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12月英语四级改革模拟题:长篇阅读测试(2)
http://www.china-cet.com        来源:考试大        发布时间:2013-12-02 10:22:48
2天记住4000单词的秘密... 点击进入!!
    

     大学英语四级改革后新增的长篇阅读题型,是段落信息匹配题。篇章后附有10个句子,每句一题。每句所含的信息出自篇章的某一段落,要求考生找出与每句所含信息相匹配的段落。有的段落可能对应两题,有的段落可能不对应任何一题。下面为同学们整理了2013年12月英语四级改革模拟题:长篇阅读测试,一起来看一下。

Hate Your Job? Here’s How to Reshape It

  A) Once upon a time, if you hated your job, you either quit or bit your lip. These days, a group of researchers is trumpeting a third option: shape your job so ifs more fruitful than futile. 
  B) "We often get trapped into thinking about our job as a list of things to do and a list of responsibilities," says Amy Wrzesniewski, an associate professor at the Yale School of Management. "But what if you set aside that mind-set?" If you could adjust what you do, she says, "who would you start talking to, what other tasks would you take on, and who would you work with?" 
  C) To make livelihoods more lively, Wrzesniewski and her colleagues Jane Dutton and Justin Berg have developed a methodology they call job-crafting. They’re working with Fortune 500 companies, smaller firms and business schools to change the way Americans think about work. The idea is to make all jobs--even mundane (平凡的) ones---more meaningful by empowering employees to brainstorm and implement subtle but significant workplace adjustments. 
  Step 1: Rethink Your Job--Creatively 
  D) "The default some people wake up to is dragging themselves to work and facing a list of things they have to do," says Wrzesniewski. So in the job-crafting process, the first step is to think about your job holistically. You first analyze how much time, energy and attention you devote to your various tasks. Then you reflect on that allocation( 分配). See I0 perfect jobs for the recession--and after. 
  E) Take, for example, a maintenance technician at Burt’s Bees, which makes personal-care products. He was interested in process engineering, though that wasn’t part of his job description. To alter the scope of his day-to-day activities, the technician asked a supervisor if he could spend some time studying an idea he had for making the firm’s manufacturing procedures more energy-efficient. His ideas proved helpful, and now process engineering is part of the scope of his work. 
  F) Barbara Fredrickson, author of Positivity and a professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, says it’s crucial for people to pay attention to their workday emotions. "Doing so," she says, "will help you discover which aspects of your work are most life-giving-and most life-draining." 
  G) Many of us get stuck in ruts (惯例 ). Berg, a Ph.D. student at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania who helped develop the job-crafting methodology, says we all benefit from periodically rethinking what we do. "Even in the most constraining jobs, people have a certain amount of wiggle room," he says. "Small changes can have a real impact on life at work." 
  Step 2: Diagram Your Day 
  H) To lay the groundwork for change, job-crafting participants assemble diagrams detailing their workday activities. The first objective is to develop new insights about what you actually do at work. Then you can dream up fresh ways to integrate what the job-crafting exercise calls your "strengths, motives and passions" into your daily routine. You convert task lists into flexible building blocks. The end result is an "after" diagram that can serve as a map for specific changes. 
  I) lna Lockau-Vogel, a management consultant who participated in a recent job-crafting workshop, says the exercise helped her adjust her priorities. "Before, 1 would spend so much time reacting to requests and focusing on urgent tasks that I never had time to address the real important issues." As part of the job-crafting process, she decided on a strategy for delegating and outsourcing (外包) more of her administrative responsibilities. 
  J) In contrast to business books that counsel, managers to influence workers through incentives, job-crafting focuses on what employees themselves can do to re-envision and adjust what they do every day. Given that according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, it now takes the average job seeker more than six months to find a new position, it’s crucial to make the most of the job you’ve got. 
  Step 3: Identify Job Loves and Hates 
  K) By reorienting (使适应 ) how you think about your job, you free yourself up for new ideas about how to restructure your workday time and energy. Take an IT worker who hates dealing with technologically incompetent callers. He might enjoy teaching more than customer service. By spending more time instructing colleagues--and treating help-line callers as curious students of tech--the disgruntled IT person can make the most of his 9-to-5 position. 
  L) Dutton, a professor at the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business, says she has seen local auto-industry workers benefit from the job-crafting process. "They come in looking worn down, but after spending two hours on this exercise, they come away thinking about three or four things they can do differently." 
  M) "They start to recognize they have more control over their work than they realized," says Dutton, who parmered with Wrzesniewski on the original job-crafting research. 
   Step 4: Put Your Ideas into Action 
  N) To conclude the job-crafting process, participants list specific follow-up steps: Many plan a one-0n-one meeting with a supervisor to propose new project ideas. Others connect with colleagues to talk about trading certain tasks. Berg says as long as their goals are met, many managers are happy to let employees adjust how they work. 
  O) Job-crafting isn’t about revenue, per se, but juicing up ( 活跃 ) employee engagement may end up beefing up the bottom line. Amid salary, job and benefit cuts, more and more workers are disgruntled. Surveys show that more than 50% aren’t happy with what they do. Dutton, Berg and Wrzesniewski argue that emphasizing enjoyment can boost efficiency by lowering turnover rates and jacking up productivity. Job-crafting won’t rid you of a lousy boss or a subpar salary, but it does offer some remedies for job dissatisfaction. If you can’t ditch or switch a job, at least make it more likable.

  1. A long time ago when a person hated his/her job, he/she will resign or bear it.

  2. Amy Wrzesniewski think job could be adjusted.

  3. Your first thing to do in the job-crafting process is to think about your job wholly .

  4. The idea of a maintenance technician at Burt’s Bees turned out to be helpful and energy-efficient.

  5. Berg’s suggestion about work is to rethink and make small changes.

  6. According to Ina Lockau-Vogel, the benefit from job-crafting is that it helps her set priorities properly.

  7. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the situation in job market is ---it is difficult to find a job.

  8. Dutton has seen that local auto-industry workers profit from the job-crafting process.

  9. According to Berg, if the job-crafting process is successful, the supervisors are willing to let employees adjust what to do. 
  
  10. If you can’t quit your job, using job-crafting may at least offer some remedies for job dissatisfaction.

  文章精要 
  日常生活中,人们往往认为工作是一些不得不做的任务、不得不承担的责任。以前,当人们讨厌他们的工作时,通常会辞职或掩饰不满。而耶鲁大学管理学院的副教授Amy Wrzesniewski及其同事却提出了一个新的理念:雕琢工作(job—crafting)。文章通过举例子,讲述了如何运用这种方法来改变人们对工作的看法,使工作更讨人喜欢。

  1. A
  根据题干信息词hated和job定位到文章首句:从前,如果你讨厌你的工作,要么辞职,要么掩饰自己的不满,bite one’s lip意为“努力掩饰某人的怒火或不满”。
  2. B
  根据题于信息词Amy Wrzesniewski和job定位到文章第二段,即:我们经常会陷入这种思维定势,认为我们的工作就是一系列要做的事情和一系列责任,但是,如果你换一种心态呢?如果做些什么可以调整这种心态呢?也就是说Amy Wrzesniewski认为工作是可以调整的,故选段落B。
  3. D
  A根据题于信息词first和in the job-crafting process定位到第一个小标题下的首段第二句:在job-crafting的过程中,首先就是要整体考虑你的工作,故选段落D。holistically意为“整体地,全盘地”。原文的意思是先整体考虑,然后是具体分析时间、能量、注意力如何分配到不同的任务中。
  4. E
  根据题干信息词At Burt’s Bees和maintenance technician定位到第一个小标题下的第二段:在Burt’s Bees的一个技术人员,对程序工程感兴趣,虽然这不属于他的职责范畴,但为了改变他日常工作的范围,他争取到一些时间研究出一个点子使公司的生产过程更节能,最后,他成功了。
  5. G
  根据题干信息词Berg定位到第一个小标题下最后一段。Berg说道:阶段性的反思会让我们受益,即便是最受限制的工作也有改动的余地,一些小改变对工作状态会有实实在在的影响。故本题选段落G。
  6. I
  根据题干信息词job-crafting和Ina Lockau—Vogel定位到文章第二个小标题下的第二段:Ina提到,她参加了一个job—crafting研讨会,在那的训练帮助她调整事情的优先级别,priority意为“优先,优先权”,故选段落I。
  7. J
  根据题干信息词the Bureau of Labor Statistics定位到文章第二个标题下的第三段末句:根据劳动统计局的数据,现在找一个新工作平均需要6个月,最大限度去做好你现在的工作是至关重要的,由此可知本题选段落J。
  8. L
  根据题干信息词Dutton和local auto-industry workers定位到文章第三个小标题下的第二段:Dutton说她已经看到当地汽车行业的工作者受益于job—crafting的过程。
  9. N
  根据题干信息词the job—crafting process和employees定位到文章第四个小标题下的第一段末句:Berg说,一旦他们的目标实现,许多管理者都乐意让他们的员工安排他们怎样工作,题干中的be willing to意为“愿意,乐意”,与be happy to同义。
  10. O
  根据题于信息词quit,at least和for job dissatisfaction定位到文章末段最后两句:job-crafting不会使你摆脱糟糕的老板或低廉的薪水,但是它可以为你对工作的不满提供补救。如果你不能丢弃或换掉工作,至少可以让工作更讨人喜欢,由此选段落O。

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