Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
Swiss Re Tower is a typical example of green architecture in London, and what is most remarkable about this building is its energy efficiency. Thanks to its artful design and some fancy technology, it is expected to consume up to 50% less energy than a comparable conventional office building. Green architecture is changing the way building are designed, built and run.
Green architecture, a term which only came into use in the 1990s, has its origins in the energy crisis of the 1970s, when architects began to question the wisdom of building enclosed glass and steel boxes that required massive heating and cooling systems.
The forward looking architects began to explore designs that focused on the long term environmental impact of maintaining and operating a building. This approach has since been formalized in a number of assessment and rating systems, such as the BREEAM standard introduced in Britain in 1990, and the LEED standard developed by the United States Green Building Council starting in 2000.
Going green saves money by reducing long term energy costs; a survey of 99 green buildings in America found that on average, they use 30% less energy than comparably conventional buildings.
Green buildings can also have other benefits. The use of natural daylight in office buildings, for example, as well as reducing energy costs, also seems to make workers more productive. Lockheed Martin, an aerospace(航空宇宙) firm, found that absenteeism(旷工) fell by 15% after it moved 2 500 employees into a new green building in Sunnyvale, California.
47. Owing to its delicate design and advanced technology, Swiss Re Tower in London uses less energy than those traditional office buildings by .
48. Green architecture could date back to .
49. Today, when assessing and rating architecture, the long term environmental effect in the maintenance of the building has been .
50. Green architectures can reduce expenditure on the maintenance by .
51. Besides the benefit of saving money, green buildings can also bring .
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Television is often viewed as an anti intellectual medium. But truly clever people know how to use even the most unpromising material, and that is what Val Curtis and her colleagues at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine have done. They employed the mass market appeal of TV to test a long held, but unproven, hypothesis(假设): that the emotion of disgust evolved to protect people from disease.
They set up their experiment in October 2007, by publicizing it on a BBC program called "Human Instincts". Viewers were invited to visit a website and, after giving a few biographical(个人介绍的)details, to view a series of 20 pictures and rate each of them for disgustingness on a scale of one to five. They were also asked to choose, from a list of possible candidates, with whom they would least like to share a toothbrush.
The results showed that in all seven pairs, the disease distinct pictures were more disgusting than their counterparts. For things like the apparent depiction of bodily fluids, or of a face that had been "enhanced" with spots, that may come as no surprise. But a crowded railway carriage was more distinguishing than an empty one, and a louse more disgusting than a wasp.
These last results confirmed Dr Curtis's suspicion that disgust is not, as many disgust researchers believe, just a way of avoiding eating disease bearing materials. Rather, it extends to threats that might be contagious(传染性的). Indeed, one result of the study was to show that the young are easier to disgust than the old. Another result was that women are more easily disgusted than men. Both of these make evolutionary sense. The young have more reproductive potential than the old, so should be more careful about what they touch and eat. And women are usually burdened with bringing up the children, so have to be disgusted on their offspring's behalf, as well as their own.
The results of the toothbrush study made similar sense. Strangers are more likely to carry new bacteria than acquaintances. Hence, of the available choices of toothbrush partner, a postman came off worst, and a lover best. A brush notionally belonging to a weatherman was, however, preferred to the boss's. Clearly the British feel more intimacy with the former than the later. Perhaps it might have been instructive to include a famous television personality among the choices?
52. In the first paragraph television is mentioned to .
A) prove that what some intellectuals had claimed is wrong
B) show that TV is an essential part of British people's daily life
C) demonstrate that mass media is a very profitable industry
D) introduce the media through which the survey was advertised
53. The experiment is chiefly done by .
A) watching the TV program called "Human Instincts" and filling out feedback forms
B) visiting different websites and making matches between pictures and numbers
C) rating various photos with numbers and selecting from a choice list
D) filling in biographical details and choosing a toothbrush
54. Which of the following is true about the result of the experiment?
A) A spotted face is more disgusting than a picture of bodily fluids.
B) A full packed subway is more disgusting than a louse.
C) A bleeding face is the most disgusting one.
D) A wasp makes people feel better than a louse.
55. The results of the experiment make evolutionary sense in that .
A) old people are less likely to produce goods for the society than the young
B) people's emotion of disgust is often related to the safety of their children
C) women are more likely to bring up children independent of men's help
D) old people are more likely to be disgusted than women
56. The results of the toothbrush experiment show that .
A) a boss is normally less clean and healthy than a weatherman
B) a postman is often dirtier than a lover
C) a public figure is often more popular than a boss in Britain
D) a famous television personality is the best toothbrush partner
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
When it comes to health, the poor are doubly cursed. Not only are they more prone to deadly infectious diseases than the rich, but they have far less access to the means of improvement. Twenty years ago, Paul Farmer, an American doctor and anthropologist(人类学者), set out to do something about this. Amid the political turmoil(混乱)and poverty of rural Haiti, he created a community based health care system called Zanmi Lasante, or Partners in Health. It not only delivers appropriate, affordable medical treatment to thousands of poor people, but goes beyond the clinic to address the social causes making them sick and keeping them from getting better.
As Dr. Farmer argues, improving the health of the poor is not just a medical challenge, but a question of human rights. Tackling the inequality, racism, sexism and other forms of "structural violence" which oppress the poor is as critical as extending the drugs. Or as his Haiti patients put it, medicine without food is like washing one's hands and drying them in the dirt.
Unfortunately, Dr. Farmer's powerful message is often weakened by his book's academic tone. It does, however, scream out in passages describing the human face of "structural violence". It is these personal stories that make Dr. Farmer's anger at such "stupid deaths" so compelling.
The good doctor's motives and methods are better described in Mountains Beyond Mountains. This biography by Tracy Kidder traces Dr. Farmer from his unconventional upbringing and unusual education, shuttling (来回穿梭于) between the shacks of central Haiti and the halls of Harvard Medical School, to his later work around the world. Though well written, Mr. Kidder's book also makes for uncomfortable reading. The author is clearly close to his subject, having traveled with Dr. Farmer from the green poverty of Haiti to the tubercular whiteness of Russia. Too close, perhaps. The biographer seems to be seeking his subject's approval, rather than the other way round. Mr. Kidder writes, rather disturbingly, about his fear of disappointing Dr. Farmer, his own pain at wounding him with a critical remark and his relief at the doctor's forgiveness.
When Mr. Kidder's health falls, this dependence becomes all the more intense. But rather than compromise the book's equity(公正), this intimacy serves to highlight Dr. Farmer's admirable, yet ultimately irritating, character. As Mr. Kidder observes, "Farmer wasn't put on earth to make anyone feel comfortable, except those lucky enough to be his patients or those unlucky enough to need him."
57. What makes the "Partners in Health" system unique compared with traditional hospitals?
A) It makes attempts to help the poor on a social level.
B) It is aimed at treating poor people for free.
C) It is designed to help the poor rise from poverty.
D) It offers community help to those who are poor.
58. What can be inferred from the last sentence of the second paragraph?
A) Hands should not be dried in the dirt after washing.
B) Medicine is also needed for cleaning hands.
C) Medicine is not a long term cure to their poor health.
D) Food can cure their disease better than any medicine.
59. The disadvantage of Dr. Farmer's book seems to be that.
A) the plots in the book are not attractive enough
B) the way he tells the stories is not compelling enough
C) the anger he expresses at "stupid deaths" is too strong
D) the tone is not strong enough to arouse people's attention
60. Mr. Kidder's book also makes for uncomfortable reading because .
A) Mr. Kidder himself has never been involved in Dr. Farmer's life
B) Mr. Kidder is afraid of making true comments on Dr. Farmer
C) Mr. Kidder's emotions prevent him from independent writing
D) Mr. Kidder is always waiting for Dr. Farmer's forgiveness
61. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that .
A) Dr. Farmer only helped those who are lucky enough
B) Dr. Farmer may have severely criticized the society
C) Dr. Farmer was not actually making his patients comfortable
D) Dr. Farmer's job is not to make people comfortable
Part ⅣReading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
47. nearly 50%
[定位]根据题干中的Swiss Re Tower可以定位到第一段第二句：Thanks to its artful design and some fancy technology, it is expected to consume up to 50% less energy than a comparable conventional office building.
[精解]题目问的是得益于其精良的设计、先进的技术，Swiss Re Tower比传统办公大楼能节省多少能源。该句意为"由于其设计精良，技术先进，Swiss Re Tower有望比传统建筑节能近50%"。题干中的owing to与原文中thanks to的同义，traditional与conventional同义。by在此句中为介词，表程度相差多少的意思，后面应接数字。故答案为nearly 50%。
48. the energy crisis of the 1970s
[定位]根据题干中的green architecture可以定位到第二段Green architecture, ...has its origins in the energy crisis of the 1970s....
[精解]由该段可知：绿色建筑的来源要追溯到20世纪70年代的能源危机。题目中的could date back to是对has its origins in the energy crisis of the 1970s的同义转述，故答案为the energy crisis of the 1970s。
49. widely taken into consideration in the developed world
[定位]根据题干中提到的assessing and rating可以定位到第三段第二句：This approach has since been formalized in a number of assessment and rating systems, such as the BREEAM standard introduced in Britain in 1990, and the LEED standard developed by the United States Green Building Council starting in 2000.
[精解]本题考查在一系列建筑评估体系中，建筑的维修和保养对环境的长期影响也在评估之列。根据This approach has since been formalized in a number of assessment and rating systems可知，这一原则已被成文化，而且下文举例提到了英国的BREEAM和美国的LEED standard，据此可知，这一规则已被发达国家引起重视。空格处缺少谓语动词，且位于has been之后，故答案应为widely taken into consideration in the developed world。
50. cutting long term energy costs
[定位]由题干中的green, reduce将答案定位到原文第四段第一句：Going green saves money by reducing longterm energy costs;...
[精解]题目问的是绿色建筑怎样降低了成本。题干中的reduce expenditure是对saves money的同义转述，by在句中作原因状语，后应接动词的现在分词形式，即cutting longterm energy costs。
51. economic benefits
[定位]根据benefit可以定位到第五段第二句：The use of natural daylight in office buildings, for example, as well as reducing energy costs, also seems to make workers more productive.
[精解]题目问的是除了节省成本，绿色建筑还有哪些优势。根据下面提到的make workers more productive可知，它还可以为企业带来经济效益，故答案为economic benefits。
52. D)。[定位]由题干定位到首段首句Television is often viewed as an antiintellectual medium.
53. C)。[定位]由题干中的The experiment定位到第二段首句They set up their experiment in October 2007, by publicizing it on a BBC programme called "Human Instincts".
54. D)。[定位]由题干中的the result of the experiment定位到第三段首句The results showed that in all seven pairs...
55. B)。[定位]由题干中的The results of the experiment make evolutionary sense可以定位到第四段第五句Both of these make evolutionary sense.
56. C)。[定位]由题干定位到末段首句The results of the toothbrush study made similar sense.
acquaintance [ə'kweintəns] n. 熟人
disgusting [dis'gʌstiŋ] adj. 令人恶心的
depiction [di'pik ʃən] n. 描写
unpromising ['ʌn'prɔmisiŋ] adj. 没希望的
candidate ['kændidit] n. 候选人
evolutionary [i:və'lu:ʃənəri] adj. 进化的
reproductive ['ri:prə'dʌktiv] adj. 生殖的
intimacy ['intiməsi] n. 亲密
instructive [in'strʌktiv] adj. 有启发性的
提起健康问题，穷人的处境可谓雪上加霜。他们不但比富人更容易患上致命的传染病，而且他们远远没有能力去改善这一状况。二十年以前，美国的医生和人类学家 Paul Farmer开始了解决这一问题的历程。在政治动荡、贫困严重的海地郊区，他创建了以社区为基础的医疗保健体系，被称作"Zanmi Lasante"或"健康之友"。它不仅给数以千计的穷人提供适当的可以支付得起的治疗，(57)而且还越过医疗层面，想要解决让穷人得病或很难康复的社会原因。
这位善良的医生的动机和方法在《山外有山》一书中得到了更好的描述。这本由 Tracy Kidder 撰写的传记，追溯了Farmer大夫非同寻常的成长和教育背景，文字穿梭于海地中部的棚屋、哈佛大学医学院的礼堂和他后来在全世界所做的工作之间。尽管写得不错，但是 Kidder先生的书读起来并不舒服。作者本人很明显和他所写的人物关系紧密，他和 Farmer大夫一起到过温暖而贫困的海地，也到过寒冷而易得结核病的俄罗斯。(60)可能是因为关系太亲密了，作者好像一直在寻求被描写对象的赞同。他非常苦恼地描述了他害怕让Farmer大夫失望的恐惧和用批评的字眼伤害大夫的痛苦，以及对大夫的谅解所感到的欣慰。
57. A)。[定位]由题干中的the "Partners in Health" system定位到原文首段第四句he created a community based health care system called Zanmi Lasante, or Partners in Health。
[精析]原文首段末尾说"它不仅给大量穷人提供适当的可以支付得起的治疗，还越过医疗层面，想要解决让穷人得病或很难康复的社会原因"。由此可推测此医疗系统与传统医院相比的独特之处在于It makes attempts to help the poor on a social level.(它试图在社会层面上帮助穷人)，故A)为正确答案。
排除干扰原文并没有说免费，而是"提供恰当的可以支付得起的治疗"，排除B);联系原文，可知其目的主要是为穷人治病，进而解决让穷人得病或很难康复的社会原因，并不是为了穷人脱贫，排除C);D) 中community help(社区救助)太过笼统和泛化，文中仅指有关治病的方面，也排除。
58. C)。 [定位]由题干中的the last sentence of the second paragraph定位到原文第二段末句Or as his Haiti patients aptly put it, medicine without food is like washing one's hands and drying them in the dirt.
[精析]原文第二段强调了一个概念，即"穷人的健康问题其实不是简单的医疗问题，还有人权问题"。药物只能治愈穷人的疾病，没有食物，即没有消灭贫穷就像把手放在灰尘中晾干，手还会脏的，即还是会生病的。据此可以推知，C)Medicine is not a longterm cure to their poor health(药物无法使他们长期保持健康)与文意相符，为正确答案。
59. D)。[定位]由题干中的The disadvantage of Dr. Farmer's book定位到原文第三段首句Unfortunately, Dr. Farmer's powerful message is often weakened by his book's academic tone.
60. C)。[定位]由题干可以定位到原文第四段第三句Though well written, Mr. Kidders book also makes for uncomfortable reading.
排除干扰由原文"他和 Farmer大夫一起到过温暖而贫困的海地，也到过寒冷而易得结核病的俄罗斯"可推知，两者曾在一起生活过，故排除A);原文只是说Mr. Kidder在写作上考虑了Dr. Farmer的认同，并没有说他害怕做出真实的评论，故排除B);原文说道该书中已经描写了Mr. Kidder在得到Dr. Farmer的谅解后所感到的欣慰，故D)"他还一直在等后者的谅解"错误，也排除。
61. B)。[定位]由题干中的from the last paragraph可以定位到末段。
appropriate adj. 恰当的
critical adj. 关键性的
academic adj. 学术的
compelling adj. 令人注目的
highlight vt. 强调
unconventional adj. 非常规的
ultimately adv. 终极地set out 开始