Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Growing numbers of bright students face missing out on their first choice university, academics warned today, as figures showed three-quarters of institutions are being forced to reduce places.
Almost 100 out of 130 universities in England could be forced to take fewer 26__________ this year, following the introduction of Coalition reforms designed to drive down 27__________ fees.
Many members of the elite Russell Group are among those facing 28__________ , with Liverpool, Leeds, Manchester, Newcastle and Southampton being particularly 29__________ .
Data from the Government’s Higher Education Funding Council for England suggests some newer universities such as Bedfordshire and East London are expecting to lose around one-in-eight places.
The cuts are being 30__________ following the introduction of new rules that effectively 31__________ universities charging more than ?7,500 in student fees from this autumn.
It means large numbers of places are being 32__________ towards cheap further education colleges.
Ministers are also lifting controls on the number of bright students gaining at least two A grades and a B at A-level that universities can recruit— 33__________an inevitable scramble towards a small number of top institutions.
The funding council’s chief executive denied the loss of student places would tip any institution into significant financial trouble.
But Prof Michael Farthing, vice-chancellor of Sussex University and chairman of the 1994 Group, which represents many small research institutions, said the figures show that many excellent students will be denied places at their first choice universities.
“The number of students universities are allowed to recruit has been cut across the sector, with 20,000 places 34__________ to institutions with lower than average fees, ” he said.
“Far from giving the best universities freedom to 35__________ more students, this represents a push to a cut-price education.”
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Section B (原快速阅读理解调整为长篇阅读理解，篇章长度和难度不变。篇章后附有10个句子，每句一题。每句所含的信息出自篇章的某一段落，要求考生找出与每句所含信息相匹配的段落。)
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.
You may choose a paragraph more marking the corresponding letter on than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by Answer Sheet 2.
Why Are Airlines Withholding Seats?
Behind the screen indeed
[D] An awful plot goes on behind airline and travel booking screens, and much of it is strictly off-limits to consumers. What we do know is that for decades now airlines have become masters of what the industry calls yield management, offering millions of combinations of fares based on advance purchase patterns and other booking trends, so nearly everyone pays a different price based on when they buy. But now that paying extra for your seat selection has become common practice, securing your reservation is just half the battle.
[E] Some industry experts have connected the dots. “They’re trying to get people to buy premium seats,” says George Hobica, USATODAY.com’s Fly Guy columnist and the founder of Airfarewatchdog.com. “They want to increase revenue. And we’re getting more complaints about it. ” He notes that it “really annoys” passengers who want to sit together, particularly when traveling with small children.
[F] He’s echoed by Kevin Mitchell, chairman of the Business Travel Coalition(联盟):“With yield management, consumers are aware and they know that airlines are constantly changing prices on seats. But if this is true, it is unethical—they’re grossly misleading us. The thing that I find so offensive is conveying to me that I have no options, but if I wait a week or two then I do have options. ”
[G ] According to the airlines, the reason for ancillary (附力口 的)revenue is unbundling (分类计价)ticket prices, so passengers who desire a given service—say checking a bag or ordering a soft drink—pay for it, while those who don’t are spared the cost. But as Mitchell notes, “There’s another twist to this. The airlines are saying fees are for ‘optional services.’ Well, seats aren’t optional!”
[H ] Of course, securing a good seat isn’t an issue if you’re in first class or you’re an elite member of a frequent flyer program. But what about the rest of us? As I’ve pointed out repeatedly in recent columns, we’re faced with record-high load factors, the highest for the U.S. airline industry since World War II. But even with the average percentage of occupied seats for domestic flights at 82.7%, it’s still an average—some flights will be fuller but others will not, particularly weeks in advance. Yet searching for seats keeps getting harder and harder.
Seats for sale
[I ] Hobica cites the major airlines as the prime culprits (起因)，but he also notes even low-cost carriers can make securing seats difficult. On the flip side, he credits JetBlue and Virgin America for providing customers with clear policies. And then there is British Airways, which allows passengers in economy and business classes to
select seats only 24 hours in advance. I asked an airline representative if seeing fewer free seats is a trend, and the response was: “That’s going to vary because there are so many variables. ”
[J] I decided to check on seat availability at Delta.com. I inquired about economy-class availability for two seats on a busy route—Atlanta to Chicago—and conducted an apples-to-apples search for the same morning departure seven days in advance, and again 14 days in advance. For the flight one week out, a total of only eight seats were available, one preferred and seven standard, but only one set of two seats together. For the flight two weeks out, a total of 29 seats were available, consisting of 20 preferred and only nine standard, and still with only one set together. Remarkable how even twice the booking time still produced so few “free” seats, separately or together, yet there were plenty of seats that could be bought for the right price.
[K] I contacted Delta and a spokesman said the price for preferred economy varies “depending on a number of different factors,” so customers need to compare the costs on a flight-by-flight basis. The preferred seats are reserved primarily for Medallion (大勋章)members, and become available without additional charge 24 hours prior to departure. When asked if Delta has received complaints about a dearth of free seats, he stated, “Overall, our seat program has been received very well. ”
[L] But my findings dovetailed (吻合)with recent complaints filed with Airfarewatchdog: (1) When (my husband) tried to get a seat assignment on the first flight there was just one “complimentary (免费的)seat” (near the back in the middle) available... the other available seats had to be purchased for $69. On the connecting flight there were no “complimentary seats” at all! Is this legal? He bought and paid for a ticket on these flights and now he is supposed to “buy” a seat! (2) (After) paying for the flight, a message popped up and said that I could only get a seat assignment when I checked in. In order to get a confirmed seat, I had to pay $129 extra! Unless I pay, without a confirmed seat, I am the first one to be bumped from the flight if they are overbooked. How do they get away with this? (3) Does checking in online at the 24-hour mark before the flight give me a number in line or let me select seats then? Or do we all rush the gate with our boarding passes (and no seat assignment) in order to get the seat assignment?
How to respond?
[M] So what can you do? It’s a tough proposition. Usually I would offer strategies for countering such airline initiatives, but in this case the options are limited. That’s why some believe the U.S. Department of Transportation should investigate these practices. As Mitchell says, “The airlines are holding all the cards with this one. There is a sore need for transparency on this. When people are confused, they make bad decisions. ”
[N] That said, consider the following: (1) When budgeting your airfares, make sure you consider not just baggage fees but the added cost of seat selection—for all travelers and in both directions. (2) If possible, book early, when there should be more seats available, and check in early too. Why the qualifier “should”? Because if availability is artificially manipulated, it’s hard to be certain. (3) Book airlines that offer more transparent seat- selection policies. Of course, this is not an issue with Southwest and other carriers that offer “open seating” policies. (4) Finally, the last resort is what Hobica calls “horse trading”: negotiating seat swaps with other passengers. But this has become a risky and undesirable option with flights so full, overhead bins (行李仓)so crammed and fellow passengers who may have paid for premium seats in advance.
46. Behind the airline and travel booking screens, a terrible plot is being carried out, much of which is rigorously kept confidential from passengers.
47. The airlines’ excuse for additional fees is unbundling ticket prices, so those who want the given service like baggage check and soft drink ordering will have to pay.
48. Whether some carriers withhold seats on purpose for earning consumers，premium is a question deserving to be cleared up.
49. Mitchell holds that there is an urgent need for transparency on carriers# seat assignments.
50. While Hobica ascribes the main responsibilities to the major airlines, he also mentions that the low-cost carriers are making securing seats difficult.
51. Some believe that, in order to solve the problem of airlines，withholding seats, some actions should be taken by the U.S. Department of Transportation.
52. When people budget their airfares, they should consider both the baggage fees and the added cost of seat selection.
53. Kevin Mitchell considers the so-called yield management of the industry unethical and misleading.
54. What the spokesman of Delta says suggests that the preferred economy-class tickets are available 24 hours in advance of the plane’s departure.
55. The last strategy to counter the airline’s initiatives is to exchange seats with other passengers by negotiating with them.
PartⅣ Translation (30 minutes)(原单句汉译英调整为段落汉译英。翻译内容涉及中国的历史、文化、经济、社会发展等。四级长度为140-160个汉字;六级长度为180-200个汉字。)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
中欧经济贸易合作取得了可喜的成果。欧盟巳经成为中国的重要经贸伙伴，是中国最大的技术供应方、 第三大贸易伙伴和第五大实际投资方。2001年，中欧贸易达到766亿美元，比上一年增长11%，尤其是中国从 欧盟的进口增长了 15.8%。我非常赞赏欧中贸协(Europe-China Business Association)与比中经贸理事会 (Belgium-Chinese Economic and Commercial Council)为发展中欧关系所做出的努力。中欧经济贸易合作具有广 阔的前景。中欧经济具有很强的互补性，在贸易、投资、科技等领域具有很大的合作潜力。
Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension
26. undergraduates 大学本科生
27. tuition 学费
28. reductions 缩减，降低
33. leading to 导致
34. auctioned off 被拍卖掉
35. take on 录用
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
46. [D]。题干意为，在航空公司和旅行社的订票系统中，一项可怕的阴谋正在实施，而其中的隐情则严格对 乘客保密。注意抓住题干中的关键词 airline and travel booking screens, a terrible plot, rigorously和confidential。 文章段落中，论及航空公司和旅行社订票阴谋的内容在[D]段出现，该段第一句就提到订票系统幕后的情 况很可怕，消费者大多毫不知情。由此可见，题干对原文做了同义改写，故答案为[D]。题干中的aterribleplot和 is rigorously kept confidential for分别与原文中的an awful plot和is strictly off-limits to相对应。?
47. [G]。题干意为，航空公司把实行机票分类计价作为额外收费的借口，所以那些想要诸如检查行李或点软 饮料等特定服务的乘客就必须承担相应费用。注意抓住题干中的关键词unbundling ticket prices和the given service。原文段落中，论及机票分类计价和要求特定服务的内容在[G]段出现，该段第一句就提到航空公 司称，之所以收取附加费是实行机票分类计价的缘故，这样一来，如果乘客想要某种特定的服务——比 如，托运包裹或者点一杯软饮料——就要为此付费，而那些不需要此类服务的乘客则无需付费。由此可 见，题干是对原文的同义改写，故答案为[G]。
48. [C]。题干意为，部分运营商是否故意保留座位以赚取消费者附加费这个问题值得弄清楚。注意抓住题干 中的关键词carriers, premium和question。原文段落中，论及运营商们是否故意收取附加费的问题在[C]段出 现，该段中作者提到，这是一个值得研究的问题，而且其情况到底如何也很引人关注，实际上就是在说这 个问题值得弄清楚。由此可见，题干是对原文的同义改写，故答案为[C]。题干中的withhold和on purpose分 别对应原文中的 holding back和intentionally。
49. [M]。题干意为，米切尔认为运营商们在分配座位这一问题上亟须公开、透明。注意抓住题干中的关键词 Mitchell, need和transparency。原文段落中，提到Mitchell且论及分配座位透明度的内容在[M]段出现，该段 第五句引用Mitchell的原话，指出这一问题亟待公开、透明。由此可见，题干是对原文的同义改写，故答案 为[M]。题干中的urgent need对应原文中的sore need，carriers! seat assignment代指原文中的this。
50. [I]。题干意为，尽管霍比卡把主要责任归咎于各大航空公司，他也提到，低成本的运营商们同样使得座位 的获得变得困难。注意抓住题干中的关键词Hobica, the main responsibilities，the major airlines和the low-cost carriers。原文段落中，提及Hobica和低成本的运营商使获得座位变得困难的内容在[I]段出现，该段第一句 话提到，霍比卡认为各大航空公司是造成这种状况的罪魁祸首，低成本的运营商也起到了推波助澜的作 用。由此可见，题干是对原文的同义改写，故答案为[I]。题干中的ascribes...to...和main responsibilities分别 对应原文中的cites…as…和prime culprits。
51. [M]题干意为，一些人认为，为了解决航空公司保留座位的问题，美国交通运输部应该采取一些措施。注 意抓住题干中的关键词the U.S. Department of Transportation。文章段落中，论及美国交通运输部的内容在 [M]段出现，该段第三、四句话提到，通常作者会就如何应对航空公司的这类政策给出一些策略，但是在 这种情况下，可选择的策略非常有限。这就是为什么一些人认为美国交通运输部应该对此类做法进行调查 的原因。由此可见，人们认为交通运输部应该有所行动，故答案为[M]。
52. [N]。题干意为，人们在为买机票制定预算的时候，应该把行李的费用和附加的选择座位的费用都考虑在 内。注意抓住题干中的关键词budget, airfares, baggage fees和the added cost of seat selection。文章段落中，论 及制定机票预算的内容在[N]段出现，该段第(1)点提到，预算票价的时候，确保自己不仅将行李费用考 虑在内，还要考虑为选择座位而支付的额外费用。由此可见，题干对原文进行了同义改写，故答案为[N]。
53. [F]。题干意为，凯文?米切尔认为所谓的收益管理是不道德且具有误导性的。注意抓住题干中的关键词 Kevin Mitchell, yield management, unethical和misleading。文章段落中，提到Kevin Mitchell和航空业收益管 理的内容在[F]段出现，该段引用米切尔的原话中提到，对于收益管理，消费者心里有数，他们知道航空公司经常改变座位的价格。但是如果情况果真如此的话，航空公司的做法确实是不道德的 他们在严重地误导人们。由此可见，题干是对原文的同义转述，故答案为[F]。
54. [K]。题干意为，达美航空公司发言人的话表明，经济舱优等座在飞机起飞前24小时内可获得。注意题干中 的关键词 the spokesman of Delta, the preferred economy-class tickets, available和the plane’s departure。文章段 落中，论及达美航空公司发言人的内容在[K]段出现，该段第二句提到，优等座主要是为奖章成员预留的， 在飞机起飞前24小时内无需支付额外费用就可获得。由此可见，题干是对原文的同义转述，故答案为[K]。
55. [N]题干意为，应对航空公司这类行为的最后策略是和其他乘客商量调换座位。注意题干中的关键词the last strategy, exchange seats和negotiating。文章段落中，论及与其他乘客商量调换座位的内容在[N]段出现， 该段第(4)点提到，最后一个应对策略，即霍比卡所说的“讨价还价”，是和其他乘客商量一下调换座位。由此可见，题干是对原文的同义改写，故答案为 [N]。题干中的the last strategy和exchange seats with other passengers by negotiating with them 分另']对应原文中的 the last resort 和 negotiating seat swaps with other passengers。
Part Ⅳ Translation
China-EU economic and trade cooperation has yielded heartening fruits. The EU has now become an important economic and trade partner of China, working as the largest technology supplier, the third largest trading partner and the fifth largest actual investor in China. Bilateral trade reached 76.6 billion dollars in 2001, achieving an 11% increase compared to the previous year. In particular, China’s imports from the EU grew by 15.8%. I highly appreciate the efforts by the Europe-China Business Association and the Belgium-Chinese Economic and Commercial Council for developing China-EU ties. China-EU trade and economic cooperation is endowed with a promising future. The two economies are strongly complimentary to each other and hence enjoy huge potential for cooperation in trade, investment, science and technology areas.
1.中欧经济贸易合作取得了可喜的成果：EU=European Union，表示欧盟;“取得了”可译为has got，但稍显生硬，yield fruit意为“结果，取得成果”，用在此处更为恰当;“可喜的”可译为heartening，还可译为^ promising。
2.第三大贸易伙伴和第五大实际投资方：“最大”用thelargest来表示，“第几大”则可译为the+序数词+largest，因此此处“第三大”译为 thethirdlargest; “第五大”译为the fi他largest。“贸易伙伴”译为tradingpartner; “实际投资方”译为actual investor。
3. 766亿美元：应译为76.6 billion dollars。billion意为“10亿”，而不是“1 亿”。
4.增长了15.8%:可译为grew by 15.8%,还可译为increased by 15.8%。increase的反义词为decrease，二者用 法相同，后接具体的百分比时，要与介词by连用。
5.发展中欧关系：“关系”还可译为relationship，但tie表示的“关系”比relationship的情感色彩更强烈一些， ; 意为“紧密关系”，此处原文中虽没有提及“紧密”，但很显然是要发展中欧的紧密关系，故译成tie更贴合文意。
6.具有很强的互补性：可译为are strongly complimentary to each other, complimentary意为“互补的”。