中国四六级考试网
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洛基英语
精英培训
四级真题详解
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中国四六级考试网 >> 改错
大学英语四级改错题常考要点
http://www.china-cet.com        发布时间:2006-05-16 08:26:08
2天记住4000单词的秘密... 点击进入!!
    

一、代词
代词中主要讲解六个问题
(一) 掌握代词的几种格
  主格、宾格、所有格
  名词前面用代词来修饰,只能用所有格(my books)

(二) 反身代词
当主语和宾语表示同一事物时,宾语使用反身代词。
  He killed himself. (他自杀了)
  He killed him. (他杀了他)

例:Researchers at the University of Colorado are investigating 
    A                 B   
  a series of indicators that could help
             C     
  themselves to predict earthquakes.
    D
分析:D错,应改为them。如果用反身代词themselves,指代对象是从句主语that(即名词indicators),这显然是错误的。从句意来看,help的宾语应该是主句主语researchers,故应用代词宾格而不是反身代词。注意C并没有错,情态动词could 比can语气弱,表示较小的可能性。
Indicator为征兆,这些征兆帮助他们来预言地震。主语是征兆,后面指研究者,不是同一个事物

(三) 代词的单复数,代词的性别
在考试中如果代词打横线,代词错误的概率是非常高的,因此代词打横线,应该先看代词有没有错。

例:The continental divide refers to an imaginary line in the North American Rockies
  that divides the waters flowing into the Atlantic Ocean from it flowing into the
     A   B      C          D
  Pacific.

分析:D错,应改为those。D指代复数名词waters, it是单数,显然是错误的,根据习惯故改为those。注意waters一词并没有错,它指江湖河海中的大片水域,可用复数形式。

Water作为水是不可数名词,waters表示水域,通常使用复数形式,作主语谓语动词用复数。
Work作为工作是不可数名词,work作为作品,可数不可数都可以,例如:
  Many of his works= much of his work, work都表示作品

例:In 1920 the presidential candidate Warren Harding coined
                       A 
  the word “normalcy” to express social and
             B
   economic conditions they promised the nation.
   C       D
分析:D错,应改为he。动作promised是由Warren Harding发出来的,故用第三人称单数he来指代。

例:Many critics believe that Amy Lwell' s most important
        A    
  work is not poetry, but his biography, John
   B        C     
  Keats, published the year of her death. 
      D
分析:C错,应改为her。his指男性,显然是错误的,应改为her与后面的her同指Amy Lowell.


(四) Who和which的区别
which指代事物或者动物,who指代人
who/whom son往往要改为whose son, whose可以指代事物

例:The human body contains more than six hundred muscles who
              A            B
  account for approximately forty percent of the body weight.
   C                  D
分析:B错,应改为which或that。先行词不是指人,而是指物,关系代词不能用who,故改为which或that。
人体前面加定冠词the, account for 占有多大的比例,解释说明

(五) that和which的区别
介词后面使用which, 而不用that, in that除外

例:When television was first introduced, the extent to that it
              A        B
  would affect society could not have been foreseen.
      C              D
分析:B错,应改为which。The extent to which, 介词加which(引导定语从句),影响社会的程度没有被预见

(六) 定语从句的特殊省略
Reason后面有定语从句,中间往往省略why,
Time后面有定语从句,中间往往省略when
   I do remember the time I heard the sweetest voice in the wild world.
way后面有定语从句,中间省略了in which

例:Research on pain has been neglected, although the mainly
              A         B 
  reason people take medicine is to relieve pain.
         C      D
分析:B错,应改为main。mainly为副词,不能修饰后面的名词,故改为形容词main。句子中people take medicine修饰reason,定语从句引导词被省略

例:Commercial expansion from city to suburb has 
  affected the way people in the United States----.
   (A) living and working
   (B) they live and work
   (C) live and work
   (D) to live and to work
分析:选择C, the way people....影响了人们生活和工作的方式。


二、介词
介词是考试中出现的比较多的一个部分,而其中考的最多的就是介词的固定搭配问题。由于篇幅问题,我们在这里仅仅举出几个例题,在说明书手册中我们完整的列出了所有的介词搭配,这些列出的搭配在以前的语法题中出现过,只不过有的时候是正确的选项,有的时候重复考。
(一) 介词搭配

例:The teeth in the upper jaw function together those
    A         B   C     
  in the lower jaw to cut, tear, and grind food.
                D
分析:和…一起,应该为together with,C错

例:The Allegheny Mountain range is rich of coal.
A       B     C  D
分析:B错改为be rich in

例:The rotation of the Earth on its axis is responsible to the
    A         B      C
  alternation of periods of light and darkness.
             D
分析:C错,应改为responsible for。形容词responsible后接名词作宾语时要加介词for。


(二) 最重要的两个介词
1、介词of 多余或者遗漏
例:Mosquitoes usually lay eggs, singly or in batches, on top stagnant water.
          A      B  C     D
分析:D错,应改为top of stagnant。on top of …是因定表达法,意为“在…上面”。

例:Christopher Plummer is a Canadian actor who has
                 A  B    
  starred in stage, television, and film productions on
      C
  both sides the Atlantic Ocean.
      D
分析:D错,应改为sides of the。 sides为名词,the Atlantic Ocean也是名词,中间明显少了一个介词。

2、介词by
一种情况表示被动,be+过去分词+by
另一种表示通过……的方式, by doing
例:The ceremony of marriage in the United States
    A         B      
   can be performed from a justice of the peace. 治安法官
   C     D
分析:D错,应改为performed by。谓语动词是被动式,performed的动作执行者应该由介词by来引导。

例:Along the east coast ,American Indian women's councils
   A                     
   could veto a declaration of war at refusing to
     B    C       D
   supply moccasins and field rations.
分析:D错,应改为by refusing。通过拒绝提供鞋子和粮食,表示通过某种方式做某事要用介词by,故将at refusing 改为by refusing。

例:Algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with
        A               
  operations on sets of numbers or other elements
        B          C  
  that are often represented at symbols.
              D
分析:D错,应改为by。动作的发出者应该用介词by来引导。


 
三、谓语动词
(一) 谓语动词的主谓一致
①、主谓分割原则
例1:To the citizens of the United States, the bald eagle,
     A    
   America's national bird, symbolize strength and freedom.
        B      C      D
分析:C错,应改为symbolizes。主语谓语用逗号分割开,主语the bald eagle为单数,谓语动词也应该用单数形式。
②、与后者一致原则
not…but, 强调but后面的名词,
not only…but also


③、与前者一致原则
名词+with/together with/as well as/including+复数名词,谓语用is,
中心词在前面,谓语动词应该与前面的名词保持一致
例:The athlete, together with his coach and
     A      B  C    
  several relatives, are traveling to the Olympic Games.
         D
分析:D错,与谓语动词与the athlete 保持一致,改为is

④、就近原则
or, either…or, neither…nor,
单数名词+or+复数名词+are
如果把句子变为一般疑问句,也就是把be动词提到前面,那么变为is
所以注意一点: 如果是陈述句,靠后面近,用复数
        如果是疑问句,靠前面近,用单数

例:The structure or behavior of many protozoans are
        A      B       
  amazingly complex for single-celled animals.
    C              D
分析:A错,应改为and。从谓语动词是复数形式判断,主语应该为复数,or连接两个名词时动词和后面的名词保持一致,behavior是用单数形式,因此只有改为并列连词and才能使主谓在数上保持一致。

⑤定语从句主语就近原则
There are five apples that are red.
apples是复数,因此从句谓语动词是复数。

例:A rocket burns propellant rapidly and most rockets
      A           
  carry a supply that last just a few seconds.
   B   C    D
分析:D错,应改为lasts。从句的逻辑主语a supply为单数,其谓语动词应为单数形式。

⑥the +形容词主谓一致
The rich are not always happier than the poor.
The rich 表示一类人,应该用复数

⑦、倒装句的主谓一致
改错题倒装句的主谓一致一般考两种情况:
a. there be 句型
there be+名词+名词,那么最近的名词决定其形式
b. between/ among 放在句首+be+名词,名词其实是主语,所以be和名词保持一致

例:There are no known society in which left-handed people predominate.
   A     B      C    D   
分析:there be 句型由最近的名词决定其形式,society当然用单数,A错,there are 改为there is


例:Between the foothills of the Andes and the Pacific
             A     B   
  Ocean are a dry coastal strip averaging about 30
     C        
  miles in width.
     D 
分析:倒装句,are改为is

例:Among the favorite attractions at the National Air and
   A    B       C        
  Space Museum in Washington D.C. are the film
                    D
  presented on the five-story-tall screen.
分析:D错,应改为films , 主语实际上是名词,应该与谓语动词保持一致。

⑧、百分比结构的主谓一致
fifty percent of + 名词
one percent of + 名词
谓语动词的形式和百分比多少没有关系,主要取决于后面的名词,比如:
  one percent of my students + are
  fifty percent of my time is spent on working.

这里要强调两个结构
half of =fifty percent
most of + 可数名词 + are
most of + 不可数名词+ is

例:Nearly half of the ancient meteor craters has been
   A       B         C  
  found in central and eastern Canada.
           D
分析:C错,应改为have been。介词of的宾语为复数名词短语,作主语的中心词half当然表复数,相应的谓语动词应为复数形式。

例:Approximately fifty percent of the package utilized
                 A   B 
  in the United States are for foods and beverages.
              C     D
分析:A错,应改为packages。从谓语动词用复数形式判断出主语是复数名词。注意food用复数表示不同种类的食品,beverage用复数表示不同种类的饮料,故(C)、(D)均没有错。

(二) 谓语动词的时态
①、主要考察时间状语

例 The metal aluminum has been first isolated early in the nineteenth century.
   A        B  C     D

分析:Metal, aluminum同位语,in the nineteenth century为明显表示过去时间的状语, 因此应该用过去时态,把has been改为was


②、For和since的区别
区别一:For 后面使用时间段,since 后面使用时间点
区别二:Since 只能用在现在完成时态,For 最主要用在现在完成时和一般过去时
  I has been a teacher for three years.
  I has been a teacher since 1996.
  I was a teacher for three years. 这种表达可以,for three years表示一段时间,was 表示过去做了三年,现在不是老师了

例: Since 1921 the budget of the United States became
   A      B             
  the primary responsibility of the president.
     C    D
分析:A错,应改 In. since一般要求主句用完成时态,而句中谓语动词为过去式,其时间状语应与之呼应,故改Since为In。

例:Adella Prentiss Hrghes served as manager of
             A  B  C  
  the Cleveland Orchestra since fifteen years.
            D
分析:D错,应改为for。since引导时间状语时,主句谓语动词为一般完成时;主句谓语动词为一般过去时要用介词for;而且一段时间用for, 而不是since。


52. In general, prawns lived in shallow coastal waters or in streams. 
   A       B        C     D
自然现象和客观事实用一般现在时态,live

(三) 谓语的语态
语态主要表示是主动语态还是被动语态。
有四组动词是改错题中常考的:
①、prove
My advice proved to be wrong. 我的建议被证明是错的
尽管是被证明,但习惯上用主动;

例:A majority of the reports received from people claiming
                      A 
  to have seen the legendary Loch Ness Monster have proven to be
    B                  C
  mistakes, misconceptions, or they were being tricked.
                  D
分析:D错,应改为tricks。并列连词 or在此连接名词,如果把D理解为并列句,不仅时态不对,语义也有问题,故将整个句子改为名词。have proven to be是正确的。


②、Locate,Situate
这两个词可以用作主动,表示把…放置在…地方;确定…的位置
  Bats locate obstacles.蝙蝠确定障碍物的位置
这两个词也可以用作被动
  My school was located near the river.
区分locate的主动和被动比较难,但是有一个技巧存在:locate如果用作主动,后面必须跟宾语
例:The center of gravity of the human body ---- behind the hip joint.
   (A)locates
   (B)locating
   (C)to locate
   (D)is located
分析:空格处显然缺谓语动词,故首先排除不能作谓语的B和C。动词locate后面没有宾语,所以用作被动,表示“位于”,所以D为正确选项。

③、表示需要概念的动词
need, want, require等

My watch needed repairing
My watch needed to be repaired.

④、表示人的情感的动词
move, annoy, surprise, please等

He is so moving.  他令人感到感动。
He is greatly moved. 他感到非常感动。

主动和被动技巧总结:
如果句子中有一个“过去分词+by”, 如果断定它是谓语的话,前面必然有be动词

例:The Tennessee Valley Authority has chartered by the
                 A     
  United States Congress in 1933 to construct dams,
                 B
  power structures, and flood-control works along
                    C
  the Tennessee River and its tributary streams.
                D
分析:A错,应改为has been chartered。由信号词by可知前面的谓语动词为被动语态形式。


四、非谓语动词
(一) 分词
现在分词和过去分词的区别
①、用于句首作状语,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动
例:Won its war for independence in 1783, the United States then
   A
  struggled to establish its own economic and financial system.
     B      C            D
分析:分词作状语,主要看是主动还是被动,美国赢得应该是主动,所以A错,改won为winning

②、用于名词后面作后置定语,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动
例:In the nineteenth century the Mohave Indians lived in
      A               B 
  the Northern Hemisphere grew their crops on river bottom lands.
               C         D
分析:B错,生活在什么地方的人,人生活是主动,因此改为living


一些动词后面必须用doing
对于加doing的词来说,考试中一般出现一个,下面这些词都是要加doing的,请考生牢记。
 mind, finish, enjoy, celebrate, adjust
 advocate, suggest
 delay, quit
 forgive(原谅),tolerate,
 avoid, escape(逃避)
 spend+名词+doing;
 have trouble/difficult/a problem/ +doing

例:Long before the dawn of recorded history, humans celebrated to harvest their
   A     B    C              D
  crops.
分析:D错,应改为harvesting。及物动词celebrate直接带名词、名词短语或动名词短语作宾语,故将to harvest改为harvesting。

例:Some experts have advocated to bring that country into the talks,
               A        B
  to revive the intermittent dialogue that began after the 1967 Middle East War.
        C          D
分析:A错,advocate 后面直接跟doing, 改为advocate bringing

(二) 不定式
A. 动词不定式的省略
①、help后面可以省略to
  help to do
  help sb. to do

例:A good exercise program helps teach people to avoid
              A      B
  the habits that might shorten the lives.
         C     D
分析:D错,应改为their. 定冠词在句中不如代词所有格明确,如果lives后面有定语就可以用the。注意(A)并没有错,help后面可以接不带to的不定式。

②、使役动词后面要省略to, 这样的动词只有三个
  make,
  let,
  have sb. do sth
  注意get不是使役动词,get sb. to do sth.
例:A conductor used signals and gestures to let the musicians
        A               B
  to know when to play various parts of a composition.
   C     D
分析:let是使役动词,后面不需要to, C改为know

③、感官动词
   hear, feel, watch, see, notice, observe
   see sb do sth. 强调过程
   see sb doing sth 正在做某事


B. 动词不定式的固定用法
(1)表示第一人
the first woman to do sth.

(2)表示迫使的动词
一般考三个, allow/ enable/ call, +sb. + to do

例:Besides providing clues to the nature of atoms, mineral analysis
     A                 B   
  allows to speculate geologists about the ancient Earth.
       C           D
分析:allow...to do是固定短语,allow的宾语应在不定式之前,即把C改为: allow geologists to speculate。


(3)表示倾向…的形容词
  be more likely to do 更有可能作某事
  be inclined to do倾向于做某事
  be liable to do 易于…的
  be apt to do

(4)表示目的的名词,
一共有7个这样的词,这一条也是最重要的。
固定的句式:
the purpose , the purpose of sth is to do sth.
the objective 目标
aim
goal
reason理由
function功能
intension意图

例:The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was providing
                       A 
  large uninterrupted floor areas and to allow ample light into the interior.
           B          C     D
分析:the function to provide, A错

例:The chief goal of biochemistry is for understanding the structure
                  A      
  and behavior of the carbon-containing compounds
     B 
  that make up various components of a living cell.
    C    D
分析:the chief goal is to understand, A错

(5) 其他同根名词
 ability to do 受到be able to 的影响
 attempt to do 企图
 decision to do 决定, 受decide的影响
 ambition,
 be ambitious to do 
 effort

例:For ancient people, myths were often attempts explanation
  A                    B
  catastrophic events such as volcanic eruptions.
          C       D
分析:B错,应改为to explain。 attempts后应跟动词不定式短语表目的,故将名词explanation改为to explain。

例:In the early 1960's the Civil Rights movement made great
  A                   B 
  efforts for registering members of minorities to vote.
       C            D
分析:efforts to register, C错


C. 动词不定式的其他用法
(1) be to do 表示已安排好或者注定要发生的动作,属于将来时态的范畴
She and Anne are to meet at two o'clock.

(2)不定式的完成式为“to have done”,表示不定式的动作在谓语动作之前发生,这个完成式通常表示一般过去时
I am glad to see you.
I am glad to have seen your mother yesterday.
yesterday是一般过去时,修饰have seen.

(3) 形容词后面使用动词不定式,主动表示被动
It is difficult to decide.


 
六、比较级和最高级
比较级和最高级的出题非常有规则,一共有5个出题方向,并且每次考试必然考两个
(一) 比较级或最高级形式上的重复
例:The most easiest process for mining gold is panning, which
      A              
  involves using a circular dish with a small pocket at the bottom.
     B       C           D
分析:A错,应改为easiest。easiest本身已是最高级,不必再用most,这是最高级形式上的重复

(二)比较级和最高级之间的混用
例:The greenest and plentifulest leaves are the leaves of grasses.
     A      B     C  D
分析:B错,应改为most plentiful。 plentiful是多音节形容词,须在前面加most构成最高级。

例:The more fearsome of all the animals in the Western Hemisphere
     A       B     C   D
  is the grizzly bear.
分析:A错,应该用最高级most,含有介词of, among, in 表示的范围状语使用最高级。


(三)比较词than的前面一定要有比较级
改错题中,通常会看见than前面有一个原级

例:Film directors can take far great liberties in dealing with
   A           B 
  concepts of time and space than stage directors can.
   C                 D
分析:B错,应改为greater。根据后面有than一词可以判定前面的形容词用比较级形式,注意far, much 修饰比较级。

(四)在as…as以及否定not so…as, not as…as的中间使用形容词原级
as sweeter as, 这是不对的,应改为as sweet as

(五)the 和比较级最高级的关系
①、比较级前面可以出现the, 修饰后面的名词
the taller boy

②、副词的最高级加不加the均可以
例:Although flies live longest in cool temperatures, it breed
          A            B
  prolifically when temperatures are warm, food is
  abundant, and humidity is moderate.
    C          D
分析:副词的最高级加不加the均可, 所以A正确,从从句的主语可以看出,B应该改为they

③、形容词的最高级作定语前面必须使用the, 如果不作定语的话,加不加the均可以
例:Of all the Native Americans in the United States,
  A  B         C    
  the Navajos form largest group.
         D
分析:D错,应改为form the largest。形容词最高级前面要加定冠词。

陷阱1, earliest, 有两种可能,
一种可能是early的最高级,最早的语言,the earliest language
    另一种可能作名词,表示早期,必须和时间的名词连用,earliest time, earliest ages, 表示很早的年代,很早的时代,也就是说,如果以后碰上earliest后面加上times, ages, 前面不用加the

例:The belief in fairies have existed from earliest times, and the literature of many
            A      B         C
  countries includes tales of fairies and their relationship to humans.
            D
分析:A错,应改为has existed。主语是单数名词the belief,而不是复数名词fairies,故谓语动词是单数形式。earliest times表示表示很早的时代是正确的。

陷阱2,如果最高级前面有所有格的话,不用加the
例如:my best friends

例:Salt Lake City, Utah's capital and largest city, is industrial
            A    B     C
  and banking center.
        D
分析:C错,应改为is an industrial center。center为可数名词,它的修饰词前面应有不定冠词。
Utah's largest city, 题目中其实是省略了Utah's。


例:Faults in the Earth's crust are most evidently in sedimentary
                 A        
  formations, where they interrupt previously continuous layers.
    B   C     D
分析:A错,are的表语必须用evident, 为什么不加the, 因为作表语,而不是定语


 
七、平行结构
改错题考的最多的一个方向便是平行结构

(一) 对等连接词
一共有三类连接平行结构的词
单一式: and, or ,but
相关式: both…and, not … but,
     either …or, neither…nor
     the same…as;as…as, not so…as, not as…as
     such …as, so …that.. too…to, from…to, from…until, between…and,
     not only…but also(also可以省略),Not only +主谓,also
     not only…but also(also可以省略)+as well,

短语式: as well as
     rather than (而不是)
     other than (除…之外)
     instead of (代替)

考试的方式往往是搭配中有一个单词是对的,另一个单词却不对
例:John lived in New York since 1960 to 1975, 
       A     B 
  but he is now living in Detroit.
       C   D
分析:B错,应改为from。“从某年到某年”要用“from…to…”这个表达法,不能用since …to…。

例:Even as he wrote copiously on so diverse topics
       A         B
  as education ,politics ,and religion ,Lewis Mumford
  remained active in city and regional planning.
          C    D 
分析:B错, 改为such diverse topics as, 出现as, 往往要注意前面一半
(二)平行的内容
第一、引导词性的平行,词性的平行本质上是语法作用的平行
例:Photoperiodism is the functional or behavioral response of
             A         B  
  an organism to changes in duration of daily, seasonally,
         C            D
  or yearly periods of light and darkness.
分析:D错,应改为seasonal。在daily, seasonally和yearly三个并列的词中,daily和yearly是形容词,seasonally是副词,故改为形容词seasonal,共同修饰名词periods,三个形容词的平行,词性平行


第二、名词单复数的平行
但是如果既有可数名词,又有不可数名词,可以不平行

例:The main advertising media include direct mail,
  A     B          C 
  radio, television, magazines, and newspaper.
                 D  
分析:D错,应改为newspapers。newspaper为可数名词,在没有任何前置修饰语的情况下一般用复数形式,并且和前面的magazine平行,而mail, radio, television则是不可数名词。

例:The Canadian province of Newfoundland has a rocky coast, a moisture climate,
                   A         B
  and probably the best cod-fishing areas in the world.
      C          D
分析:海岸气候只有一个,但是钓鱼的地方可以有许多个,所以也是不可数名词和名词复数的平行;因此D没有错,A错改为have

第三、时态的平行
例:The poet Marianne Moore was initially associated
                A    
  with the imagist movement , but later develops
                   B
  her own thyme patterns and verse forms.
          C    D
分析:B错,应改为developed。句中前半部分谓语为过去时,与之并列的谓语也应用过去时。

例:Because the papaya grows readily from seed , -----
  spread from its home in Central America and
  now grows throughout the tropics.
   (A) to be    (B) it  
   (C) the     (D) its
分析:正确答案为(B)。空格前是原因状语从句,后面紧接着是谓语动词,空格处明显缺主句主语。四个选项中只有B能单独作主语。注意spread是过去式,没有数的变化,因为这一动作明显发生在过去时间。spread 和grows为什么时态可以不平行呢?
原来它在Central America 的家乡传播,现在在整个地方传播,now只修饰后面的grow

例:Ducks have been domesticated for many centuries ----
  commercially for their meat and eggs.
   (A) raised   (B) and are raised
   (C) raised as  (D) are raised
分析:正确答案为B。空格前是一个完整的句子,根据一个空格处如再出现谓语动词一定要有连词这一原则,B为惟一符合条件的选项。故选(B)。

第四、排列位置的平行
例:---the surface of metal, but also weakens it.
   (A) Not only does rust corrode
   (B) Not only rust corrodes 
   (C) Rust, which not only corrodes
   (D) Rust not only corrodes
分析:正确答案为D。从but also放在动词前可知,not only也须置于动词前,故选D。A、B中的Not only位置放错了,C使句子缺主句,故排除。

对于not only, but also的用法有以下几种:
 1、主语+not only +谓语,but also+谓语,正确;例如上面例题中的第四个选项。
 2、Not only +主谓,but also+主谓,正确
 3、Not only +主语+谓语,but also+谓语,错误

八、词序的颠倒
词序的颠倒一般只考一道,90%的情况集中于下面三个出题方向
(一) 先说形容词,再说名词
例:The Medal of Honor is the highest award military for courage
              A    B       
  that can be given to any individual in the United States.
      C       D   
分析:B错,军事的荣誉是military award而不是award military,单个形容词修饰名词时一般放在被修饰词的前面。

(二) 副词+形容词+名词
例:Certain types of computers work properly only
          A      B    
  in environments with controlled precisely temperatures.
    C         D
分析:D错,应改为precisely controlled,精确的被控制的温度。controlled为过去分词用作形容词,修饰它的副词应放在其前面,它自己则要紧挨着被修饰的名词。


(三)主语系动词, 系动词 + 表语

例:During the 1600's skilled shoemakers scarce were
          A   B     C 
  in what is now the United States.
    D
分析:C错,应改为were scarce。表语应该放在系动词后面。

所有的系动词分为三大类:
第一种:表示保持某种状态,
    is, remain, keep, stay,
    lie, exit(表示位于)
第二种,从一种状态转变到另一种状态
    become, turn, grow,
    get (It is getting warmer and warmer)

第三种,感官动词
    seem(好像是)
    look(看起来好像是)
    feel, sound, appear, smell, taste
enough修饰形容词或副词时,一般放在形容词或副词后面。
例: The eruptions of Mt. St. Helens were enough severe
    A               B    
   to cause numerous deaths.
        C   D 
分析:B错,应改为sever enough。severe是形容词, enough放在severe后面。

 

九、词性的混用
词汇量的掌握对词性的使用非常重要,但是如果对出题方向有更好的把握,将会弥补词汇量的不足。
(一)做表语时形容词和副词的混用
做表语永远用形容词,绝对不能用副词;

例:Giant pandas, which inhabit restricted areas of high
          A        B     
  mountain bamboo forests, are rarely today and
              C
  when they are in captivity they breed poorly.
          D
分析:错,应改为are rare。rarely为副词,不能作表语,故改为形容词rare(罕见的,稀少的)


(二)加宾语时名词和动名词的混用
后面加宾语当然要用动名词
例:Tilling means preparation the soil to plant the seeds
         A       B     
  and keeping the soil in the best condition to
          C       
  help the crop grow until it is ready3 for harvesting.
            D
分析:A错,应改为preparing。preparation为名词,后面不能接宾语,改为动名词preparing后既能接宾语,又与后面的keeping构成并列关系。

例:Langston Hughes, a prolific writer of the 1920's,
            A      
   was concerned with the depicting the experience of
      B      C
   urban Black people in the United States.
   D
分析:C错,应改为depicting。 depicting在此为动名词,作介词宾语时不加冠词。注意此处还可以改为the depiction of,但略显累赘,因为后面还有of结构。The +动名词,这个动名词其实就变为了名词。


(三)表示时间时,状语从句连接词和近义的介词混用
表示时间有两种可能,
一种是状语从句,由when/ while引导,后面加句子
另一种是由介词引导,如during,后面加名词,
考试中往往就利用这个特点,总是给出相反的情况

例:Balloon observations for military intelligence
       A     B    
  were made while the American Civil War.
   C    D
分析:D错,应改为during。while是从属连词或并列连词,后面接句子,后面是名词短语时,应改为介词during。

例:Some of the most celebrated publicity stunts while the
   A      B           C 
  history of radio were associated with Gracie Allen.
          D
分析:C错,应改为in。while为连词,后面要求接从句,而句中显然没有从句,故根据题意改为介词in。


(四)对等连接词和近义的副词混用
连接平行结构的词叫做对等连接词,但是如果出现else, also, instead等副词把这些结构连接起来行不行呢?当然不行。

例:Mary McDowell shared Jane Addam's interest in social
                   A    
  work also was a loyal supporter of the League of Nations.
     B   C    D
分析:B错,应改为and。also是副词,不能连接并列的谓语动词,故改为并列连词and。

例:Paper is strong under tension instead crumples
   A        B   C     
  easily under the stress of compression.
   D
分析:C错,应改为but;题目意思是在拉力的作用下很强,而在压力的作用下容易起皱;instead, 副词不能连接两个动词并列,but 的对等连接词和and, or的用法是一样的


(五)表示人的名词和表示事物的词混用

例:An editor is customarily a brief newspaper or magazine
    A         B
  article that gives personal comments on current events.
          C            D
分析:A错,应改为editorial。 editor的意思是“编辑”,根据题意改为名词editorial(社论)。


例:For centuries, music have played acoustical guitars,
         A
  which produce sound from the vibration of the strings.
   B      C      D
分析:A错,应改为musicians。music是抽象名词,意为“音乐”,不能表示复数要领显然应改为musicians(音乐家)。

(六) 只能用副词+数量词+名词;不能用形容词
nearly two hundred students, 这里nearly修饰的是200;
two hundred diligent students

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