量、运用马车运送邮件等。他得到大家赞誉的原因就在于他建立了美国的邮政系统。

  Section C

  36. values 

  [听前猜测]根据上文reflect和下文culture可知此处可能为"特点/价值"。

  37. opportunities     

  [听前猜测]根据下文"for education, employment, and entertainment",可知此处为"机会"。

  38. poverty     

  [听前猜测]根据上文"violent crime, racial conflict"可知此处为同一性质的"贫穷"。

  39. space

  [听前猜测]根据下文"They moved out of their apartments... buy their own homes"可知此处为"空间"。

  40. suburbs   

  [听前猜测]根据下文"near a city"可知此处为"郊区"。

  41. areas            

  [听前猜测]根据上文"where people live"可知该处为"地区"。

  42. adults      

  [听前猜测]根据上文"children... are now..."可知该处为"成年人"。

  43. executives

  [听前猜测]根据上文"professionals, doctors, lawyers"可知此处也为某种职业。

  44. Many are single; others are married, but often without children

  [听写关键词]single, married, children

  45. or they just enjoy the excitement and opportunities which the city offers

  [听写关键词]enjoy, excitement, opportunities, city

  46. Only a few years ago people thought that the older American cities were dying

  [听写关键词]years, older, cities, dying

  Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)

  Section A

  这是两名参加伊拉克战争的女性根据自己的亲身经历所写的两本书的介绍性文章。

  【选项归类】

  名词:officer (军官) treatments (对待,待遇)case (案例)

  soldier (士兵,军人) reviewer (评论家,批评家) sentences (审判)

  动词:abused (虐待,滥用) wounded (受伤) commanded (指挥,命令)

  marching (行军) guarded (保卫,看守)

  形容词:female (女性的) beautiful (美丽的)

  副词:recently (最近) simply (简单地)

  【试题精析】

  47. C)。根据句子结构,此处为形容词或过去分词。符合的有C)、A)等,根据上文"More than forty women have been killed in the war in Iraq(40多位女性在伊拉克战争中丧生)"可知后面应谈论受伤的情况,而A)是"受虐待",下文没有提到这一信息,所以C)更符合。

  48. J)。根据句子结构,此处缺作状语的副词。符合的有J)、L),根据文意,J)最符合,意为"最近出版的两本书"。

  49. G)。根据句子结构,此处应为动词的过去式。符合的有G)、M)、A),根据上文"One is by Janis Karpinski.She was the Army general"可知,她是一位上将,所以用G)"指挥,统率,命令"更为合适。

  50. M)。根据句子结构,此处应为动词的过去式。符合的有M)和A),根据上文"These included the Army Reserve soldiers",可知主语是soldiers,所以用M)"保卫,看守"更符合。

  51. O)。根据句子结构,此处应为名词。符合的有E)、F)、O)等,根据文意可知此处谈的是"由于虐待战俘,一些士兵被判入狱",所以O)"审判"更符合题意。

  52. F)。根据句子结构,此处应为名词。符合的有E、H)、F)等,根据文意,此处说的是"她是涉案受惩罚的最高军阶的军官",F)有很多含义,这里指"案例"。

  53. D)。根据句子结构,此处应为名词。根据上文"The Commanding General of Abu Ghraib Tells Her Story"可知这位女性是"总指挥官",而不是普通的士兵。soldier表示"普通士兵",尤指男性,而officer除了表示"政府官员"外,还表示"军官",所以D)正确。

  54. K)。根据句子结构,此处应为形容词。符合的有N)、K)、O)等,根据文中wrote a book called"Love My Rifle More Than You"可知这首歌与军队有关,所以K)更符合,意为"行军歌"。

  55. B)。根据句子结构,此处应为形容词。符合的有B)、N),她的书描写了年轻女性在军队中的生活,文中没有提到女军人的美貌问题,所以B)更加准确。做这样的题,要从整体上把握文章的语言色彩,不可妄自臆断。

  56. I)。根据句子结构,此处应为名词。符合的有H)、I)。因为这篇文章是对书的评论,所以I)"评论家,评论作家"更符合,而不是"作者"。

  Section B

  Passage One

  全文翻译

  18世纪早期,当焦炭第一次取代木炭被用来精炼铁矿石时,铁制品有了革命性的变化。在此之前铁的质量很差,限制了它在像支撑拱门的链条和连接棒、拱顶和墙这样的建筑或部件上的应用。随着矿石精炼的不断改进,现在生铁梁柱的制造已成为可能。19世纪,炼铁有了进一步的发展,尤其是将铁转变为钢的贝塞麦工序,使这种材料更具商业价值。

  (53)铁被迅速应用于桥梁的建造上,因为它的强度远大于石头和木料,但是它在房屋建造中的应用发展,相对而言,则要缓慢得多。直到1800年,工业建筑业开发出了可以取代传统的木制栋梁的纯粹的房屋内部钢铁框架,但通常情况下它仍是隐藏着的。除了它低廉的成本,钢铁作为一种建筑材料的优点还在于它的强度,它的抗火性和延展性。因此钢铁在19世纪成为越来越受欢迎的传统式建筑的结构材料,但它仍然是藏在里面的。

  具有重大意义的是,外显的钢铁主要应用于工业革命中产生的新建筑种类中:工厂、车间、写字楼、展览大厅和铁路车站,在这些建筑上它实际应用的优点远胜于它卑微的身份。新时代铁路车站的设计者们发现了钢铁的潜力:它有超过中古大小教堂巨大穹顶的跨度,可以覆盖很大的面积。帕克斯顿的水晶宫,为容纳1851年的伟大展览而设计,占地1848*408英尺,由镶嵌在钢铁框架上的玻璃构建而成。(54)1889年巴黎展览展出了当时最宽和最高的建筑,分别是有362英尺跨度的机械大楼和有1000英尺高的埃菲尔铁塔。(55)然而,这些成就被巴黎的艺术家们嘲笑为高昂而又丑陋的愚蠢之举。(56)铁除了它的结构优点之外,几乎没有什么审美价值。外显钢铁结构应用在传统式建筑上的发展由此更加缓慢。

 52. D)。[精析]本文从炼铁技术革新讲起,到铁被用于建筑内部,再到外显钢铁在建筑中的

  应用,可见文章的主旨为铁的建筑用途的发展。选D)。

  排除干扰 文中提到炼铁技术的发展是为了说明它建筑用途的发展,排除A)。B)、C)内容在文中只被一笔带过,是为了突出主旨。

  53. C)。[定位]根据题干定位到原文第二段第一句话。

  [精析]第二段第一句话中its strength was far greater than that of stone or timber一句的意思即it is much stronger。选C)。

  排除干扰A)、B)、D)三项原文都没有提到。

  54. A)。[定位]根据Halle des Machines定位于原文第三段倒数第四句话。

  [精析]对应第三段倒数第四句:1889年巴黎展览展出了当时最宽和最高的建筑,分别是有362英尺跨度的机械大楼和有1000英尺高的埃菲尔铁塔。可知答案为A)。

  排除干扰B)为埃菲尔铁塔的特征。C)原文没提到。D)说的是第三段第三句提到的Paxton's Crystal Palace的特性。

  55. B)。[定位]根据artists定位于第三段倒数第三句。

  [精析]根据第三段倒数第三句中的expensive and ugly foolishness可知mock在此处的意思不是"模仿",而是"嘲笑"。

  排除干扰A)不符合原文语境。C)与原文意思相反。D)内容文中没有提到。

  56. D)。[定位]题干中提到的the delayed use of exposed iron structures in traditional styles of architecture 与文章最后一句The use of an exposed iron structure in the more traditional styles of architecture was slower to develop意思是一致的。因此定位于此句前。

  [精析]最后一段倒数第二句说little aesthetic status,即不具备什么审美价值,选D)。

  排除干扰A)、B)内容文章没提到。C)与原文第二段第三句意思相反。

  阅读排雷(加音标)

  revolutionize  vt.在...方面实现突破性变革      refine vt.精炼  

  timber  n.木料                                concealed  adj.隐藏的

  exposed   adj.外显的

  Passage Two

  全文翻译

  从菲利佩王储对电视记者莱蒂齐亚·奥迪兹说"是"之前的四个月,王室婚礼的热潮一直席卷着西班牙。

  (57)商店里正在供应从盘子、开瓶器到这对新人订婚戒指复制品的各式各样的婚礼纪念品。

  为了尽量不引起公众关注,这对夫妇仅仅在几次精心安排的见面会上露过面。

  为国王胡安·卡洛斯和王后索菲娅36岁的儿子找到一个适合的新娘,西班牙人民等了十几年。更重要的是,这场5月22号的婚礼从其他方面来讲也将是一个重大的事件。

  莱蒂齐亚·奥迪兹·罗卡索拉,31岁,是一个护士和一个记者的女儿。同时,(58)她将是登上王座的第一个平民,此宝座曾由派遣克里斯多夫·哥伦布去美洲的伊莎贝拉女王所拥有。

  这位漂亮、优雅的前新闻主播也将成为西班牙一个多世纪来的第一位土生土长的王妃。作为当代君主制国家的一个全新风格的王妃,(59)活力四射而又事业有成的莱蒂齐亚深受西班牙人民的喜爱。

  西班牙人民习惯了在电视上看到她播报新闻,她也引起了人们极度的好奇。记者们甚至在调查她过去最平常的像许多其他年轻的西班牙职业女性一样的方方面面。

  西班牙人还注意到在11月订婚后她和王子在与媒体的交谈中,她还曾试图打断王子的讲话。"让我说,"她对波旁王室的王位继承人说。

  这样的行为在这样一个女人身上被认为是可以理解的,她在23岁时独自去了墨西哥,之后为国家电视台TVE报道了9·11恐怖袭击事件和伊拉克战争。

  (60) (61)她坚强的品格、坦率和批判性的思维也可能是成为王室成员的不利之处,正如记者们所说,王室成员应该很少说出自己的真实想法。

  皇室已经努力保护她免受关注,同时给她时间适应新角色。

  57. C)。[定位]第一段只交代了royal wedding fever这一事件,所以定位于第二段。

  [精析]第二段举例说国内商店出售很多与Crown Prince Felipe and Letizia Ort

  婚礼有关的各种各样的纪念品,可见他们的婚礼给全国带来了轰动。

  排除干扰A)、B)、D)在原文中都没有根据。

  58. A)。[定位]根据most important reason在原文找相关词,可找到第四段末尾出现的more important和landmark,因此定位于其后的第五段。

  [精析]从第五段中的关键部分the first commoner on a throne可得出答案是A)。

  排除干扰B)只是第一个原因,无法对应题干的most important。文章在写royal wedding,因此排除C)。D)无根据。

  59. D)。[定位]根据news anchor定位于第六段。

  [精析]第六段中对Letizia的职业生涯的评价是professionally accomplished,也就是capable"能干的"。

  排除干扰A)、C)无原文根据。B)说的是她的性格,不是她作为新闻主持人的特点。

  60. C)。[定位]题干中的interruption of the prince出现于倒数第四段,对这件事的评论在其后两段。

  [精析]倒数第二、三段提到新闻主播的工作促成了Letizia本人的strong character,包括 frankness和critical mind。此题中所说的她面对媒体打断王子的说话正是她frank或outspoken的性格使然。

  排除干扰A)、B)、D)文中没有提到相关信息。

  61. B)。[定位]根据fit in the royal life对应for a royal定位于倒数第二段。

  [精析]根据Her strong character,frankness and critical mind could also be disadvantages for a royal who is rarely expected to speak her mind可知,Letizia要适应皇家生活,如何在自己的个性与皇室要求之间找到平衡是最重要的。B)是对原文的同义转换。

  排除干扰 其他项文中没有提到。

  阅读排雷

  commoner n.平民            monarchy   n.君主政体

  resemble  vt.相似          critical adj.批判性的

  Part Ⅴ Cloze

  针灸术显得很神秘,提到针灸人们就想到刺在身上的针,人们对于这个带尖的东西有些恐惧。克服这个心理障碍最好的方法是了解针灸是如何进行的。关于针灸的记录可以追溯到2000年前,针灸的起源最早可以追溯到石器时代。《内经随文》是第一本记录针灸用法的真正文本,建立了关于健康的哲学基本规则。

  62. C)。固定搭配题。be wary of的意思是"留意某事,谨慎做某事",这句承接前面的意思,提到针灸人们就想到刺在身上的针,"可以理解人们对于这个带尖的东西很谨慎",所以应该选C)。

  63. A)。语义衔接题。这句承接前面的意思,前文提到"人们对于这个带尖的东西很谨慎,   所以病人需要"克服"这个障碍,overcome的意思是"战胜、克服",所以应该选A)。

  64. D)。语义衔接题。用排除法选出D) perform "完成,进行"。这句的意思是"最好的方法是了解针灸是如何进行的"。practiced"练习";executed"执行";accomplished"完成"。

  65. A)。语义衔接题。用排除法选出A) recording "记录"。这句的意思是"关于针灸的记录可以追溯到2000年前"。scripts"文稿的脚本";handwritings"笔迹";copies"副本"。

  66. B)。语义衔接题。纵观四个选项发现这里需要一个表示"起源"的词。这句的意思是"针灸的起源最早可以追溯到石器时代",origin 的意思是"起源",选B)。reason"原因";source"来源";root"根本"。

  67. B)。语义衔接题。"apply pressure to that location"是一种行为反应,所以应该选B) reaction "反应"。这句的意思是"当你感觉到疼痛的时候,本能的反应是压这个痛处"。incentive"激励";stimulus"刺激";reflection"反射"。

  68. D)。逻辑衔接题。从下文可知"疼痛的地方不是感染所在的地方",这里应该用where引导地点状语从句,选D)。

  69. C)。语义衔接题。用排除法选出C) naturally "自然地"。这句的意思是"你的身体自然地发出警告的信号"。incidentally"附带地";especially"特别地";definitely"明确地"。

  70. A)。语义衔接题。这句的意思"古代中国人利用这些警告信号,通过观察发展出了复杂的系统",through是"通过..."的意思,所以应该选A)。

  71. C)。语义衔接题。和疼痛搭配的应该是C) relieve "减轻,解除"。这句的意思是"很容易推断出用施加压力的办法能解除疼痛"。control"控制";suffer"遭受";inflict"造成"。

  72. B)。固定搭配题。evolved into"发展成"的意思,这句的意思是"用手压痛处以减轻疼痛的方法,发展成用针代替手指",所以应该选B)。evolve from "由...进化"与这句的意思不符,应该排除。out和as不与evolve搭配,也排除。

  73. C)。语义衔接题。古代有很多文字都记录在龟壳上,所以应该选C) shell "外壳"。这句的意思是"记载在龟壳上的关于针灸的记录被发现"。

  74. D)。语义衔接题。只有D) claim "声称,宣称"符合句意。这句的意思是"第一本声称记录针灸用法的真正文本"。exclaimed"呼喊";acclaimed"喝彩";reclaimed"收回",这几个词只要知道意思,不难排除。

  75. A)。固定搭配题。lay out的意思是"列出",这句的意思是"这本书列出了所有不同的观点",所以应该选A)。lay about"四面出击";lay aside"搁置,积蓄";lay down"放下,放弃"。

  76. C)。语义衔接题。set rules是固定搭配,意为"建立规则"。这句的意思是"《内经随文》这本书建立了关于健康的哲学基本规则"。observes"观察";proves"证明";violates"违反"。

  77. B)。语义衔接题。后文提到的儒教和道教,所以应该选B) religions "宗教"。这句承接前文的意思,指出"这些哲学基本规则是从战国时期的两个主要宗教分离出来的"。structures"结构";schools"学派";conceptions"概念"。

  78. C)。语义衔接题。这句的意思是"儒教的教义强调人的肉体是神圣的,所以反对解剖和外科",介词against的意思是"反对",所以应该选C)。

  79. B)。语义衔接题。这句承接前文的意思,正是因为儒教反对解剖和外科,"针灸成了一个完美的治疗疾病的方法",cure的意思是"治愈,治疗",所以应该选B)。preserving"保存,保留";recovering是"痊愈"的意思,但这时它是不及物动词,不能和illness搭配;restoring"恢复"。

  80. D)。语义衔接题。这句承接前半句的意思,"针灸成了一个完美的治疗疾病的方法,因为它只是对身体的表面治疗",external的意思是"外部的,表面的",所以应该选D)。terminal"终端的",personal"私人的";marginal"边缘的"。

  81. B)。语义衔接题。这句的意思是"另外主要系列的思想是道家的学说",train of thought的意思是"一系列的思想",所以应该选B)。series"系列";chain"一连串";succession"连续"。

  Part Ⅵ Translation

  82. can cure you of your stomach trouble

  [考点] ①"治愈"cure sb. of...;②"胃病"stomach trouble 。

  83. take the initiative in starting a conversation

  [考点] ① "主动"take the initiative;②"开始谈话"start a conversation。

  84. are searching for a young man with a beard/who wears a beard

  [考点] ①主谓一致;②"搜寻"search for;③"蓄着胡子"with a beard/wear a beard。

  85. equipped me with necessary knowledge

  [考点] ① "使...具备..."equip...with...;② "必要的"necessary。

  86. ask/apply for a week's leave

  [考点] ①"请假"ask/apply for leave;②"一周的假"a week's leave。

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六级真题详解
·2003年1月英语六级真题详解
·2002年6月英语六级真题详解
·2002年1月英语六级真题详解
·2001年6月英语六级真题详解
·2001年1月英语六级真题详解
·2000年6月英语六级真题详解
·2000年1月英语六级真题详解
·1999年6月英语六级真题详解
·1999年1月英语六级真题详解
·1998年6月英语六级真题详解


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