Part I Writing (30 minutes)
注意：此部分试题在 答题卡 1 上。
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1 .
For questions 1-7, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
You have just finished your meal at a fast food restaurant and you throw your uneaten food, food wrappers, drink cups, utensils and napkins into the trash can. You don't think about that waste again. On trash pickup day in your neighborhood, you push your can out to the curb, and workers dump the contents into a big truck and haul it away. You don't have to think about that waste again, either. But maybe you have wondered, as you watch the trash truck pull away, just where that garbage ends up.
Americans generate trash at an astonishing rate of four pounds per day per person, which translates to 600,000 tons per day or 210 million tons per year! This is almost twice as much trash per person as most other major countries. What happens to this trash? Some gets recycled ( 回收利用 ) or recovered and some is burned, but the majority is buried in landfills.
How Much Trash Is Generated?
Of the 210 million tons of trash, or solid waste, generated in the United States annually, about 56 million tons, or 27 percent, is either recycled (glass, paper products, plastic, metals) or composted (做成堆肥) (yard waste). The remaining trash, which is mostly unrecyclable, is discarded.
How Is Trash Disposed of? The trash production in the United States has almost tripled since 1960. This trash is handled in various ways. About 27 percent of the trash is recycled or composted, 16 percent is burned and 57 percent is buried in landfills. The amount of trash buried in landfills has doubled since 1960. The United States ranks somewhere in the middle of the major countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, France and Japan) in landfill disposal. The United Kingdom ranks highest, burying about 90 percent of its solid waste in landfills.
What Is a Landfill?
There are two ways to bury trash:
· Dump – an open hole in the ground where trash is buried and that is full of various animals (rats, mice, birds). (This is most people’s idea of a landfill!)
· Landfill – carefully designed structure built into or on top of the ground in which trash is isolated from the surrounding environment (groundwater, air, rain). This isolation is accomplished with a bottom liner and daily covering of soil.
o Sanitary landfill – landfill that uses a clay liner to isolate the trash from the environment
o Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill – landfill that uses a synthetic (plastic) liner to isolate the trash from the environment.
The purpose of a landfill is to bury the trash in such a way that it will be isolated from groundwater, will be kept dry and will not be in contact with air. Under these conditions, trash will not decompose (腐烂) much. A landfill is not like a compost pile, where the purpose is to bury trash in such a way that it will decompose quickly.
Proposing the Landfill
For a landfill to be built, the operators have to make sure that they follow certain steps. In most parts of the world, there are regulations that govern where a landfill can be placed and how it can operate. The whole process begins with someone proposing the landfill.
In the United States, taking care of trash and building landfills are local government responsibilities. Before a city or other authority can build a landfill, an environmental impact study must be done on the proposed site to determine:
· the area of land necessary for the landfill
· the composition of the underlying soil and bedrock
· the flow of surface water over the site
· the impact of the proposed landfill on the local environment and wildlife
· the historical value of the proposed site
Building the Landfill
Once the environmental impact study is complete, the permits are granted and the funds have been raised, then construction begins. First, access roads to the landfill site must be built if they do not already exist. These roads will be used by construction equipment, sanitation (环卫) services and the general public. After roads have been built, digging can begin. In the North Wake County Landfill, the landfill began 10 feet below the road surface.
What Happens to Trash in a Landfill?
Trash put in a landfill will stay there for a very long time. Inside a landfill, there is little oxygen and little moisture. Under these conditions, trash does not break down very rapidly. In fact, when old landfills have been dug up or sampled, 40-year-old newspapers have been found with easily readable print. Landfills are not designed to break down trash, merely to bury it. When a landfill closes, the site, especially the groundwater, must be monitored and maintained for up to 30 years!
How Is a Landfill Operated?
A landfill, such as the North Wake County Landfill, must be open and available every day. Customers are typically municipalities and construction companies, although residents may also use the landfill.
Near the entrance of the landfill is a recycling center where residents can drop off recyclable materials (aluminum cans, glass bottles, newspapers and paper products). This helps to reduce the amount of material in the landfill. Some of these materials are banned from landfills by law because they can be recycled.
As customers enter the site, their trucks are weighed at the scale house. Customers are charged tipping fees for using the site. The tipping fees vary from $10 to $40 per ton. These fees are used to pay for operation costs. The North Wake County Landfill has an operating budget of approximately $4.5 million, and part of that comes from tipping fees.
Along the site, there are drop-off stations for materials that are not wanted or legally banned by the landfill. A multi-material drop-off station is used for tires, motor oil, lead-acid batteries. Some of these materials can be recycled.
In addition, there is a household hazardous waste drop-off station for chemicals (paints, pesticides, other chemicals) that are banned from the landfill. These chemicals are disposed of by private companies. Some paints can be recycled and some organic chemicals can be burned in furnaces or power plants.
Other structures alongside the landfill are the borrowed area that supplies the soil for the landfill, the runoff collection pond and methane (甲烷) station.
Landfills are complicated structures that, when properly designed and managed, serve an important purpose. In the future, new technologies called bioreactors will be used to speed the breakdown of trash in landfills and produce more methane.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
注意：此部分试题请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
11. A) The man hates to lend his tools to other people.
B) The man hasn't finished working on the bookshelf.
C) The tools have already been returned to the woman.
D) The tools the man borrowed from the woman are missing.
12. A) Save time by using a computer. C) Borrow Martha's computer.
B) Buy her own computer. D) Stay home and complete her paper.
13. A) He has been to Seattle many times. C) He holds a high position in his company.
B) He has chaired a lot of conferences. D) He lived in Seattle for many years.
14. A) Teacher and student. C) Manager and office worker.
B) Doctor and patient. D) Travel agent and customer.
15. A) She knows the guy who will give the lecture.
B) She thinks the lecture might be informative.
C) She wants to add something to her lecture.
D) She'll finish her report this weekend.
16. A) An art museum. C) A college campus.
B) A beautiful park. D) An architectural exhibition.
17. A) The houses for sale are of poor quality.
B) The houses are too expensive for the couple to buy.
C) The housing developers provide free trips for potential buyers.
D) The man is unwilling to take a look at the houses for sale.
18. A) Talking about sports. C) Reading newspapers.
B) Writing up local news. D) Putting up advertisements.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) The benefits of strong business competition.
B) A proposal to lower the cost of production.
C) Complaints about the expense of modernization.
D) Suggestions concerning new business strategies.
20. A) It cost much more than its worth. C) It calls for immediate repairs.
B) It should be brought up-to-date. D) It can still be used for a long time.
21. A) The personnel manager should be fired for inefficiency.
B) A few engineers should be employed to modernize the factory.
C) The entire staff should be retrained.
D) Better-educated employees should be promoted.
22. A) Their competitors have long been advertising on TV.
B) TV commercials are less expensive.
C) Advertising in newspapers alone is not sufficient.
D) TV commercials attract more investments.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. A) Searching for reference material. C) Writing a course book.
B) Watching a film of the 1930s'. D) Looking for a job in a movie studio.
24. A) It's too broad to cope with. C) It's controversial.
B) It's a bit outdated. D) It's of little practical value.
25. A) At the end of the online catalogue.
B) At the Reference Desk.
C) In The New York Times .
D) In the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature .
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
注意：此部分试题请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A) Synthetic fuel. C) Alcohol.
B) Solar energy. D) Electricity.
27. A) Air traffic conditions. C) Road conditions.
B) Traffic jams on highways. D) New traffic rules.
28. A) Go through a health check. C) Arrive early for boarding.
B) Take little luggage with them. D) Undergo security checks.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) Beauty. C) Luck.
B) Loyalty. D) Durability.
30. A) He wanted to follow the tradition of his country.
B) He believed that it symbolized an everlasting marriage.
C) It was thought that a blood vessel in that finger led directly to the heart.
D) It was supposed that the diamond on that finger would bring good luck.
31. A) The two people can learn about each other's likes and dislikes.
B) The two people can have time to decide if they are a good match.
C) The two people can have time to shop for their new home.
D) The two people can earn enough money for their wedding.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) Because there are no signs to direct them.
B) Because no tour guides are available.
C) Because all the buildings in the city look alike.
D) Because the university is everywhere in the city.
33. A) They set their own exams. C) They award their own degrees.
B) They select their own students. D) They organize their own laboratory work.
34. A) Most of them have a long history.
B) Many of them are specialized libraries.
C) They house more books than any other university library.
D) They each have a copy of every book published in Britain.
35. A) Very few of them are engaged in research.
B) They were not awarded degrees until 1948.
C) They have outnumbered male students.
D) They were not treated equally until 1881.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
注意：此部分试题在 答题卡 2 上；请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once .
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
When Roberto Feliz came to the USA from the Dominican Republic, he knew only a few words of English. Education soon became a 47 . “I couldn't understand anything,” he said. He 48 from his teachers, came home in tears, and thought about dropping out.
Then Mrs. Malave, a bilingual educator, began to work with him while teaching him math and science in his 49 Spanish. “She helped me stay smart while teaching me English,” he said. Given the chance to demonstrate his ability, he 50 confidence and began to succeed in school.
Today, he is a 51 doctor, runs his own clinic, and works with several hospitals. Every day, he uses the language and academic skills he 52 through bilingual education to treat his patients.
Roberto's story is just one of 53 success stories. Research has shown that bilingual education is the most 54 way both to teach children English and ensure that they succeed academically. In Arizona and Texas, bilingual students 55 outperform their peers in monolingual programs. Calexico, Calif., implemented bilingual education, and now has dropout rates that are less than half the state average and college 56 rates of more than 90%. In El Paso, bilingual education programs have helped raise student scores from the lowest in Texas to among the highest in the nation.
注意：此部分试题请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
A) wonder I) hid
B) acquired J) prominent
C) consistently K) decent
D) regained L) countless
E) nightmare M) recalled
F) native N) breakthrough
G) acceptance O) automatically
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
“Tear 'em apart!” “Kill the fool!” “Murder the referee ( 裁判 )!”
These are common remarks one may hear at various sporting events. At the time they are made, they may seem innocent enough. But let's not kid ourselves. They have been known to influence behavior in such a way as to lead to real bloodshed. Volumes have been written about the way words affect us. It has been shown that words having certain connotations ( 含义 ) may cause us to react in ways quite foreign to what we consider to be our usual humanistic behavior. I see the term “opponent” as one of those words. Perhaps the time has come to delete it from sports terms.
The dictionary meaning of the term “opponent” is “adversary”; “enemy”; “one who opposes your interests.” Thus, when a player meets an opponent, he or she may tend to treat that opponent as an enemy. At such times, winning may dominate one's intellect, and every action, no matter how gross, may be considered justifiable. I recall an incident in a handball game when a referee refused a player's request for a time out for a glove change because he did not consider them wet enough. The player proceeded to rub his gloves across his wet T-shirt and then exclaimed, “Are they wet enough now?”
In the heat of battle, players have been observed to throw themselves across the court without considering the consequences that such a move might have on anyone in their way. I have also witnessed a player reacting to his opponent's intentional and illegal blocking by deliberately hitting him with the ball as hard as he could during the course of play. Off the court, they are good friends. Does that make any sense? It certainly gives proof of a court attitude which departs from normal behavior.
Therefore, I believe it is time we elevated ( 提升 ) the game to the level where it belongs, thereby setting an example to the rest of the sporting world. Replacing the term “opponent” with “associate” could be an ideal way to start.
The dictionary meaning of the term “associate” is “colleague”; “friend”; “companion.” Reflect a moment! You may soon see and possibly feel the difference in your reaction to the term “associate” rather than “opponent.”
注意：此部分试题请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
57. Which of the following statements best expresses the author's view?
A) The words people use can influence their behavior.
B) Unpleasant words in sports are often used by foreign athletes.
C) Aggressive behavior in sports can have serious consequences.
D) Unfair judgments by referees will lead to violence on the sports field.
58. Harsh words are spoken during games because the players ________.
A) are too eager to win
B) treat their rivals as enemies
C) are usually short-tempered and easily offended
D) cannot afford to be polite in fierce competitions
59. What did the handball player do when he was not allowed a time out to change his gloves?
A) He angrily hit the referee with a ball.
B) He refused to continue the game.
C) He claimed that the referee was unfair.
D) He wet his gloves by rubbing them across his T-shirt.
60. According to the passage, players in a game may ________.
A) kick the ball across the court with force
B) lie down on the ground as an act of protest
C) deliberately throw the ball at anyone illegally blocking their way
D) keep on screaming and shouting throughout the game
61. The author hopes to have the current situation in sports improved by ________.
A) regulating the relationship between players and referees
B) calling on players to use clean language on the court
C) raising the referees' sense of responsibility
D) changing the attitude of players on the sports field
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Is there enough oil beneath the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( 保护区 ) (ANWR) to help secure America's energy future? President Bush certainly thinks so. He has argued that tapping ANWR's oil would help ease California's electricity crisis and provide a major boost to the country's energy independence. But no one knows for sure how much crude oil lies buried beneath the frozen earth, with the last government survey, conducted in 1998, projecting output anywhere from 3 billion to 16 billion barrels.
The oil industry goes with the high end of the range, which could equal as much as 10% of U.S. consumption for as long as six years. By pumping more than 1 million barrels a day from the reserve for the next two to three decades, lobbyists claim, the nation could cut back on imports equivalent to all shipments to the U.S. from Saudi Arabia. Sounds good. An oil boom would also mean a multibillion-dollar windfall ( 意外之财 ) in tax revenues, royalties ( 开采权使用费 ) and leasing fees for Alaska and the Federal Government. Best of all, advocates of drilling say, damage to the environment would be insignificant. “We've never had a documented case of an oil rig chasing deer out onto the pack ice,” says Alaska State Representative Scott Ogan.
Not so fast, say environmentalists. Sticking to the low end of government estimates, the National Resources Defense Council says there may be no more than 3.2 billion barrels of economically recoverable oil in the coastal plain of ANWR, a drop in the bucket that would do virtually nothing to ease America's energy problems. And consumers would wait up to a decade to gain any benefits, because drilling could begin only after much bargaining over leases, environmental permits and regulatory review. As for ANWR's impact on the California power crisis, environmentalists point out that oil is responsible for only 1% of the Golden State's electricity output – and just 3% of the nation's.
注意：此部分试题请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
62. What does President Bush think of tapping oil in ANWR?
A) It will increase America's energy consumption.
B) It will exhaust the nation's oil reserves.
C) It will help reduce the nation's oil imports.
D) It will help secure the future of ANWR.
63. We learn from the second paragraph that the American oil industry ________.
A) shows little interest in tapping oil in ANWR
B) expects to stop oil imports from Saudi Arabia
C) tends to exaggerate America's reliance on foreign oil
D) believes that drilling for oil in ANWR will produce high yields
64. Those against oil drilling in ANWR argue that ________.
A) it will drain the oil reserves in the Alaskan region
B) it can do little to solve U.S. energy problems
C) it can cause serious damage to the environment
D) it will not have much commercial value
65. What do the environmentalists mean by saying “Not so fast” (Line 1, Para. 3)?
A) Don't be too optimistic.
B) Don't expect fast returns.
C) The oil drilling should be delayed.
D) Oil exploitation takes a long time.
66. It can be learned from the passage that oil exploitation beneath ANWR's frozen earth ________.
A) involves a lot of technological problems
B) remains a controversial issue
C) is expected to get under way soon
D) will enable the U.S. to be oil independent
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
注意：此部分试题请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
Wise buying is a positive way in which you can make your money go further. The 67 you go about purchasing an article or a
service can actually 68 you money or
can add 69 the cost.
Take the 70 example of a hairdryer.
If you are buying a hairdryer, you might 71
that you are making the 72 buy if you
choose one 73 look you like and which
is also the cheapest 74 price. But when
you get it home you may find that it 75
twice as long as a more expensive 76 to dry your hair. The cost of the electricity plus the cost of your time could well 77 your hairdryer the most expensive one of all.
So what principles should you 78 when you go out shopping?
If you 79 your home, your car or
any valuable 80 in excellent condition,
you'll be saving money in the long 81 .
Before you buy a new 82 , talk to someone who owns one. If you can, use it or borrow it to check it suits your particular 83 .
Before you buy an expensive 84 , or a
service, do check the price and 85 is on
offer. If possible, choose 86 three items or three estimates.
67. A) form C) way
B) fashion D) method
68. A) save C) raise
B) preserve D) retain
69. A) up C) in
B) to D) on
70. A) easy C) simple
B) single D) similar
71. A) convince C) examine
B) accept D) think
72. A) proper C) reasonable
B) best D) most
73. A) its C) whose
B) which D) what
74. A) for C) in
B) with D) on
75. A) spends C) lasts
B) takes D) consumes
76. A) mode C) sample
B) copy D) model
77. A) cause C) leave
B) make D) bring
78. A) adopt C) stick
B) lay D) adapt
79. A) reserve C) store
B) decorate D) keep
80. A) products C) material
B) possession D) ownership
81. A) run C) period
B) interval D) time
82. A) appliance C) utility
B) machinery D) facility
83. A) function C) target
B) purpose D) task
84. A) component C) item
B) element D) particle
85. A) what C) that
B) which D) this
86. A) of C) by
B) in D) from
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
注意：此部分试题在 答题卡 2 上；请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
答题卡 1 （ Answer Sheet 1 ）
答题卡 2 （ Answer Sheet 2 ）
略 注：因答题卡部分为 page-maker 文件，故请将样书上该部分的图像扫描后挂在网上，其中文字部分的内容可参见文件 answersheet 文字部分。