Part I Writing:
PartⅡ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-4, mark
Y(for YES)if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N(for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG(for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 5to10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
This may come as a surprise, but you need stress in your life. Leading stress management experts say that life without stress would be dull and unexciting. Stress adds flavor, challenge, and opportunity to life. However, too much stress can seriously affect your physical and mental well-being. A major challenge in today’s stress-filled world is to make the stress in your life work for you instead of against you.
In today’s hectic, fast-paced world and with the booming economy, stress is our constant companion. It comes from mental or emotional activity and physical activity. Too much emotional stress can result in physical illness, such as high blood pressure, ulcers, asthma, irritable colon, headaches, or even heart disease. On the other hand, physical stress from work or exercise rarely causes such ailments. In fact, physical exercise can help you to relax and to handle your mental or emotional stress.
Hans Selye, M.D., a recognized expert in the field, has defined stress as a “nonspecific response of the body to a demand”. The key to reducing stress is learning how our bodies respond to those demands. When stress becomes prolonged or particularly frustrating, it can become harmful—causing distress or “bad stress”. Recognizing the early signs of distress and then doing something about them can make a significant difference in the quality of your life.
In order to use stress in a positive way and prevent it from becoming distress, you should be aware of your own reactions to stressful events. The body responds to stress by going through specific stages: (1) alarm, (2) resistance, and (3) exhaustion. Muscles tense, blood pressure and heart rate rise, and adrenaline and other stress-triggered hormones that increase the level of alertness are released. If the stress-causing conditions continue, your body will need time to make repairs, if that happens, you eventually may develop a physical problem that is related to stress, such as migraine headaches, high blood pressure, backaches, or insomnia. That’s why when stress occurs it’s important that you recognize and deal with it in a positive way. While it’s impossible to live completely free of stress and distress, it is possible to prevent some distress as well as to minimize its impact when it can’t be avoided. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services offers the following suggestions for ways to handle stress.
Try Physical Activity
When you’re nervous, angry or upset, try releasing the pressure through exercise or physical activity. Running, walking, playing tennis, or working in your garden are just some of the activities you might try. Physical exercise will relieve your anxiety and worry and help you relax. Your body and your mind will work together to ease the stress in your life.
Share Your Stress
It helps to talk with someone about your anxieties and worries. Perhaps a friend, family member, teacher, or counselor can help you achieve a more positive perspective on what’s troubling you. If you feel your problem is serious, you might seek professional help from a psychologist, psychiatrist or social worker. Knowing when to ask for help is a positive step in avoiding more serious problems later.
Take Care of Yourself
You should make every effort to eat well and to get enough rest. If you’re irritable and tense from lack of sleep, or if you’re not eating properly, you’ll be more vulnerable to stressful situations. If stress repeatedly keeps you from sleeping, you should consult your doctor.
Make Time for Yourself
Schedule time for both work and recreation. Don’t forget, play can be just as important to your overall well-being as work. You need a break from your daily routine to just relax and have fun. Go window-shopping or work on a hobby. Allow yourself at least a half hour each day to do something you enjoy.
Make a List of the Things You Need to Do
Stress can result from disorganization and a feeling that “there’s so much to do, and not enough time”. Trying to take care of everything at once can be overwhelming, and as a result, you may not accomplish anything. Instead, make a list of everything you have to do, then do one thing at a time, checking off each task as it is completed. Give priority to the most important tasks and do those first.
Go Ahead and Cry
A good cry can be a healthy way to bring relief to your anxiety. It might even help yon avoid a headache or other physical consequence of anxiety and stress.
Create a Quiet Scene
Yon can’t always run away, but you can allow yourself a mental “get-away”. A quiet country scene painted mentally, or on canvas, can transport you from the tension of a stressful situation to a more relaxing frame of mind. You also can create a sense of peace and tranquility by reading a good book or listening to beautiful music.
While yon can use prescription or over-the-counter medications to relieve stress temporarily, they do not remove the conditions that caused the stress in the first place. In fact, many medications may be habit-forming and also may reduce your efficiency, thus creating more stress than they eliminate. They should be taken only on the advice of your doctor.
The best strategy for reducing or avoiding stress altogether is to learn how to relax. Unfortunately, many people try to relax at the same pace that they lead the rest of their lives. That doesn’t work. Instead, try tuning out your worries about time, productivity and “doing right”. Here are several relaxation techniques you may find helpful:
—You should take a deep breath and exhale to help calm your mind, counter your body’s natural stress reaction and improve your response.
—You should laugh. Many stress management experts advocate laughter as a relaxation technique for relieving tension.
—You should take a warm bath or shower. Whether you prefer bubble baths or long hot showers, this is an excellent way to relax after a stressful day.
—You should try progressive muscle relaxation. Individual contract and relax each muscle group of your body. Begin by tensing your toes for 10 seconds, then relax them for 20. Work all the way up your body, alternately tensing and relaxing, and finish with your facial muscles.
By learning the “art” of relaxation, you’ll find satisfaction in just “being”, without trying or striving. Your focus on relaxation, enjoyment and health will reduce stress, anxiety and worry in your life. The result is, you will be calmer, healthier and happier.
1. In today’s stressful world, we should get control of the stress in our life rather than being forced by it.
2. According to the author, too much physical illness can lead to emotional stress.
3. When stress becomes prolonged or particularly frustrating, it can become too harmful to cause distress or bad stress.
4. If the conditions which cause stress continue, your body will need time, usually, three to five days, to make repairs.
5. Although it’s impossible to live without stress and distress _____________________.
6. A more positive perspective on what’s troubling you may be achieved with the help of_____________________.
7. Disorganization and a feeling that “there’s so much to do, and not enough time” can _____________________.
8. You can read a good book or listen to beautiful music_____________________.
9. _____________________is the best strategy for reducing or avoiding stress.
10. The reduction of stress, anxiety and worry in your life is _____________________.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C)and D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A) Jane should come with her instead.
B) She will go along with Jane’s idea.
C) She is the decision-maker.
D) She will find what Jane prefers.
12. A) Cathy is the hostess of the party.
B) They didn’t plan about her coming.
C) She shouldn’t invite anyone else.
D) Cathy has something else to do.
13. A) He asked for too many job offers.
B) He should know more about his job.
C) He is very lucky.
D) He needs advice.
14. A) Falling down. B) Missing the bus. C) Taking a trip. D) Being too tired.
15. A) He takes only black and white pictures.
B) He does part of his own film developing.
C) He needs a film lab for the colour pictures.
D) He has all his films developed.
16. A) Wait for five minutes. B) Hurry to the bus stop.
C) Catch the next bus. D) Go by train.
17. A) The room is on fire.
B) There is little wind.
C) The speakers are bothered by the smoker.
D) The man doesn’t agree with the woman.
18. A) A trip he has already taken.
B) A city in which he used to work.
C) A restaurant at which he likes to eat.
D) A monument he has visited.
19. A) Go to summer camp. B) Take a summer vacation.
C) Stay at home. D) Earn some money.
20. A) They hired someone to stay in their home.
B) They left their pets with their relatives.
C) They rented their house to a student.
D) They asked their secretaries to watch their home.
21. A) Walking the dog. B) Cutting the grass.
C) Taking care of the children. D) Feeding the fish.
22. A) They attend a house-sitter’s party.
B) They check a house-sitter’s references.
C) They interview a house-sitter’s friends.
D) They look at a house-sitter’s transcripts.
23. A) What the man’s plans are for tonight.
B) Why the man does not want to play tennis.
C) Why they do not have time to play tennis after class today.
D) What time they can meet in the library.
24. A) Yesterday before dinner. B) Two days ago.
C) Last weekend. D) One week ago.
25. A) Let him win a tennis game.
B) Help him finish his anthropology project.
C) Give him some medicine for his stomach.
D) Lend him her anthropology book.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D).Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A) Eliminating the original vegetation from the building site.
B) Making the houses in an area similar to one another.
C) Deciding where a house will be built.
D) Surrounding a building with wildflowers and plants.
27. A) They are changed to make the site more interesting.
B) They are expanded to limit the amount of construction.
C) They are integrated into the design of the building.
D) They are removed for construction.
28. A) Because many architects studied with Wright.
B) Because Wright started the practice of “landscaping”.
C) Because Wright used elements of Envelope Building.
D) Because most of the houses Wright built were made of stone.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) They cure patients by using traditional medicine.
B) Their treatments are often successful.
C) They cure patients both physically and mentally.
D) They are usually more patient than modern physicians.
30. A) The anger of a relative, friend or enemy.
B) The stone hidden inside the patient’s throat, arm, leg, stomach, etc.
C) The attack from neighboring enemies.
D) The diseases that enter the body of a person.
31. A) They are scientific. B) They are too complicated.
C) They should be banned. D) They are not truthful, but effective.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) Hot during the day and cold at night.
B) Cold during the day and hot at night.
C) Hot day and night.
D) Cold day and night.
33. A) There are neither rivers nor streams.
B) There is no grass all the year round.
C) It is mainly bare rock with little grass.
D) There are a few streams and big rivers.
34. A) With the help of his friends.
B) By following the tracks of animals.
C) By using a compass.
D) With the help of the guide.
35. A) 19 years old. B) 16 years old. C) 35 years old. D) 25 years old.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions：In this section，there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
For most people, shopping is still a matter of wandering down the high street or loading a cart in a shopping mall. Soon, that will change. Electronic commerce is growing fast and will soon bring people more choice. There will, however, be a cost: protecting the consumer from fraud will be harder. Many governments therefore want to extend highstreet regulations to the electronic world. But politicians would be wiser to see cyberspace as a basis for a new era of corporate self-regulation.
Consumers in rich countries have grown used to the idea that the government takes responsibility for everything from the stability of the banks to the safety of the drugs, or their rights to refund(退款) when goods are faulty. But governments cannot enforce national laws on businesses whose only presence in their country is on the screen. Other countries have regulators, but the rules of consumer protection differ, as does enforcement. Even where a clear right to compensation exists, the online catalogue customer in Tokyo, say, can hardly go to New York to extract a refund for a dud purchase.
One answer is for governments to cooperate more: to recognize each other’s rules. But that requires years of work and volumes of detailed rules. And plenty of countries have rules too fanciful for sober states to accept. There is, however, an alternative. Let the electronic businesses do the “regulation” themselves. They do, after all, have a self-interest in doing so.
In electronic commerce, a reputation for honest dealing will be a valuable competitive asset. Governments, too, may compete to be trusted. For instance, customers ordering medicines online may prefer to buy from the United States because they trust the rigorous screening of the Food and Drug Administration; or they may decide that the FDA’s rules are too strict, and buy from Switzerland instead.
Consumers will need to use their judgment. But precisely because the technology is new, electronic shoppers are likely for a while to be a lot more cautious than consumers of the normal sort---and the new technology will also make it easier for them to complain noisily when a company lets them down. In this way, at least, the advent of cyberspace may argue for fewer consumer protection laws, not more.
47. What can people benefit from the fast-growing development of electronic commerce?
48. When goods are faulty, consumers in rich countries tend to think that it is ______________ who takes responsibility for everything.
49. In the author’s view, why do businesses place a high premium on honest dealing in the electronic world?
50. We can infer from the passage that in licensing new drugs the FDA in the United States is _______________.
51. We can learn from the passage that _____________are probably more cautious than consumers of the normal sort when buying things.
Directions：There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Opinion poll surveys show that the public see scientists in a rather unflattering light.
Commonly, the scientist is also seen as being male. It is true that most scientists are male, but the picture of science as a male activity may be a major reason why fewer girls than boys opt for science, except when it comes to biology, which is seen as “female.”
The image most people have of science and scientists comes from their own experience of school science, and from the mass media. Science teachers themselves see it as a problem that so many school pupils find school science an unsatisfying experience, though over the last few years more and more pupils, including girls, have opted for science subjects.
In spite of excellent documentaries, and some good popular science magazines, scientific stories in the media still usually alternate between miracle and scientific threat. The popular stereotype of science is like the magic of fairy tales: it has potential for enormous good or awful harm. Popular fiction is full of “good” scientists saving the world, and “mad” scientists trying to destroy it.
From all the many scientific stories which might be given media treatment, those which are chosen are usually those which can be framed in terms of the usual news angles: novelty, threat, conflict or the bizarre. The routine and often tedious work of the scientist slips from view, to be replaced with a picture of scientists forever offending public moral sensibilities (as in embryo research), threatening public health (as in weapons research), or fighting it out with each other (in giving evidence at public enquiries such as those held on the issues connected with nuclear power).
The mass media also tends to over-personalize scientific work, depicting it as the product of individual genius, while neglecting the social organization which makes scientific work possible. A further effect of this is that science comes to be seen as a thing in itself: a kind of unpredictable force; a tide of scientific progress.
It is no such thing, of course. Science is what scientists do; what they do is what a particular kind of society facilitates, and what is done with their work depends very much on who has the power to turn their discoveries into technology, and what their interests are.
52. According to the passage, ordinary people have a poor opinion of science and scientists partly because ______.
A) of the misleading of the media
B) opinion polls are unflattering
C) scientists are shown negatively in the media
D) science is considered to be dangerous
53. Fewer girls than boys study science because ______.
A) they think that science is too difficult
B) they are often unsuccessful in science at school
C) science is seen as a man’s job
D) science is considered to be tedious
54. Media treatment of science tends to concentrate on _____.
A) the routine, everyday work of scientists
B) discoveries that the public will understand
C) the more sensational aspects of science
D) the satisfactions of scientific work
55. According to the author, over-personalization of scientific work will lead science
A) isolation from the rest of the world
B) improvements on school system
C) association with “femaleness”
D) trouble in recruiting young talent
56. According to the author, what a scientist does _______.
A) should be attributed to his individual genius
B) depends on the coordination of the society
C) shows his independent power
D) is unpredictable
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
The tendency to look for some outside group to blame for our misfortunes is certainly common and it is often sustained by social prejudice. There seems to be little doubt that one of the principal causes of prejudice is fear: in particular the fear that the interests of our own group are going to be endangered by the actions of another. This is less likely to be the case in a stable, relatively unchanging society in which the members of different social and occupational groups know what to expect of each other, and know what to expect for themselves. In times of rapid racial and economic change, however, new occupations and new social roles appear, and people start looking jealously at each other to see whether their own group is being left behind.
Once prejudice develops, it is hard to stop, because there are often social forces at work which actively encourage unfounded attitudes of hostility and fear towards other groups. One such force is education: We all know that children can be taught history in such a way as to perpetuate old hatred and old prejudices between racial and political groups. Another social influence that has to be reckoned with is the pressure of public opinion. People often think and act differently in groups from the way they would do as individuals. It takes a considerable effort of will, and often calls for great courage, to stand out against one’s fellows and insist that they are wrong.
Why is it that we hear so much more about the failures of relationships between communities than we do about the successes? I am afraid it is partly due to the increase in communication which radio, television and the popular press have brought about. In those countries where the media of mass communication are commercial enterprises, they tend to measure success by the size of their audience; and people are more likely to buy a newspaper, for instance, if their attention is caught by something dramatic, something sensational, or something that arouses their anxiety. The popular press flourishes on “scare headlines”, and popular orators, especially if they are politicians addressing a relatively unsophisticated audience, know that the best way to arouse such an audience is to frighten them.
Where there is a real or imaginary threat to economic security, this is especially likely to inflame group prejudice. It is important to remember economic factors if we wish to lessen prejudice between groups, because unless they are dealt with directly it will be little use simply advising people not to be prejudiced against other groups whom they see as their rivals, if not their enemies.
57. Which of the following does the author see as the chief source of prejudice?
A) The distorted ideas which are believed as statement of fact.
B) Fear that personal interest will be invaded.
C) The dispute which is favorable to the opponents not one's own part.
D) The concepts that a community takes for granted.
58. What part do newspapers and radio play in inter-communal relationships?
A) They educate people not to look jealously at each other
B) They cause further prejudice among audience.
C) They discuss interesting problems in more details
D) They draw the audience's attention to prejudice.
59. What’s the subject of paragraph 2?
A) How to eliminate our prejudice.
B) The pressure of social opinion.
C) The role of education to children.
D) Social forces that strengthen our bias
60. Which of the following can be used to describe the author's opinion about prejudice?
A) It is a difficult problem to solve.
B) It can be done away with.
C) It is an evil state of mind.
D) It should be criticized.
61. What’s the author’s purpose of writing this article?
A) To analyze social prejudice between social groups.
B) To reveal the danger of social prejudice.
C) To blame the politicians for frightening the audience
D) To show some examples of people’s prejudice.
Part Ⅴ Error Correction (15 minutes)
Directions：This part consists of a short passage. In this passage，there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word，cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark(∧)in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash(/) in the blank.
Television is rapidly becoming the literature of our periods. 1.time/times/period
Many of the arguments having used for the study of literature 2./
as a school subject are valid for∧study of television. 3.the
Part VI Translation （5 minutes）
72. We were informed that president of that university ________________.(将于次日接见我们)
73. It pained the headmaster to _________________________.（发现学生人数不断减少）
74. Checks are becoming more popular and will in a short while____________________. （代替现金作为人们结账的一种方式）
75. The local government had to take some emergency measures ____________________. （以便渡过目前的危机）
76. After her husband died, she had to _____________________________________. （挑起抚养孩子的经济重担）