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四级真题详解
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2014年英语四级考试提分高招:作文段落分析
http://www.china-cet.com        来源:新东方        发布时间:2014-12-15 11:16:13
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         大学英语四级写作的布局要求三段式或四段式的写作模式,下面将分别从开头段落、中间主体段落和结尾段落三部分来讲解段落写作技巧。
  1) 开头段落
  首段要引人入胜,并帮助读者抓住要领,易于领会全文;开头方法有:
  a. 引用名人名言;如:
  As the proverb goes…;
  It goes without saying that…;
  There is no denying that…;
  As everyone knows….
  b. 数字统计;如:
  According to a recent survey, about 78. 9% of the college students wanted to further their study after their graduation;
  A recent study shows that …
  c. 描述现象现状;如:
  With the reform of Chinese higher education, more and more colleges and universities put emphasis on…;
  Nowadays, some famous universities have become a hot tourist attraction.
  d. 对立观点陈述; 如:
  Some people believe that …while others argue that…
  2) 主体段落
  主体段落由三部分组成,也就是主题句(topic sentence),推展句(supporting statement)和结论句(concluding statement)。
  主题句概括段落的主要内容,它不仅确定段落的主题,而且限制该主题在本段落详细讨论的范围。因此主题句是整个段落的纲领。
  推展句是对主题句的论证,解释和说明,是每段的主体部分。只有写好了推展句才能使文章言之有理,具有说服力。在文章写作中,推展句的多少,长短要适中。既要把思想内容表达清楚,叙述翔实,又要注意简明扼要,重点突出。句与句之间应脉络清晰,相辅相成。
  结论句是用来标志段落的结束,同时向读者提供记忆的要点。但并非所有的段落句都是总结句。
  主体段落的写作方法有举例论证段、对比比较段、因果分析段、利弊分析段等。
  a. 举例论证段落。
  通过举出典型事例来解释作者观点,且事例可多可少。例如:
  There are cases in which people have to trade goods for the things they need. For example, a person who needs something badly and happens to be penniless, what should he do? A good solution for him is to trade the goods he has for the things he needs. For another example, a person needs something and its owner is reluctant to sell it unless he gets the thing he wants. In such case, the person has to trade goods for what he needs.
  举例论证中常用的连接词有for example (instance), such as, take…for example, besides, furthermore, moreover, what is more, in addition等。
  举例论证中常用的句型有:
  A good case in point is . . .
  As an illustration, we may take . . .
  Such examples might be given easily.
  . . . is often cited as an example.
  b. 对比法或比较段。
  将同类事物按照某种特定的规则进行比较分析,通过对比更容易阐述所述对象之间的异同和优缺点。例如:
  The heart of an electronic computer lies in its vacuum tubes or transistors. Its electronic circuits work thousand times faster than the nicer cells in the human brain. A problem that might take a human being a long time to solve can be solved by a computer in one minute.
  常用于比较或对比的连接过渡词有…more than, compared with, in contrast with, as…as, be similar to, similarly, the same as, just like, just as 等。
  常用于比较或对比的句型有:
  The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.
  The advantages of A are much greater than those of B.
  A may be preferable to B, but A suffers from the disadvantages that. . .
  It is reasonable to maintain that . . . but it would be foolish to claim that. . .
  For all the disadvantages, it has its compensating advantages.
  Like anything else, it has its faults.
  A and B has several things in common.
  A bears some striking likenesses to B.
  However, the same is not applicable to B.
  A is different from B in several ways.
  Evidently, it has both negative and positive effects.
  People used to think . . . , but things are different now.
  The same is true of B.
  Wonderful as A is, it has its drawbacks.
  It is true that A . . . , but the chief faults (obvious defects) are . . .
  Indeed, A carries much weight when compared with B.
  c. 因果分析段。主体句提出现象或论点,推展句分析原因。例如:
  Why do they want odd jobs -- jobs usually requiring little skill and knowledge? The primary reason, I think, is money. Feeling the financial pressure as books, movies and bus fares have all gone up in price, there is scarcely a young boy or girl who does not want to earn a little money to help cover the increasingly higher college costs, and at best save enough to go traveling or buy things they have long desired. In this way they hope to be economically independent and avoid the indignity of having to ask for money again and again. Besides they want to gain some experience in the ways of society
  常用于因果分析法的连接词有because, so, as a result, consequently,one reason, First, secondly, third, for one thing, for another thing等。
  常用于说明原因的句型有:
  A number of factors are accountable for this situation. /A number of factors might contribute to (lead to ),(account for ) the phenomenon (problem).
  The answer to this problem involves many factors.
  The phenomenon mainly stems from the fact that. . .
  The factors that contribute to this situation include. . .
  The change in . . . largely results from the fact that. . .
  We may blame . . . , but the real causes are. . .
  Part of the explanations for it is that . . .
  One of the most common factors (causes ) is that . . .  / Another contributing factor (cause ) is . . .   /Perhaps the primary factor is that …   But the fundamental cause is that . . .
  The answer to this problem involves many factors. For one thing. . . For another. . . . . . Still another . . .
  常用于说明结果的句型有:
  It may give rise to a host of problems.
  The immediate result it produces is . . .
  It will exercise a profound influence upon. . .
  Its consequence can be so great that. . .
  It will produce a profound/far-reaching effect/impact on. . . .
  It involves some serious consequence for. . . . . . . .
  Obviously, if we ignore/are blind to the problem, there is every chance that … will be put in danger.
  It will result in…
  d. 利弊分析段。论述一个事物或现象的正反两面或利弊。例如:
  Some people think that television keeps one better informed about current events, allows one to follow the latest developments in politics and science, and offers an endless series of programs which are both instructive and stimulating. However, other people insist that television is a curse rather than a blessing. They argue that it has brought about many serious problems. The major one is its effects on young people. They are now so used to getting their information, education and entertainment from television that their literacy as well as physical ability has been greatly weakened.
  表示好处的常用句型有:
  It has the following advantages.
  It does us a lot of good.
  It benefits us quite a lot.
  It is beneficial to us.
  It is of great benefit to us.
  表示坏处的常用句型有:
  It has more disadvantages than advantages.
  It does us much harm.
  It is harmful to us.
  此外还有意义阐释段(概念,图表)、分类段和现象描述段等,写作方式与上文中所述方式。
  3)结尾段。
  结尾段与首段一样重要,根据内容和写作意图设计各种各样的结尾,可以是归纳结论、表达自己观点态度、预测趋势和建议措施等。例如:
  Obviously, we can draw the conclusion that …
  Thus, it can be concluded that…
  Therefore, we can find that…
  It is high time that …
  Accordingly, I recommend that some measures be taken.
  From my point of view, …
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