Part I Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Generation Gap. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the question on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1-7, mark
Y (for YES)if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO)if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
You have just finished your meal at a fast food restaurant and you throw your uneaten food, food wrappers, drink cups, utensils and napkins into the trash can. You don’t think about that waste again. On trash pickup day in your neighborhood, you push your can out to the curb, and workers dump the contents into a big truck and haul it away. You don’t have to think about that waste again, either. But maybe you have wondered, as you watch the trash truck pull away, just where that garbage ends up.
Americans generate trash at an astonishing rate of four pounds per day per person; which translates to 600,000 tons per day or 210 million tons per year! This is almost twice as much trashes per person as most other major countries. What happens to this trash? Some gets recycled (回收利用) or recovered and some is burned, but the majority is buried in landfills.
How Much Trash Is Generated?
Of the 210 million tons of trash, or solid waste, generated in the United States annually, about 56 million tons, or 27 percent, is either recycled (glass, paper products, plastic, metals) or composted (做成堆肥) (yard waste). The remaining trash, which is mostly unredeemable, is discarded.
How Is Trash Disposed of?
The trash production in the United States has almost tripled since 1960. This trash is handled in various ways. About 27 percent of the trash is recycled or composted, 16 percent is burned and 57 percent is buried in landfills. The amount of trash buried in landfills has doubled since 1960. The United States ranks somewhere in the middle of the major countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, France and Japan) in landfill disposal. The United Kingdom ranks highest, burying about 90 percent of its solid waste in landfills.
What Is a Landfill?
There are two ways to bury trash:
Dump—an open hole in the ground where trash is buried and that is full of various animals (rats, mice, birds). (This is most people’s idea of a landfill!)
Landfill—carefully designed structure built into or on top of the ground in which trash is isolated from the surrounding environment (groundwater, air, rain). This isolation is accomplished with a bottom liner and daily covering of soil.
Sanitary landfill—land fill that uses a clay liner to isolate the trash from the environment
Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill—landfill that uses a synthetic (plastic) liner to isolate the trash from the environment
The purpose of a landfill is to bury the trash in such a way that it will be isolated from groundwater, will be kept dry and will not be in contact with air. Under these conditions, trash will not decompose (腐烂) much. A landfill is not like a compost pile, where the purpose is to bury trash in such a way that it will decompose quickly.
Proposing the Landfill
For a landfill to be built, the operators have to make sure that they follow certain steps. In most parts of the world, there are regulations that govern where a landfill can be placed and how it can operate. The whole process begins with someone proposing the landfill.
In the United States, taking care of trash and building landfills are local government responsibilities. Before a city or other authority can build a landfill, an environment impact study must be done on the proposed site to determine:
the area of land necessary for the landfill
the composition of the underlying soil and bedrock
the flow of surface water over the site
the impact of the proposed landfill on the local environment and wildlife
the historical value of the proposed site
Building the Landfill
Once the environmental impact study is complete, the permits are granted and the funds have been raised, then construction begins. First, access roads to the landfill site must be built if they do not already exist. There roads will be used by construction equipment, sanitation (环卫) services and the general public. After roads have been built, digging can begin. In the North Wake Country Landfill, the landfill began 10 feet below the road surface.
What Happens to Trash in a Landfill?
Trash put in a landfill will stay there for a very long time. Inside a landfill, there is little oxygen and little moisture. Under these conditions, trash does not break down very rapidly. In fact, when old landfills have been dug up or sampled, 40 year old newspapers have been found with easily readable print. Landfills are not designed to break down trash, merely to bury it. When a landfill closes, the site, especially the groundwater, must be monitored and maintained for up to 30 years!
How Is a Landfill Operated?
A landfill, such as the North Wake County Landfill, must be open and available every day. Customers are typically municipalities and construction companies, although residents may also use the landfill.
Near the entrance of the landfill is a recycling center where residents can drop off recyclable materials (aluminum cans, glass bottles, newspapers and paper products). This helps to reduce the amount of material in the landfill. Some of these materials are banned from landfills by law because they can be recycled.
As customers enter the site, their trucks are weighed at the scale house. Customers are charged tipping fees for using the site. The tipping fees vary from $10 to $40 per ton. These fees are used to pay for operation costs. The North Wake County Landfill has an operating budget of approximately $4.5 million, and part of that comes from tipping fees.
Along the site, there are dropoff stations for materials that are not wanted or legally banned by the landfill. A multi-material dropoff station is used for tires, motor oil, and leadacid batteries. Some of these materials can be recycled.
In addition, there is a household hazardous waste dropoff station for chemicals (paints, pesticides, other chemicals) that are banned from the landfill. These chemicals are disposed of by private companies. Some paints can be recycled and some organic chemicals can be burned in furnaces or power plants.
Other structures alongside the landfill are the borrowed area that supplies the soil for the landfill, the runoff collection pond and methane (甲烷) station.
Landfills are complicated structures that, when properly designed and managed, serve an important purpose. In the future, new technologies called bioreactors will be used to speed the breakdown of trash in landfills and produce more methane.
1. The passage gives a general description of the structure and use of a landfill.
2. Most of the trash that Americans generate ends up in landfills.
3. Compared with other major industrialized countries, America buries a much higher percentage of its solid waste in landfills.
4. Landfills are like compost piles in that they speed up decomposition of the buried trash.
5. In most countries the selection of a landfill site is governed by rules and regulations.
6. In the United States the building of landfills is the job of both federal and local governments.
7. Hazardous wastes have to be treated before being dumped into landfills.
8. Customers are typically , although residents may also use the landfill.
9. The tipping fees vary from per ton. These fees are used to pay for operation costs.
10. Along the site, there are for materials that are not wanted or legally banned by the landfill.
Part III Listening Comprehension(35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked ［A］, ［B］, ［C］ and ［D］, and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11.［A］In an office.［B］On a farm.［C］In a clinic.［D］In a restaurant.
12.［A］When he was sixteen.［B］When he was twenty-one.
［C］When he was thirteen.［D］When he was eighteen.
13.［A］Thursday 9 am—5 pm.［B］Saturday 9 am—5 pm.
［C］Sunday 2 am—5 pm.［D］Monday 2 am—5 pm.
14.［A］She shopped.［B］She sewed.
［C］She repaired her car.［D］She bought some tobacco.
15.［A］Help the woman.［B］Go home at five o’clock.
［C］Type some letters.［D］Work together with Mr. Smith.
16.［A］The first speaker.［B］Merry.［C］Linda.［D］The second speaker.
17.［A］He needs to sleep for three or four hours.［B］He wants to buy a set of coffee cups.
［C］He will need more than one cup of coffee.［D］He has been wide awake for time.
18.［A］On the 2nd floor.［B］On the 3rd floor.
［C］On the 9th floor.［D］On the 4th floor.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19.［A］Go to summer school.［B］Take a vacation.
［C］Stay at home.［D］Earn some money.
20.［A］They hired someone to stay in their home.［B］They left their pets with neighbors.
［C］They rented their house to a student.［D］They asked their gardener to watch their home.
21.［A］Walking the dog.［B］Cutting the grass.
［C］Watching the children.［D］Feeding the fish.
22.［A］They attend a house sitter’s party.［B］They check a house sitter’s references.
［C］They interview a house sitter’s friends.［D］They look at a house sitter’s transcripts.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23.［A］University education.［B］Planning for post-graduate studies.
［C］Job hunting.［D］Advertising jobs.
24.［A］About one half.［B］About one third.
［C］About one fourth.［D］About one fifth.
25.［A］Work. ［B］Do further study.［C］Travel.［D］Take time off.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked ［A］, ［B］, ［C］ and ［D］.Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26.［A］The care and proper selection of dogs for family pets.
［B］Different breeds of dogs.
［C］Responsibility for seeing that dogs are properly cared for.
［D］Different kinds of books about dogs.
28.［A］When you have small children.［B］When you live in an apartment.
［C］When space is limited.［D］When you live in the city.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29.［A］Three minutes.［B］Two minutes.［C］ One minutes.［D］Five minutes.
30.［A］To win a competition. ［B］To break a record.
［C］To deliver the news of victory. ［D］To win the first prize.
31.［A］Because he is over the fellow runners. ［B］Because he is over former runners.
［C］Because he is over his own body. ［D］Because he wins the prize.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32.［A］It is the smallest one of all the stars.［B］It is the nearest one to the earth.
［C］It is the biggest one of all the stars.［D］It is the farthest one from the earth.
33.［A］The moon.［B］Other planets.［C］Both A and B.［D］Neither A nor B.
34.［A］Do much research in many fields of science.
［B］Understand people in other countries better.
［C］Both A and B.［D］Neither A nor B.
35.［A］The earth is a planet.［B］Stars in the sky are actually as small as they look.
［C］Satellites are all made by men.［D］Men can conquer other planets.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in you own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Holiday shopping is an exciting and (36) thing to do for many people. They love the crowds, the time spent picking out that (37) gift for a loved one.
Then there are those of us who hate crowds. Robb Empson used to be one of those (38) holiday gift buyers. Not anymore. The 50yearold man checked off his (39) gift list two weeks ago-shopping online. Knowing he doesn’t have to visit (40) during the crowded holiday season is a “wonderful feeling,” said Empson, who has been full of (41) online shopper for several years. This year, he spent about 700 dollar on a (42) holiday gifts from Amazon. com. (43) , Internet holiday sales grew 28 percent last year and 54 percent in 2000.
Many are turning to online shopping as an alternative. The idea of shopping in your soft loose clothes you wear at home is pretty cool to those who hate shopping. The perfect gift is out there; one needs merely to surf the Web.
With the click of a mouse, consumers can send flowers and gifts to distant relatives. Shopping online can be safe and convenient. Consumers need only to know the rules and to take steps to protect themselves. (46)
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)(25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
In recent years, more and more foreigners are involved in the teaching programs of the United States. Both the advantages and the disadvantages47using foreign faculty in teaching positions have to be48 , of course. It can be said that the foreign background that makes the faculty member from abroad an asset also49 problems of adjustment, both for the university and for the individual. The foreign research scholar usually isolates himself in the laboratory as a means of protection; 50, what he needs is to be fitted to a highly organized university system quite different from51at home. He is faced in his daily work with differences in philosophy, arrangements of courses and methods of teaching. Both the visiting professor and his students52a common ground in each other’s cultures, some concept of what is already in the minds of American students is53for the foreign professor. While helping him to adapt himself to his new environment, the university must also54certain adjustments in order to take full advantage of what the newcomer can55. It isn’t always known how to make creative use of foreign faculty, especially at smaller colleges. This is thought to be a56where further study is called for. The findings of such a study will be of value to colleges and universities with foreign faculty.
［M］ scope［N］ cause［O］ that
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked ［A］, ［B］, ［C］ and ［D］.You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
There is a new type of small advertisement becoming increasingly common in newspaper classified columns. It is sometimes placed among “situations vacant”, although it does not offer anyone a job, and sometimes it appears among “situations wanted”, although it is not placed by someone looking for a job, either. What it does is to offer help in applying for a job.
“Contact us before writing your application”, or “Make use of our long experience in preparing your curriculum vitae or job history”, is how it is usually expressed. The growth and apparent success of such a specialized service is, of course, a reflection on the current high levels of unemployment. It is also an indication of the growing importance of the curriculum vitae (or job history), with the suggestion that it may now qualify as an art form in its own right.
There was a time when job seekers simply wrote letters of application. “Just put down your name, address, age and whether you have passed any exams”, was about the average level of advice offered to young people applying for their first jobs when I left school. The letter was really just for openers, it was explained, everything else could and should be saved for the interview. And in those days of full employment the technique worked. The letter proved that you could write and were available for work. Your eager face and intelligent replies did the rest.
Later, as you moved up the ladder, something slightly more sophisticated was called for. The advice then was to put something in the letter which would distinguish you from the rest. It might be the aggressive approach. “Your search is over. I am the person you are looking for”, was a widely used trick that occasionally succeeded. Or it might be some special feature specially designed for the job interview.
There is no doubt, however, that it is increasing number of applicants with university education at all points in the process of engaging staff that has led to the greater importance of the curriculum vitae.
57. The new type of advertisement which is appearing in newspaper columns.
［A］informs job hunters of the opportunities available
［B］promises to offer useful advice to those looking for employment
［C］divides available jobs into various types
［D］informs employers of the people available for work
58. Nowadays a demand for this specialized type of service has been created because.
［A］there is a lack of jobs available for artistic people
［B］there are so many toplevel jobs available
［C］there are so many people out of work
［D］the job history is considered to be a work of art
59. In the past it was expected that first job hunters would .
［A］write an initial letter giving their life history
［B］pass some exams before applying for a job
［C］have no qualifications other than being able to read and write
［D］keep any detailed information until they obtained an interview
60. Later, as one went on to apply for more important jobs, one was advised to include in the letter .
［A］something that would distinguish one from other applicants
［B］hinted information about the personality of the applicant
［C］one’s advantages over others in applying for the job
［D］an occasional trick with the aggressive approach
61. The curriculum vitae has become such an important document because .
［A］there has been an increase in the number of jobs advertised
［B］there has been an increase in the number of applicants with degrees
［C］jobs are becoming much more complicated nowadays
［D］the other processes of applying for jobs are more complicated
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
In cities with rent control, the city government sets the maximum rent that a landlord can charge for an apartment. Supporters of rent control argue that it protects people who are living in apartments. Their rent cannot increase; therefore, they are not in danger of losing their homes. However, the critics say that after a long time, rent control may have negative effects. Landlords know that they cannot increase their profits. Therefore, they invest in other businesses where they can increase their profits. They do not invest in new buildings which would also be rent-controlled. As a result, new apartments are not built. Many people who need apartments cannot find any. According to the critics, the end result of rent control is a shortage of apartments in the city.
Some theorists argue that the minimum wage law can cause problems in the same way. The federal government sets the minimum that an employer must pay workers. The minimum helps people who generally look for unskilled, low-paying jobs. However, if the minimum is high, employers may hire fewer workers. They will replace workers with machinery. The price, which is the wage that employers must pay, increases. Therefore, other things being equal, the number of workers that employers want decreases. Thus, critics claim, an increase in the minimum wage may cause unemployment. Some poor people may find themselves without jobs instead of with jobs at the minimum wage.
Supporters of the minimum wage say that it helps people keep their dignity. Because of the law, workers cannot sell their services for less than the minimum. Furthermore, employers cannot force workers to accept jobs at unfair wages.
Economic theory predicts the results of economic decisions such as decisions about farm production, rent control, and the minimum wage. The predictions may be correct only if “other things are equal”. Economists do not agree on some of the predictions. They also do not agree on the value of different decisions. Some economists support a particular decision while others criticize it. Economists do agree, however, that there are no simple answers to economic questions.
62.There is the possibility that setting maximum rent may .
［A］cause a shortage of apartments［B］worry those who rent apartments as homes
［C］increase the profits of landlords［D］encourage landlords to invest in building apartment
63.According to the critics, rent control .
［A］will always benefit those who rent apartments［B］is unnecessary
［C］will bring negative effects in the long run［D］is necessary under all circumstances
64.The problem of unemployment will arise .
［A］if the minimum wage is set too high［B］if the minimum wage is set too low
［C］if the workers are unskilled［D］if the maximum wage is set
65.The passage tells us .
［A］the relationship between supply and demand
［B］the possible results of government controls
［C］the necessity of government control
［D］the urgency of getting rid of government controls
66.Which of the following statements is NOT true?
［A］The results of economic decisions can not always be predicted.
［B］Minimum wage can not always protect employees.
［C］Economic theory can predict the results of economic decisions if other factors are not changing.
［D］Economic decisions should not be based on economic theory.
Part ⅤCloze(15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked ［A］, ［B］, ［C］ and ［D］on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
For many people today, reading is no longer relaxation. To keep up their work they must read letters, reports, trade publications, interoffice communications, not to mention newspapers and magazines: a never-ending flood of words. In 67 a job or advancing in one, the ability to read and comprehend 68 can mean the difference between success and failure. Yet the unfortunate fact is that most of us are 69 readers. Most of us develop poor reading 70 at an early age, and never get over them. The main deficiency 71 in the actual stuff of language itself-words. Taken individually, words have 72 meaning until they are strung together into phrased, sentences and paragraphs. 73 , however, the untrained reader does not read groups of words. He laboriously reads one word at a time, often regressing to 74 words or passages. Regression, the tendency to look back over 75 you have just read, is a common bad habit in reading. Another habit which 76 down the speed of reading is vocalization-sounding each word either orally or mentally as 77 reads.
To overcome these bad habits, some reading clinics use a device called an 78 , which moves a bar (or curtain) down the page at a predetermined speed. The bar is set at a slightly faster rate 79 the reader finds comfortable, in order to ”stretch“ him. The accelerator forces the reader to read fast, 80 word-by-word reading, regression and sub vocalization, practically impossible. At first 81 is sacrificed for speed. But when you learn to read ideas and concepts, you will not only read faster, 82 your comprehension will improve. Many people have found 83 reading skill drastically improved after some training. 84 Charlce Au, a business manager, for instance, his reading rate was a reasonably good 172 words a minute 85 the training, now it is an excellent 1,378 words a minute. He is delighted that how he can 86 a lot more reading material in a short period of time.
86.［A］master［B］go over［C］present［D］get through
Part Ⅵ Translation(5 minutes)
Direction: Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
87.But for his help, I (我不可能这么早完成).
88.I don’t mind your(延期做出决定) the decision as long as it is not too late.
89.Over a third of the population was estimated(无法获得) to the health service.
90.It is no good waiting for the bus,(我们不妨走回家吧).
91.Last week, Tom and his friends celebrated his twentieth birthday, (尽情地唱歌跳舞).