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洛基英语
精英培训
四级真题详解
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中国四六级考试网 >> 历年真题
2012年12月英语四级考试真题
http://www.china-cet.com        来源:中国四六级考试网        发布时间:2013-08-21 16:32:51
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201212月大学英语四级考试真题及答案详解

 

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Education PaysYou should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

 

  Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)

  Why Integrity Matters

  What is Integrity?

  "Integrity" is defined as "adherence to moral and ethical principles; honesty." The key to integrity is consistency--not only setting high personal standards for oneself (honesty, responsibility, respect for others, fairness) but also living up to those standards each day. One who has integrity is bound by and follows moral and ethical standards even when making life's hard choices, choices which may be clouded by stress, pressure to succeed, or temptation.

  What happens if we lie, cheat, steal, or violate other ethical standards? We feel disappointed in ourselves and ashamed. But a lapse of integrity also affects our relationships with others. Trust is essential in any important relationship, whether personal or professional. Who can trust someone who is dishonest or unfair? Thus, integrity must be one of our most important goals.

  Risky Business

  We are each responsible for our own decisions, even if the decision-making process has been undermined by stress or peer pressure. The real test of character is whether we can learn from our mistake, by understanding why we acted as we did, and then exploring ways to avoid similar problems in the future.

  Making ethical decisions is a critical part of avoiding future problems. We must learn to recognize risks, because if we can't see the risks we're taking, we can't make responsible choices. To identify risks, we need to know the rules and be aware of the facts. For example, one who doesn't know the rules about plagiarism may accidentally use words or ideas without giving proper credit, or one who fails to keep careful research notes may unintentionally fail to quote and cite sources as required. But the fact that such a violation is "unintentional" does not excuse the misconduct. Ignorance is not a defense.

  "But Everybody Does It"

  Most people who get in trouble do know the rules and facts, but manage to fool themselves about the risks they’re taking by using excuses: "Everyone else does it," "I'm not hurting anyone," or "I really need this grade." Excuses can get very elaborate: "I know I'm looking at another's exam, even though I'm supposed to keep my eyes on my own paper, but that's not cheating because I'm just checking my answers, not copying." We must be honest about our actions, and avoid excuses. If we fool ourselves into believing we're not doing anything wrong, we can't see the real choice we're making--and that leads to bad decisions.

  To avoid fooling yourself, watch out for excuses and try this test: Ask how you would feel if your actions were public, and anyone could be watching over your shoulder. Would you feel proud or ashamed of your actions? If you'd rather hide your actions, that's a good indication that you're taking a risk and rationalizing it to yourself.

  Evaluating Risks

  To decide whether a risk is worth taking, you must examine the consequences, in the future as well as right now, negative as well as positive, and to others as well as to yourself. Those who take risks they later regret usually focus on immediate benefits ("what's in it for me"), and simply haven't considered what might go wrong. The consequences of getting caught are serious, and may include a "0" on a test or assignment; an "F" in the class; Suspension or Dismissal from school; transcript notation; and a tarnished reputation. In fact, when you break a rule or law, you lose control over your life, and give others the power to impose punishment: you have no control over what that punishment might be. This is an extremely precarious and vulnerable position. There may be some matters of life and death, or highest principle, which might justify such a risk, but there aren't many things that fall in this category.

  Getting Away With It--Or Not

  Those who don't get caught pay an even higher price. A cheater doesn't learn from the test, depriving him/herself of an education. Cheating undermines confidence and independence: the cheater is a fraud, and knows that without dishonesty, he/she would have failed. Cheating destroys self-esteem and integrity, leaving the cheater ashamed, guilty, and afraid of getting caught. Worst of all, a cheater who doesn't get caught the first time usually cheats again, not only because he/she is farther behind, but also because it seems "easier." This slippery slope of eroding ethics and bigger risks leads only to disaster. Eventually, the cheater gets caught, and the later he/she gets caught, the worse the consequences. Students have been dismissed from school because they didn't get this simple message: Honesty is the ONLY policy that works.

  Cheating Hurts Others, Too

  Cheaters often feel invisible, as if their actions "don't count" and don't really hurt anyone. But individual choices have a profound cumulative effect. Cheating can spread like a disease, and a cheater can encourage others just by being seen from across the room. Recent statistics suggest 30% or more of college students cheat. If a class is graded on a curve, cheating hurts others' grades. Even if there is no curve, cheating "poisons" the classroom, and others may feel pressured to join in. ("If I don't cheat, I can't compete with those who do.") Cheating also has a destructive impact on teachers. The real reward of good teaching is seeing students learn, but a cheater says, "I'm not interested in what you're trying to teach; all I care about is stealing a grade, regardless of the effect on others." The end result is a blatant and destructive attack on the quality of your education. Finally, cheating can hurt the reputation of the University, and harm those who worked hard for their degree.

  Why Integrity Matters

  If cheating becomes the norm, then we are in big trouble. We must rely on the honesty and good faith of others every day. If not, we couldn't put money in the bank, buy food, clothing, or medicine from others, drive across a bridge, get on a plane, go to the dentist--the list is endless. There are many examples of the vast harm that is caused when individuals forget or ignore the effect their dishonesty can have. The savings and loan scandal, the stock market and junk bond swindles, and, of course, Watergate, have undermined the faith of many Americans in the integrity of political and economic leaders and society as a whole. Such incidents take a tremendous toll on our nation's economy and our individual well-being. For example, but for the savings and loan debacle, there might be funds available to reduce the national debt and pay for education.

  In sum, we all have a common stake in our school, our community, and our society. Our actions do matter. It is essential that we act with integrity in order to build the kind of world in which we want to live.

  1. A person of integrity not only sets high moral and ethical standards but also _______.

  A) sticks to them in their daily life

  B) makes them known to others

  C) understands their true values

  D)sees that others also follow them

  2. What role does integrity play in personal and professional relationships?

  A) It helps to create team spirit

  B) It facilitates communication

  C) It is the basis of mutual trust

  D) It inspires mutual respect

  3. why must we learn to identify the risks we are going to take?

  A. To ensure we make responsible choices.

  B. To avoid being overwhelmed by stress.

  C. so that we don’t break any rules.

  D. so that we don’t run into trouble.

  4. Violation of a rule is misconduct even if _______?

  A. it has caused no harm.

  B. it is claimed to be unintentional.

  C. it has gone unnoticed.

  D. it is committed with good intentions.

  5. What should one do if he doesn’t wish to fool himself?

  A. Avoid making excuses.

  B. Listen to other people’s advice.

  C. Make his intensions public.

  D. Have others watch over his shoulder.

  6. Those who take risks they regret later on _______.

  A. will often become more cautious

  B. are usually very aggressive

  C. value immediate benefits most.

  D. may lose everything in the end

  7. According to the author, a cheater who doesn’t get caught right away will _______.

  A) pay more dearly

  B) become more confident

  C) be widely admired

  D) feel somewhat lucky

  8. Cheaters at exam don’t care about their education, all they care about is how to _______

  9. Integrity matters in that all social activities rely on people’s _______

  10. Many Americans lost faith in the integrity of their political leaders as a result of _______.

  Part III Listening Comprehension

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  11.

  W: I just heard about a really beautiful park in the east end of the town. There are a lot of roses in bloom.

  M: Why don’t we walk over there and see for ourselves?

  Q: What will the speakers probably do?

  12.

  M: My presentation is scheduled for 9:30 tomorrow morning at the lecture hall. I hope to see you there.

  W: Oh, sorry. I was about to tell you that I have an appointment with my dentist at 9:00 o’clock tomorrow.

  Q: What do we learn about the woman?

  13.

  W: How long have you been running this company?

  M: Twenty years if you can believe that. I brought it from a small operation to what it is today.

  Q: What do we learn about the man?

  14.

  M: Have you read the news on the campus net? Susan has won the scholarship for next year.

  W: I knew she would from the very beginning. Such a brilliant and diligent girl! She certainly deserves it.

  Q: What does the woman mean?

  15.

  W: Taking a bus to Miami, it’s cheaper than going by train.

  M: That’s true. But I’d rather pay a little more for the added comfort and convenience.

  Q: What does the man mean?

  16.

  M: I think it’s time we got rid of all this old furniture.

  W: You’re right. We need to promote our image besides it’s not a real antique.

  Q: What do the speakers mean?

  17.

  M: That was some storm yesterday. How was I afraid I couldn’t make it home.

  W: Yeah, most of the roads to my house were flooded. I didn’t get home from the lab until midnight.

  Q: What do we learn from the conversation?

  18.

  W: My boys are always complaining that they’re bored.

  M: Why don’t you get them into some team sports? My son and daughter play soccer every Saturday. And they both look forward to it all week.

  Q: What does the man mean?

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  W: I don’t know what to do. I can’t seem to get anyone in the hospital to listen to my complaints and this outdated equipment is dangerous. Just look at it.

  M: Hmm, uh, are you trying to say that it presents a health hazard?

  W: Yes, I am. The head technician in the lab tried to persuade the hospital administration to replace it, but they are trying to cut costs.

  M: You are pregnant, aren’t you?

  W: Yes, I am. I made an effort to get my supervisor to transfer me to another department, but he urged me not to complain too loudly. Because the administration is more likely to replace me than an X-ray equipment, I’m afraid to refuse to work. But I’m more afraid to expose my unborn child to the radiation.

  M: I see what you mean. Well, as your union representative, I have to warn you that it would take quite a while to force management to replace the old machines and attempt to get you transferred may or may not be successful.

  W: Oh, what am I supposed to do then?

  M: Workers have the legal right to refuse certain unsafe work assignments under two federal laws, the Occupation or Safety and Health Act and the National Labor Relations Act. But the requirements of either of the Acts may be difficult to meet.

  W: Do you think I have a good case?

  M: If you do lose your job, the union will fight to get it back for you along with back pay, your lost income. But you have to be prepared for a long wait, maybe after two years.

  Q19. What does the woman complain about?

  Q20. What has the woman asked her supervisor to do?

  Q21. What does the man say about the two federal laws?

  Q22. What will the union do if the woman loses her job

  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  W: Mr. Green, is it fair to say that negotiation is an art?

  M: Well, I think it’s both an art and science. You can prepare for a negotiation quite scientifically, but the execution of the negotiation has quite a lot to do with one’s artistic quality. The scientific part of a negotiation is in determining your strategy. What do you want out of it? What can you give? Then of course there are tactics. How do you go about it? Do you take an opening position in a negotiation which differs from the eventual goal you are heading for? And then of course there are the behavioral aspects.

  W: What do you mean by the behavioral aspects?

  M: Well, that’s I think where the art comes in. In your behavior, you can either be an actor. You can pretend that you don’t like things which you are actually quite pleased about. Or you can pretend to like things which you are quite happy to do without. Or you can be the honest type negotiator who’s known to his partners in negotiation and always plays everything straight. But the artistic part of negotiation I think has to do with responding immediately to cues one gets in the process of negotiation. These can be verbal cues or even body language. This is where the artistic quality comes in.

  W: So really, you see two types of negotiator then, the actor or the honest one.

  M: That’ right. And both can work. I would say the honest negotiator can be quite effective in some circumstances. In other circumstances you need an actor.

  Q23. When is a scientific approach best embodied in a negotiation according to the man?

  Q24. In what way is a negotiator like an actor according to the man?

  Q25. What does the man say about the two types of negotiator?

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.

  Passage 1

  Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  Since I started working part-time at a grocery store, I have learned that a customer is more than someone who buys something. To me, a customer is a person whose memory fails entirely once he or she starts to push a shopping cart. One of the first things customers forget is how to count. There is no other way to explain how so many people get in their express line, which is clearly marked 15 items or less, with 20, 25 or even a cart load of items. Customers also forget why they came to the store in the first place. Just as I finish ringing up an order, a customer will say, “Oops, I forgot to pick up a fresh loaf of bread. I hope you don’t mind waiting while I go get it.” Five minutes later, he is back with the bread, a bottle of milk, and three rolls of paper towels. Strange as it seems, customers also seem to forget that they have to pay for their groceries. Instead of writing a check or looking for a credit card while I am ringing up the groceries, my customers will wait until I announce the total. Then, in surprise, she says, “Oh no, what did I do with my check book?” After 5 minutes of digging through her purse, she borrows my pen because she’s forgotten hers. But I have to be tolerant of customers because they pay my salary, and that’s something I can’t afford to forget.

  Q26. What does the speaker say about customers’ entering the grocery store?

  Q27. Which customers are supposed to be in the express line?

  Q28. What does the speaker say some customers do when they arrive at the check-out counter?

  Q29. What does the speaker say about his job at the end of the talk?

  Passage 2

  Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  The speech delivery style of Europeans and Asians tends to be very formal. Speakers of these cultures often read oral presentations from carefully written manuscripts. On the other hand, American speakers are generally more informal relative to speakers in other cultures. American audiences prefer natural, spontaneous delivery that conveys a lively sense of communication. They don’t relate well to speakers who read from a manuscript. If you use an outline of your ideas instead of a prepared text, your speech will not only sound more natural, but you will also be able to establish better relationship with your listeners and keep their attention. The language and style you use when making an oral presentation should not be the same as the language and style you use when writing. Well-written information, that is meant to be read, does not work as well when it is heard. It is, therefore, important for you to adapt written texts or outlines for presentations. Good speakers are much more informal when speaking than when writing. They also use their own words and develop their own speaking styles. Whenever possible, they use short words. Listeners appreciate it when speakers use simple, everyday words in a presentation. One advantage is that it’s much easier for speakers to pronounce short words correctly. Another is that long and sophisticated vocabulary choices make listening more difficult.

  Question 30 to 32

  30. What does the speaker say American audiences prefer?

  31. What should one pay attention to when making an oral presentation?

  32. What does the speaker focus on in the talk?

  Passage 3

  Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  Let children learn to judge their own work. A child learning to talk does not learn by being corrected all the time. If corrected too much, he will stop talking. He compares a thousand times a day the difference between language as he uses it and language as those around him use it. Bit by bit, he makes the necessary changes to make his language like other people’s. In the same way, kids learning to do all the other things they learn without adult teachers, to walk, run, climb, ride a bike, play games, compare their own performance with what more skilled people do, and slowly make the needed changes. But in school we never give a child a chance to detect his mistakes. We do it all for him. We act as if we thought he would never notice a mistake unless it was pointed out to him. Soon he becomes dependent on the expert. We should let him do it himself. Let him figure out, with the help of other children if he wants it, what this word says, what is the answer to that problem, whether this is a good way of saying or doing this or that. If right answers need to be given, as in mathematics or science, give him the answer book. Let him correct his own papers. Why should we teachers waste time on such tedious work? Our job should be to help children when they tell us that they can’t find a way to get the right answer.

  Question 33 to 35

  33. How does a child learn to do something according to the speaker?

  34. What belief do teachers commonly hold according to the speaker?

  35. What does the speaker imply about the current way of teaching?

  Section C

  Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  (听力原文)Time is, for the average American, of utmost importance. To the foreign visitor, Americans seem to be more concerned with getting things accomplished on time (according to a predetermined schedule) than they are with developing deep interpersonal relations. Schedules, for the American, are meant to be planned and then followed in the smallest detail. It may seem to you that most Americans are completely controlled by the little machines they wear on their wrists, cutting their discussions off abruptly to make it to their next appointment on time. Americans’ language is filled with references to time, giving a clear indication of how much it is valued. Time is something to be “on,” to be “kept,” “filled,” “saved,” “wasted,” “gained,” “planned,” “given,” “made the most of,” even “killed.” The international visitor soon learns that it is considered very rude to be late -- even by 10 minutes -- for an appointment in America. Time is so valued in America, because by considering time to be important one can clearly achieve more than if one “wastes” time and doesn’t keep busy. This philosophy has proven its worth. It has enabled Americans to be extremely productive, and productivity itself is highly valued in America. Many American proverbs stress the value of guarding time, using it wisely, and setting and working toward specific goals. Americans believe in spending their time and energy today so that the fruits of their labor may be enjoyed at a later time.

  Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

  Questions 47 to 56 is based on the following passage.

  So many people use the cell phone so frequantly every day,But ___47__little is certain adout he health effects of its use.Macufacturers___48___that cell phones meet government standards for safe radio- frequency radiation omission,but enough studies are beginning to document a possible ___49___in rare brain tumour( )bendaches and behavioral disorders in children to cause coneem.So far,the avidence isn't___50___on whether the use of cell phones __51__to any uncased risk of cancer.In a new

  trial,researchers asked 47 yolunteers to ___52__in a project to measure glucose(葡萄 )consurnption in the brain by scanning the brain to see how cells use energy.For both 50- minute scans,the volunteers had a cell phone __53__to each ear.During be first scan,the devices were turned off,but for the second scan,the phone on the right ear as___54____on and received a recorded- message call,although the yolume was muted(消毒)   so the dise wouldn't bias the results.The results of the second scan abowed that the__55__of the brain rarest to the device had higher rales of glucose consumption than the rest of the brain.The study ows that cell phones can change brain activity,and __56__a whole new avenue for scientific quiry,tuough it doesn't say anything about whether cell-phone radiation can cause cancer.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  A)conclusive   I)mission

  B)contributes   J)participate

  C)derive     K)particular

  D)expresses   L)provides

  E)fixed      M)regions

  F)immensely   N)surprisingly

  G)increase    O)switched

  H)maintain Section A

  这是一篇新闻报道类的文章,关于美国一些著名餐公司开始意识到快餐对对其青少年健康的不良影响,并开始采取相应措施改变这一现状。这是美国最近的热门话题, 经济学人新闻听写1216日的的听写内容关于麦当劳的一篇文章与之就是类似的主题。 对于考生来说这一话题也并不陌生,从内容上来还是比较容易理解的。

  Section B

  As you are probably aware, the latest job markets news isn’t good: Unemployment is still more than 9 percent, and new job growth has fallen close to zero. That’s bad for the economy, of course. And it may be especially discouraging if you happen to be looking for a job or hoping to change careers right now. But it actually shouldn’t matter to you nearly as much as you think.

  That’s because job growth numbers don’t matter to job hunters as much as job turnover data. After all, existing jobs open up every day due to promotions, resignations, terminations, and retirements. (Yes, people are retiring even in this economy.) In both good times and bad, turnover creates more openings than economic growth does. Even in June of 2007, when the economy was still humming along, job growth was only 132,000, while turnover was 4.7 million!

  And as it turns out, even today — with job growth near zero — over 4 million job hunters are being hired every month.

  I don’t mean to imply that overall job growth doesn’t have an impact on one’s ability to land a job. It’s true that if total employment were higher, it would mean more jobs for all of us to choose from (and compete for). And it’s true that there are currently more people applying for each available job opening, regardless of whether it’s a new one or not.

  But what often distinguishes those who land jobs from those who don’t is their ability to stay motivated. They’re willing to do the hard work of identifying their valuable skills; be creative about where and how to look; learn how to present themselves to potential employers; and keep going, even after repeated rejections. The Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows that 2.7 million people who wanted and were available for work hadn’t looked within the last four weeks and were no longer even classified as unemployed.

  So don’t let the headlines fool you into giving up. Four million people get hired every month in the U.S. You can be one of them.

  57. The author tends to believe that high unemployment rate ______?

  A) deprives many people of job opportunities.

  B) prevents many people from changing careers.

  C) should not stop people from looking for a job.

  D) does not mean the U.S. economy is worsening.

  58. Where do most job openings come from?

  A) Job growth

  B) Job turnover

  C) Improved economy

  D) Business expansion

  59. What does the author say about overall job growth?

  A) It doesn’t have much effect on individual job seekers.

  B) It increases people’s confidence in the economy.

  C) It gives a ray of hope to the unemployed.

  D) It doesn’t mean greater job security for the employed.

  60. What is the key to landing a job according to the author?

  A) Education

  B) Intelligence

  C) Persistence

  D) Experience

  61. What do we learn from the passage about the unemployment figures in the US?

  A) They clearly indicate how healthy the economy is.

  B) They provide the public with the latest information.

  C) They warn of the structural problems in the economy.

  D) They exclude those who have stopped looking for a job.

  点评:本篇文章选自TIME周刊的财经板块,原文标题为“Why Job Hunters Shouldn’t Worry So Much About Paltry Job Growth”,文章主要表达了这样一种观点,即找工作的人不必太在意官方提供的高失业率,就业增长等数据,原因在于这些并不等说明现实情况,比如:人员 更替带来了更多的职位空缺,因此,即便是经济增速缓慢,就业增长为零,依然还是有很多的职位空缺存在。所以,如作者最后点睛所言,So don’t let the headlines fool you into giving up. 不灰心不放弃。

  从整体语言难度来说,文章难度不是很大,财经相关的一些词汇基本都是大家比较熟悉的。并没有出现过高难度的长难句以及词汇,整体理解起来也相对容易。

  Our risk of cancer rises dramatically as we age. So it makes sense that the elderly should be routinely screened for new tumors — or doesn’t it?

  While such vigilant(警觉的)tracking of cancer is a good thing in general, researchers are increasingly questioning whether all of this testing is necessary for the elderly. With the percentage of people over age 65 expected to nearly double by 2050, it’s important to weigh the health benefits of screening against the risks and costs of routine testing.

  In many cases, screening can lead to additional biopsies and surgeries to remove cancer, which can cause side effects, while the cancers themselves may be slow-growing and may not pose serious health problems in patients’ remaining years. But the message that everyone must screen for cancer has become so ingrained that when health care experts recommended that women under 50 and over 74 stop screening for breast cancer, it caused a riotous reaction among doctors, patients and advocacy groups. 

  It’s hard to uproot deeply held beliefs about cancer screening with scientific data. Certainly, there are people over age 75 who have had cancers detected by routine screening, and gained several extra years of life because of treatment. And clearly, people over age 75 who have other risk factors for cancer, such as a family history or prior personal experience with the disease, should continue to get screened regularly. But for the remainder, the risk of cancer, while increased at the end of life, must be balanced with other factors like remaining life expectancy(预期寿命).

  A recent study suggests that doctors start to make more objective decisions about who will truly benefit from screening- especially considering the explosion of the elderly that will soon swell our population.

  It’s not an easy calculation to make, but one that make sense for the whole patient. Dr. Otis Brawley said, “Many doctors are ordering these tests purely to cover themselves. We need to think about the rational use of health care and stop talking about the rationing of health care.”

  That means making some difficult decisions with elderly patients, and going against the misguided belief that when it comes to health care, more is always better.

  62. Why do doctors recommend routine cancer screening for elderly people?

  A. It is believed to contribute to long life.

  B. It is part of their health care package.

  C. The elderly are more sensitive about their health.

  D. The elderly are in greater danger of tumor growth.

  63. How do some researchers now look at routine cancer screening for the elderly?

  A. It adds too much to their medical bills.

  B. It helps increase their life expectancy.

  C. They are doubtful about necessity.

  D. They think it does more than good.

  64. What is the conventional view about women screening for breast cancer?

  A. It applies to women over 50.

  B. It is a must for adult women.

  C. It is optional for young women.

  D. It doesn’t apply to women over 74.

  65. Why do many doctors prescribe routine screening for cancer?

  A. They want to protect themselves against medical disputes.

  B. They want to take advantage of the medical care system.

  C. They want data for medical research.

  D. They want their patients to suffer less.

  66. What does the author say is the general view about health care?

  A. The more, the better.

  B. Prevention is better than cure.

  C. Better early than late.

  D. Better care, longer life.

  SB_2 答案

  62. D. The elderly are in greater danger of tumor growth.

  63. C. They are doubtful about its necessity.

  64. B. It is a must for adult women.

  65. A. They want to protect themselves against medical disputes.

  66. A. The more, the better.

  【点评】

  这是一篇有关癌症筛查的文章。长期以来,人们认为对于老年人来说,随着年龄的增长,肿瘤生长造成的威胁就越大,所以医生建议他们进行各类常规的癌症 筛查。但是近来,研究者开始怀疑它的必要性。当他们开始叫停50岁以下和74岁以上的妇女的乳腺癌筛查时,受惯例根深蒂固影响的人们掀起了轩然大波。不过,对于老年人来话说,癌症的风险还要和预期寿命进行权衡。近期的调查还显示很多医生让病人进行癌症筛查纯粹是为了在医疗事故中保护自己,所以这篇反对了 人们长期以来的对健康检查的误解,即健康检查并非多多益善。

  Part V Cloze

  Strong emotional bonds between mothers and infants increase children’s willingness to explore the world—an effect that has been observed 67 the animal kingdom, in people, monkeys and even spiders. The more secure we are in our 68 to Mom, the more likely we are to try new things and take risks. Now researchers are discovering that this effect continues into adulthood. A 69 reminder of Mom’s touch or the sound of her voice on the phone is

  70 to change people’s minds and moods, 71 their decision making in measurable ways.

  In a study 72 online in April in Psychological Science, undergraduate business students had to choose between safe bets and risky gambles—a bond with a guaranteed 4 percent yearly

  73 or a riskier stock option, for example. In half the cases, the experimenters patted the students 74 on the back of the shoulder for about one second 75 providing verbal instructions about the study. Both male and female students who were touched by a female experimenter were 76 more likely to choose the risky alternative 77 were those who had not been touched or were patted by male experimenters. The reassuring(宽慰的)touch of a woman may have induced early associations, 78 the same openness to exploration that is observed in young children of 79 mothers, explains Jonathan Levav, a business professor at Columbia University and lead author of the study.

  To further 80 that a woman’s touch links feelings of security 81 risk taking, the researchers asked a 82 group of undergraduates to make financial decisions after a writing exercise. Half of them wrote about a time they felt secure and supported, whereas the 83 half wrote about feeling insecure and alone. Evoking (唤起) a 84 of insecurity made students in the latter group 85 receptive to the gentle shoulder pats from female experimenters and much more willing to take a risk—just as a child leaving for a field trip might steal one last reassuring hug 86 Mom before stepping on the bus.

  67. A. by B. up C. above D. across

  68. A. concern B. attachment C. treatment D. appeal

  69. A. bare B. unique C. mere D. just

  70. A. enough B. ready C. easy D. quick

  71. A. generating B. regulating C. affecting D. refining

  72. A. exhibited B. published C. appeared D. advertised

  73. A. return B. expense C. cost D. prize

  74. A. seemingly B. strongly C. partly D. lightly

  75. A. if B. so C. while D. whereas

  76. A. rather B. far C. further D. pretty

  77. A. than B. as C. which D. that

  78. A. intending B. inferring C. inspiring D. instructing

  79. A. supportive B. lively C. strict D. respectful

  80. A. enable B. ensure C. consent D. confirm

  81. A. beyond B. with C. for D. along

  82. A. relative B. competitive C. different D. successive

  83. A. next B. other C. minor D. opposite

  84. A. hint B. clue C. chain D. sense

  85. A. especially B. specially C. securely D. entirely

  86. A. toward B. into C. of D. from

  67. D. across

  68. C. attachment

  69. C. mere

  70. A. enough

  71. C. affecting

  72. B. published

  73. A. return

  74. D. lightly

  75. C. while

  76. B. far

  77. A. than

  78. C. inspiring

  79. A. supportive

  80. D. confirm

  81. B. with

  82. C. different

  83. B. other

  84. D. sense

  85. A. especially

  86. D. from

  【总评】完形填空原文源自美国科普杂志《科学美国人》(Scientific American)。原文标题为All about My Mother: How Touch Helps Us Take Risks,作者Ferris Jabr。原文共五段,495字,题目选取了原文前三段并做了细微修改,共345字。主要讲述的是母亲与婴儿间形成的情感纽带会影响孩子探索世界的行为。 这是一篇典型的议论文,第一段第一句给出论点,指出母亲与婴儿间形成的情感纽带会影响人们的行为,接着在第二段和第三段,通过两个已经发表的文章中的实验来证明这一观点。

  Part Ⅵ Translation

  Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.

  注意:此部分试题清在答题卡2上作答,只需写出译文部分。

  87. I finally got the job I dreamed about. Never before in my life

  (我感到如此激动)!

  88. Yesterday Jane left the meeting early. Otherwise, she(可能会说一些后来会懊悔的话).

  89. With the noisy going on outside the classroom, I had great difficulty

  (集中注意力复习功课).

  90. This is the first time I (听到他们用法语交流).

  91. All the information you need to apply for your visa is (可以免费获取).

 

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