Topic : As most people spend a major part of adult Life at the place of work, job satisfaction is an important part of individual well-being. What are the factors that contribute to job satisfaction? Are all the expectations for job satisfaction realistic?
• 工作稳定(job security),基本收人(basic pay), 和工作相关的回报(job-related benefits);
• 好的工作环境和条件(working conditions)，工作节奏比较适当(able to cope with work pace);
• 好的同事、同伴还有上司(good rapport with coworkers, peers and superiors);
• 职业发展的机会(career development),比如接受训练和指引(receive training and counselling)，
提高能力的机会(development of capabilities),还有能够发挥全部潜能的机会(attainment of
• 获得别人的认同(receive recognition)，进行革新和创造的机会(given the opportunities for innovation and creativity),成功的感觉(experience a feeling of success)。—般来说，一个人对工作的期待随着自己的经历改变而改变(Expectations varied as their experience changed.),除此之外，还有年龄、家庭、学识(educational background)和社会环境 (social settings)等其他因素。
Job satisfaction refers to the degree of pleasure employees can feel when working. It is of broad interest to employers because of its potential impact on productivity and morale of employees. Of those factors that contribute to job satisfaction, some are intrinsic while others are extrinsic. Both will be introduced below. In the latter part of the essay is a discussion concerning whether one's expectations for job satisfaction are always appropriate.
Most of the factors that have influence on job satisfaction are extrinsic. One is employees, material needs. It is understandable that income, housing, paid holiday, bonus and other job benefits are the main elements an employee will normally look into when evaluating whether a job is desirable or not. Another source of satisfaction is job satisfaction, An employee is delighted if continued employment is accessible, that is, staying on a job for some considerable lime. Besides these basic needs, people crave for a positive self-image and to have their contribution valued and appreciated. That's why promotion is very often manipulated to improve employees' job satisfaction, sending a message to employees that their commitment has been recognized.
Along with extrinsic factors, intrinsic factors are important. Individual personality plays a large part in many cases. It is believed that the employees with a positive outlook on life and full of optimism are more likely to achieve higher job satisfaction irrespective of the job or workplace they are in. When optimism allows individuals to function well in the fact of adversity and prevents them from becoming depressed, pessimism makes them less likely to complete tasks and meet objectives successfully, thereby undermining job satisfaction.
Given the constantly changing nature of today's business environment, a job can hardly live up to the expectations of job holders. Weak economies, rapidly changing technology and likelihood of downsizing are combining to account for why the length of tenure is shortened nowadays and few people now expect to stay on the same job throughout their working lives. Rewards are able to raise motivation and increase satisfaction of employees, but not available for every individual that wants them. There is no guarantee that every good performer will be awarded all the time. Law of the jungle applies here: only the strongest competitors will win access to the majority of the resource.
As suggested above, job satisfaction is attributed to different factors, both extrinsic and intrinsic. The complexity of today's work environment has made it less likely for people to get whatever they desire from a job.
1. morale=drive=spirits=positive fee1ings=confidence:信心，士气，自尊(常指企业的员工)
2. intrinsic=inherent=basic=natural=native ：内在的，自然产生的
4. outlook=what is expected to happen in the future=prospect:前景
5. irrespective of=regardIess of:不管
6. adversity=hardship=difficulty=harsh conditions=hard times:逆境，恶劣的环境
8. law of the jungle:弱肉强食，森林原则