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四级阅读理解命题规律应试技巧(1)
http://www.china-cet.com        发布时间:2007-07-31 13:48:51
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    大学英语四六级考试阅读理解部分是众多考生最为担心的部分。此部分得分高低,对整个考试的成功与否起着决定性作用。阅读理解不仅考查学生的词汇量、语法知识、阅读速度等基本功,而且还考查学生判断、推理、归纳、总结等综合能力。阅读理解题虽说对考生要求较高,但我们在深入研究历届四六级阅读理解真题后发现,阅读理解的命题考点和测试题型均有一定的内在规律。考生只要基本功尚可,然后掌握了这些规律,其应试技巧必将大大提高,从而在众多强手中脱颖而出。
       
   命题考点规律及其对应题型
       
   分析研究英语四六级考试阅读理解历届考题,可以发现命题者命制的考点是有一定规律的,且考点规律常与某种题型(主旨题、细节题、逻辑题、观点态度题、词义题)相对应。如果考生掌握了这些规律,就能在第一遍快速阅读短文时,敏锐地捕捉到考点并能预测可能会出的题型。考生此时应用笔在这些可能会出题的考点轻轻划上记号,等看完短文开始做题时,针对题干的提问,迅速找到做记号的考点,再仔细分析、答题。这样,考生就能节省不少时间,从而避免开始做题时又要通阅全文盲目找考点。下面,我们结合历届四六级真题和大学英语四六级考试90分突破《阅读与简答》分册(王长喜主编,学苑出版社,以下简称《分册》),将这些考点规律及对应题型归纳如下:
       
   1、列举处常考
        
   列举处指的是First,…,second,…,Third,…等逐步列出,然后要求考生从列举出的内容中,选出符合题干要求的答案项。该考点常出题型是"细节事实题"。
       
   例1. At third big difference between the drama detective and the real one is the unpleasant pressures: firstly, as members of a police force they always have to be have absolutely in accordance with the law. Secondly, as expensive public servants they have to get results. They can hardly do both. Most of the time some of them have to break the rules in small ways.
       
   Q: What's the policeman's biggest headache?
       
   (A) He has to get the most desirable results without breaking the law in any way.
       
   (B) He has to justify his arrests while unable to provide sufficient evidence in most cases.
       
   (C) He can hardly find enough time to learn criminal law while burdened with numerous criminal cases.
  
(D) He has to provide the best possible public service at the least possible expense.(分析:选A。属事实细节题。依据文章,与电影中的警察很不相同的是,现实中警察既要绝对遵守法(firstly,…),又要及时破案(secondly,…),这令他们很难两头兼顾,有时只有犯规。很明显,B、C、D三项都与文章内容不符。)  
 
在做此类细节事实题时,只要把细节考点(firstly,…secondly…)找到,对照选项内容,跟细节事实不一致的就不是选项。考生只需细心一点都能辨清细节事实,选对答案。
       
    例2.I believe we have a three-part mission for the present.First, we must continue to press for improvements in the quality of life that people can make for themselves . Second,we mast investigate and understand the link between environment and health. Third,we must be able to communicate technical information in a form that citizens can understand.If we can accomplish these three goals in this decade,maybe we can finally stop environmental degradation, and not merely hold it back. We will then be able to spend pollution dollars truly on prevention rather than on barrages.
       
  Q:which of the following is true according to the last paragraph?
       
  (A)Efforts should be exerted on pollution prevention instead of on remedial measures.
       
  (B)More money should be spent in order to stop pollution.
       
  (C)Ordinary citizens have no access to technical information on pollution.
       
  (D)Envionmental degradation will be stopped by the end of this decade.(分析:选A。属事实细节题。专生只要看懂了文章内容三个方面,很容易排除掉B、C、D三项。)
       
2、举例子打比喻的地方常考
       
    为了使自己的观点更有说服力、更加明确,作者经常用具体的例子打比方,句中常由as, such as, for example, for instance等引导的短语或句子作为举例句,这些例句或比喻成为命题者提问的焦点。考生需注意的是例子或比喻一般是和文章或段落中心紧密相关的,常以 "细节事实性"题型和"推断性"题型出现,但偏倾于"推断性"题型。
 
ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But drives can be programmed into the computer's brain jute as nature programmed them into our human brains as a part of the equipment for survival.
       
  Q:Today, computers are still inferior to man in terms of ______ .
       
  (A) decision making        (B)drives and feelings(见《分册》P145页)
       
   (C)growth of reasoning       (D)information absorption
       
   (分析:选B项。这属辩认细节事实题,依据文章我们知道计算机缺少人类所具有的动机和情感:computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures,至于动机可以被编入计算机程序,那是今后的事,就目前而言计算机在动机和情感方面不如人类。选项B符合题意。考生只要注意到for one thing后面一句话,即可选出。)
       
   例2.…. However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media, particularly by television. And yet, we have a vivid acquainting with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as reader,listeners, and viewers. Even so, true understanding of the journalistic interview, especially television interviews, requires thoughtful analyses and even study, as this book indicates.
       
  Q: The passage is most like a part of。
       
 (A)a news article               (B) a journalistic interview
       
  (C) a research report              (D) a preface
       
   (分析:选D项。这属判断、推理题。考生在了解全文梗概之后,要正确地对文章的内容作出判断,考生关键要看懂文章最后一句话:"…as this book indicates。"由此便推断正确的答案是D项。)
       
   例3….In spite of the case against nuclear energy outlined above, nuclear energy programs are expanding. Such an expansion assumes a continual growth in industrial production and consumer demands. However, it is doubtful whether this growth will or can continue.…
       
   Q:Which of the following statements does the writer support?
       
   (A) The demand for commercial products will not necessarily keep increasing.
       
   (B) Nuclear energy is something we cannot do without.
       
   (C) Uranium is a good source of energy for economic and ecological reasons.
       
    (D) Greater safety provisions can bring about the expansion of nuclear every programmes.
       
   (分析:选A项,属推理题,依据文中"such an expansion assumes…. However,…便可推断出A项正确。)
                
3、引用人物论断处常考作者为了正确表达出自己观点或使论点更有依据,常常引用某名人的论断或重要发现等。命题者常在此作文章。多以"推理性"题为主,有时也出"细节事实性"题型。
       
    例1."There is a senseless notion that children grew up and leave home when they're 18, and the truth is far from that,"says sociologist Larry Bumpers of the University of Wisconsin….
       
    Q: There was apparently a trend in the USA ________ .
       
    (A) for young adults to leave their parents and live independently.
       
    (B) For middle class young adults to stay with their parents.
       
     (C) For married young adults to move back home after a lengthy absence.
       
     (D) For going adults to get jobs nearby in order to live with their parents.
       
   (分析:选A项。属推理题。作者引用的这句话意思是:"孩子长到18岁时应离开父母去独立生活的概念是没有道理的,而事实情况也并非如此。"而题干问:过去在美国显然有一种什么趋势。考生通过细心推断引文,便能选中A项:年轻的成年人应该离开父母而去独立生活。)   
 
例2.…"people cheat on their sleep, and they don't even realize they're doing it,"says Dr. David."They think they're okay because they can get by on 6.5 howler, when they really need 7.5 , eight or even more to feel ideally rigorous."(见《分册》P12页例3)
       
   Q: According to Dr. David, Americans ________ .
   (A) are ideally vigorous even under the pressure of life.
       
    (B) Often neglect the consequences of sleep deficit.
       
   (C) Do not know how to relax themselves properly.
       
   (D) Can get by on 6.5 hoarse of sleep.
       
   (分析:选B项。属于归纳事实细节题。Dr. David所说的话,描述的是一种事实现象,即美国人睡眠不足而误认为这不是什么大的事,还自我感觉良好。从事实中我们可以看出美国人经常忽视睡眠不足的后果,即B项的内容。)
       
    例3. By the millions they are coming-no longer the tired, the poor, the wretched masses longing for a better living. These are the wealthy. "We don't have a budget,"says a biologist from Brazil. As she walks with two companions through New York lity's South Street, "We juse use our credit cards."
        
   Q:From what the Brazilian biologist says, we know that tourist like her ________ .
       
   (A) are reluctant to carry cash with them.
       
   (B) Simply don't care how much they spend.
       
    (C) Are not good at planning their expenditure.
       
   (D) Often spend more money that they can afford.
       
(分析:选B项。属判断推理题。文章讲成千上万涌进美国的富有者与那个巴西生物学家一样,他们在购物时只管刷卡?quot;just use our credit cards.")而根本不做预算("don't have a hudget"),可推断出他们这类人是"根本不管花多少钱的。"即B项内容。)
                         作者:刀断水 来源:Examlink收集整理
 
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