“With the increase in the number of such advertisements, however, each advertiser within a certain group is competing with others in the same group for the reader’s attention”，故选项D正确。 Psychologists take opposing views of how external rewards, from warm praise to old cash, affect motivation and creativity. Behaviorists, who study the relation between actions and, argue that rewards can improve performance at work and school. Some other researchers who study various aspects of mental life, maintain those rewards often destroy creativity by encouraging dependence on approval and gifts from others.
The latter view has gained many supporters, especially among educators. But the careful use of small monetary rewards sparks in grade-school children suggesting that properly presented inducements indeed aid inventiveness, according to a study in the June Journal Personality and Social Psychology.
“If they know they're working for a reward and can focus on a relatively challenging task, they show the most creativity,” says Robert Esenberger of the University of Delaware in Newark. “But it's easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards.”
A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Esenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore falling grades.
In earlier grades, the use of so-called token economics, in which students handle challenging problems and receive performance-based points toward valued rewards, shows promise in raising effort and creativity, the Delaware psychologist claims.
1. Psychologists are divided with regard to their attitudes toward ____.
A) the choice between spiritual encouragement and monetary rewards
B) the appropriate amount of external rewards
C) the study of relationship between actions and
D) the effects of external rewards on students' performance
2. What is the view held by many educators concerning external rewards for students?
A) They approve of external rewards.
B) They don't think external rewards.
C) They have doubts about external rewards.
D) They believe external rewards can motivate small children, but not college students.
3. According to the result of the study mentioned in the passage, what should educators do to stimulate motivation and creativity?
A) Give rewards for performances which deserve them.
B) Always promise rewards.
C) Assign tasks which are not very challenging.
D) Be more lenient to students when mistakes are made.
4. It can be inferred from the passage that major universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe ____.
A) rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students’
B) punishment is more effective than rewarding
C) failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards
D) discouraging the students anticipation for easy rewards is matter of urgency
5.Which of the following facts about “token economics” is not correct?
A) Students are assigned challenging tasks.
B) Rewards are given for good performances.
C) Students are evaluated according to the effort they put into the task.
D) With token economics, students’ creativity can be enhanced.
心理学家认为外界的奖励对学生会有不同的影响。事实辨析题。根据文章第一句话“Psychologists take opposing views of how external re wards, from warm praise to old cash, affect motivation and creativity”可知，心理学家的分歧在于来自外界的奖励对学生的积极性和创造性究竟有什么影响，故选项D正确.
从文中可以得知，一些重点大学试图加强等级标准，因为他们相信惩罚比奖励更有效。事实辨析题。从文中第四段可知，许多大学之所以严格考试的评分标准，是因为“A teacher ... who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students”。选项B 与此意相同。